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Full text of "Carpenter"

I II If. ml m 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 

* \ 

VOL. XV.-No. 2. 
Established 1881. 




Fifty Cents per Y«ar. 
Single Copies, 6 Cts. 

Help One Another. 

Help one another," the * now flakes Mid, 
they cuddled down in their fleecy bed ; 
ne of ua here would quickly melt, 
I'll help you and you'll Help me, 

» big white drift we'll see!" 

Help one another," the maple spray 

to fta fellow-tearee one day ; 
The son would wither me here alone, 
fOtig enough ere the day la gone ; 
I'll help you tuid you'll help me, 

I) be." 


'Help one 

Said to another grain just at 
"The wind may carry 

We'll build a 

of me? 



American Federation of Labor. 

a BTitoi'.iia or THE 




The fourteenth annual convention of 
the American Federation of Labor waa 
bald la Denver, beginning on December 
10 and ending on (be 18th. 
The U. B. waa represented by the 
elected but September at the 
polia Convention, vim., Hogh Mc- 
Kay, Boston ; D. P. Rowland, Cincin- 
nati l James J. Linnhan, Chicago, and 
P. J. McGuire, Philadelphia. 

owing to the great 
of the convention city from the 
Industrial centres of the country, waa 
note* large aa haabeen the caae in recent 
However, what the convention 
in number* It made op in Interest 

It can easily be said that, says the Chi- 

'^WfO JJefU Hour Herald, the aessloD jnat 

closed was by all edde the 

at in the history of the Federation. 
Among the work accomplished waa an 
almost entire change of officers, the re- 
moval of headquarters, and the con- 
atderation of a political platform. The 
following la a Hat of the newly-elected 
officers : 

John MeBrlde {Columbus, O.) . . . . President. 
1 . J. MoGulf* (Philadelphia) 1st Vice-President. 
JasaMttoiMM (Baltimore) . td " " 
Shady Knefcen < Dearer) . . 3d " 
T. 3. Elder kin <ChtoaQ«) . . . 4tfa " " 
Augustine IfeCratth (Boston) .... Secretary 

John B, Lenooo (New Tork) Treasurer 

to British Trade* , Bamurl O rim pen. 

« . • / P. J. McGtiire. 

inn paction 'of work .hope. 

Injury to 



Third — A 'legal workday of not more than 
eight hours. 

Fourth— Sanitary 
mine and home. 

Fifth- Liability of 
health, body or Hie. 

HI nth-Trie abolition of the 
all public work. 

Seventh-The abolition of the 


Eighth— The municipal ownership of street 
pars, water-works and km nod the electric 
plants for public distribution of heat, light and 

Ninth— The nationalization of telegraph*, tele- 
phones, railways and mines. 

Tenth — The abolition of the monopoly system 
of land holding and the substitution therefor of 
a title of occupancy and use only. 

Eleventh— Direct legislation and the principle 
of referendum In all legislation. 

Twelflh-The abolition of the monopoly Betel 
lege of Issuing money and substituting therefor 
a system of direct Issuance to and by the people 

Tbe next convention will be held in 
New York city, in December, 1895, 

It moat be said tbe Denver Convention 
of the A. F. of L. set itself squarely on 
progressive trafle union principles, and, 
in the politics measures agreed on, aim 
ply reiterated the position the Federation 
has held for years on each one of the 
twelve planks agreed on. No new polit- 
ical departure was taken, nor no new 
political party 

Of the work of the Denver Convention 
and Its significance we shall have more to 
say from month to month. 

EKenehw, tl 
Xstsnon, th. 

Or tit* above Mr. Mc Bride 
the United Mine Workers ; McGuire, the 
; Duncan, the stone cutters; 
the horse shoere; Elderkin, 
i McCraith, the printers ; 
tbe tailors. Indianapolis was 
the official headquarters for 
the coming five years, beginning January 
1, next. 

The political programme as finally 
agreed on by the convention waa as 
follow* : 

Fir**— Compulsory education. 

Id— The repeal of all conspiracy 


Bamubl Domcam Par-ill, a sturdy old 
union carpenter, waa the pioneer of the 
Eight-hour day In New Zealand. An 
immense conconrss of people followed 
his remains to tbe grave a few years ago. 
October 10th, laat year waa celebrated 
quite generally in New Zealand aa the 
anniversary of the adoption of the eight- 
hour day, and is known as Labor Day. 

Donald Grckr, a union carpenter, 
member of Union 26, Chicago, 111. , was 
shot by one ol the Marquette Building 
workmen on December 8d, He died of 
bis wound two days Inter at St. Luke's 
Hospital. It is alleged the shooting waa 
done by a member of 'the Knights of 
Labor carpenters. The Brotherhood 
men and other trades came out on strike 
some eight weeks ago In sympathy with 
the union electrical workers, whose rules 
had been violated. Immediately there- 
after the Amalgamated carpenters went 
Into the Marquette Building and took the 
places of tbe Brotherhood men and have 
scabbed it ever since, despite all 
treaties to act as honorable men. The 
scabs now working on the job are all 
armed and ready to fire on the slightest 
provocation. Telia la the 
shooting growing out of this strike on 
the Marquette Building, 

To Subscribers, Advertisers and Readers. 

The non-isanance of January Cabpek- 
tbk will be made good to you all. To 
subscribers and advertisers it will be 
made good in their accounts. To our 
readers It will be made good in the en 
rich men t of its columns with many new 
features and departments. 

Above is a portrait of our second Gen 
era! Vice-President, L. E. Toesey. He 
waa born July 24, 1849, in Detroit, Mich 
At the close of his apprenticeship in 1870 
he joined a union of carpenter! in his 
native city, and from 1872 to 1887 waa a 
resident of Northern Michigan. 

In 1887, Brother Tossey returned to 
Detroit, joined Carpenters' Union 69 and 
later, through the consolidation of 
Unions 32 and 50, he became connected 
with Union 491, of which he is now a 
and an active worker. He has 
held various official positions of trust 
and honor in the Carpenters' Unions of 
Detroit, and also in the Trades and Labor 
Council of that city, being president of 
the latter body in 18! 
only union man in Detroit ever 
by two terms in that office. 
L. E- Tossey la • sanguine, enthusiastic 
in, and strongly devoted to the 
U. B. and its advancement. He la a 
plain, straightforward and practical 
worker and speaker, and is held hi the 
highest regard as a manager or foreman 
on flrat-claea buildings. He hat been 
delegate and officer In the State Federa- 
tion of Labor of Michigan a number of 
times, and was president of that body in 
1890'. In fact his whole heart and every 
is devoted to the 


of "The Carpenter" Serf- 
oosly Sick, 

At the Denver Convention of the 
American Federation of Labor last 
December, toward the close of the session, 
General Secretary, P. J. McGuire, was 
taken ill with a severe case of catarrh 
and hoarseness. This finally grew worse 
until a fully developed case of "La 
Grippe " waa manifest, accompanied by 

From time to time tbere were hopes of 
betterment, and spells of relief were ez- 
srienced. But at last Secretary McGuire 
had to succumb and remain away from 
aU official duty, aa well aa public speak- 

After a trying time and several medical 
operations General Secretary McGuire is 
now restored to duty, though not as yet 
in the beat of health. 

The January issue of Thb Oarpsntsb 
did not appear for above reasons. For 
this and any other shortcomings wa 
crave the Indulgence of oar members and 

Representative Farr of I 
duces a Mechanic* 

Legislature of Pennsylvania. 

In the aeeaion of the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania two years ago, Hon. John 
R. Farr of Scran ton, Pa., waa very suc- 
cessful in pushing a plain simple Me- 
chanics' law through both House and 
nete by a very decisive majority, at the 
instigation of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters. But the bill was vetoed 
by Gov. Pattison on very flimsy technical 
grounda. This session of the Legislature 
Repreaentative Farr has again introduced 
a bill which fa now in the hands of the 
Committee on Judiciary General, and 
the cry is now raised by interested specu- 
lators, banks, and capitalists, that the 
bill Is unconstitutional. At present, by 
decision of the State Supreme Court, the 
provisions of the Mechanics' Lien law 
now on tbe statute books of the State of 
Pennsylvania in favor of the workmen, 
is unconstitutional. So that tbe men 
of the building trades at tbe Key- 
stone State are now practically* without 
any law for security in payment of their 
wagi |i> Let each and every TT. B. Union 
n the State and every branch of labor 
deluge their Representatives and Sena- 
tors with letters calling for the 
ment of the Farr Hen law. We must 
have a lien law for adequate protection 
and oavmant of 



King of IhemlRlity bruin and Iron hand! 
Who on the brow of this rude earth 

A alarry irown! And who hath rktil.v (trawl 
Her bosom rude with jeweU rare and tfrand ! 
WiUj all the epleiidors of thy nmjiii- wand. 

Still like aonie pw aud paltry 


Ittve limn' rl 

naked. In-mMlng to the tyrant's feet, 
wretched, ftbjeet tiling !■ all the land! 

Id Off maul mod! Lift thy ureal, broad 
brow I 

Tbta Moloch, WBOM Insatiate, r*Venll»I uniw. 
That never yet liath known another law 
But vile ufCKrandlztment »'f "elf! Aye, now 
Hine I thou'rt Earth'* KlftSt and danh 

from on liltrh, 
And rule o'er nil, ■» thou should*! 'tiealli the 

-KitMt'itu MoajiUKU. in the Chicago Timri. 

Report of Canvassers or General Vote on 
Resolutions and Amend incuts to 
the Constitutiou. 

Economic Piut;res9. 

If we could lay aside that jealousy and 
sense of justice which we habitually 
adopt in our comparisons of differences 
in modes of life, and which invariably 
accompany our consideration of social 
conditions, and ask ourselves what in 
reality is progress, and what are the steps 
and conditions actually and imperatively 
required to Becure it, wo should And, I 
think, that much of what we condemn in 
the rich is but the experimental work 
which needs to be done before the people 
can safely adopt a new custom, 

Some one mast have dyspepsia before 
the world can know its cause and avoid 
it, or know its cure and use it- .Someone 
must first live in a four-story house, try 
"sanitary plumbing," new modes of 
ventilation and " all the modern improve- 
ments," and those who first try them 
must sutler and, It may be, die from the 
mistakes necessarily made in proving 
what is right and healthful or wrong and 

The existence of the producer or la- 
borer cannot be put to these risks. On 
him rests all the hopes of the human race 
and if a mistake is made and he is lost, 
the future is irretrievably ruined. But 
the rich may test the health giving 
qualities of new fashions in lure and 
silks, in riding and driving, in " ragouts" 
and "pate* de fol gras," in sports and 
pastimes, and if in finding which are 
useful aud which are harmful, a lew- 
more or less— of them perish, others can 
be found to take their places. And when 
a good and useful thing is found and 
the world is richer by the dis- 

. Philaiiklhuia, Pa., Jan. 8, 1895. 
We, the undersigned, Board of Can- 
vassers, appointed by General President 
Charles K- OwenB, in accordance with the 
instructions ot the Indianapolis Conven- 
tion, have completed the connt of the 
general vote on the resolutions and 
amendments as submitted to the Local 
Unions. We remained in session, Janu- 
ary t, 7 and 8, 1S'.»5, and as a Hoard ol 
Canvassers we have counted the votes on 
the three resolutions and the thirty six 

The undersigned Board of Canvassers 
find 312 Local Unions voted, and 6,112 
is the highest total.number ot voteB cast 
on any one resolution or amendment. 
We find the returnB summarized are aB 
followB (to publish them in detail wonlil 
cover many pages of Thh Carpbktkb). 

For. Against. 
. . .8578 3188 
. . .4387 16*1 
. . .8888 1793 
. . SW5 Ml 
. . .4810 1164 



This is the process that has been con- 
stantly going on about us. The rugged 
realities and actual blessings that come 
to the laborer are derided (for they are 
within the reach of all and too common 
to be valued), while the fashionable 
miseries of the rich still tempt ua Into 
those new Holds, the exploration of which 
opens the way to progress. 

In this view ot human activities — and 
it seems to me to be the true one— we get 
an intelligent comprehension of their 
pnrpoae ; a reasonable solution of what 
other w lie seems a chaotic, purpose" ess, 
■troggle, and It gives that larger insight 
which reveale to ua the workings of 
"God's mills" as they bring their grist 
of justice and mercy and troth to Mia 

Hour W. Smith, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. t, 1894. 

Bomb workingmen will spend from 50 
cents to $10 on a "racket," yet cannot 
keep square on the books ol their organ- 
isation, end kick like males if 
1 fire cents mores 













30 . 

31 . 

a . 

31 . 
24 . 

37 . 

38 . 
89 . 


. 3970 

. 4113 

, 447S 





I two 



■ * ft a 


. 4731 





f f t * 



. 3879 






3010 Loot 

. • . . . 

From the above returne it is evident 
that Amendments 6, 7, 17, 18, 19, 20, 81, 
28, and 35 are lost. They have not 
received the necessary two-thirds vote 
required by the Constitution. Amend- 
msntB 1, 3, a, 4, 5, 8, ft, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 14, 
15, 10, 22, 23, 24, 25, 20,27, 29, ao, 31, 32, 
83, 34, and 30 have received more than 
the necessary two-thirds vote required 
by law, and are therefore adopted, 
KespecUnlly submitted, 


Union No. 20, Camden, N. J., 
Cham. A, Taylos, 
Union No. 122, Germantown, Pa., 

Ki>itobial Nots — The votes on the 
three sets of political resolutions sub- 
mitted as shown in above report are 
merely expressions of opinion and have 
do binding force on the members nor on 
the policy of the United Brotherhood as 
an organization- Koch candidate for 
membership in our Order was most posi- 
tively assured before Joining that, in 
becoming a member we would not in 
any way conflict with his political 
opinions. (See page 4 of Ritual ) Fur- 
thermore, the Constitution of the United 
Brotherhood doee not permit of partisan 

Of course it is very desirable and 
proper that trade unionists should vote 
for labor measures and labor men end 
act as an independent factor in politics. 
Bat there are political organisations 
of the trade 

and our members as citizens are at liberty 
to join them, if they choose. But as 
wage workers, as carpenters and joiners, 
we must be united in the United Brother- 
hood, regardless of party politiOS, creed 
or nationality. 

P, J. McGuire, (l» S. 

Adukkss of Welcome. 
The addresfl of welcome delivered by 
Khody Kenehan, President ot the Denver 
Tradee and La*~or Assembly, at the 
Fourteenth Annual Session of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor at Denvgc 
December 10, 181)4, >b indeed a unique 
gem. We give it verbatim ! 

Mr. Pre»itknt ami Delegate* } 

The pleasure of welcoming the inter- 
national representatives of organized 
labor to Colorado cannot be portrayed in 
formal utterances by her citizen*, who 
deeply appreciate the grave importance 
ot the gathering. This meeting of dele- 
gates—representing the wage-earnere not 
only of America, but those beyond the 
»ea— is fraught with weal or woe for the 
closing yearB of the century. 

I am here to extend you the greeting 
of those united in uplifting the masses 
to that constitutional plane of the pur- 
suit and enjoyment of happiness ordained 
by the laws of nature. 

Through the accident of position in 
the local federation ot trades and labor 
organisations, I have the honored privi- 
lege of returning the fraternal grasp of 
friendship and extending a hand con- 
taining no uncertain welcome. 

It represents the preciouB metal miners 
—the men who endure the discomforts 
of life in the mountains; who brave the 
dangers of toil in the lower levels ; who 
strike with pick and gad, with drill and 
hammer, handling deadly explosives to 
Bupply the world with the basis of barter 
—with Bilver and gold for coinage— that 
you in turn can exchange the products 
of your skill and labor in the commer- 
cial world. 

It represents those who stand by the 
forge and gaze into furnace flreti. 

It represents the grimy gnomes who 
send out the diamonds which move the 
wheels of industry and light the work- 
shop and palace. 

It represents the skill and knowledge 
which extract the oil and gas from the 
strata beneath the territory subdued by 
the cowboy and ranchman. 

It represents the guilds of the artiean 
and mechanic ; of those who dispatch 
the trains and carry the signals. 

It represents a freedom and independ- 
ence inherited from those who founded 
the Republic and placed the seal of con- 
demnation upon peonage. 

It is the right hand of brotherhood, 
conveying hearty cheer to noble workers 
in the cause of humanity. 

For thoss who have crossed the Atlantic 
to join in the deliberations for emancipa- 
tlon, I repeat the invitation of every 
habitation in the mountains: "Abide 
with us." 

While I cannot now point in pride 
and encouragement to the curling spirt* 
of smoke and Maine marking a thouaanu 
camps on as many mountain side* along 
the backbone of the continent, I need 
not tell you why they are deserted. You 
have seen and heard the advance guards 
who were driven from the national 
common when they were denied the 
right to petition. 

The beacon lights of hope and freedom 
still born brightly, fed by a hardy, Inde- 
pendent race of mountaineers, the cream 
of a rugged manhood gathered from the 
sections you represent. From their 
ranks have sprung the master minds 
which have made the rose blossom in the 
desert and spanned the snow-fed torrent 
for the iron horse. By these lights they 
bid yon hold your 

The welcome of the bright sunshine, 
beaming through a pure atmosphere, 
gives you Godspeed in your convocation. 
The roar of the mountain torrents 
through their granite channels calls 
attention to object lessons of persistent 
effort, aud join in a greeting from the 
cloud-capped sum mite. 

From every trail and pass, from every 
canon, gorge and glen, from every creel 
and peak, from every park and vale, 
comes a welcome from the men who 
" Hold to you the hands you once beheld, 
To show they still are free." 
As you assemble at the base of the 
great range which hides the land of the 
aetting sun, you rest in the heart of the 
continent. It remains for you to bo de- 
liberate and determine that its restored 
and renewed pulsations will tauBe the 
arteries of commerce ami agriculture to 
throb ami bound with motive power and 
restore to sixty millions of ptople pros- 
perity and happiness In a land blessed 
by bounteous nature. 

In the deep gloom which darkened the 
nation when silver's worth was merged 
in gold, you felt the shrinkage in values, 
you saw labor chained, ami you suffered 
in the annihilation of the savings of a 
lifetime. Vainly waiting with you for a 
return of prcspcrity, the workingmen of 
Colorado never faltered, never wavered 
in their faith in tliB wisdom of the 
people or in the ability of the bread- 
winners to right the wrongs of a nation. 

As potent as may be the methods of 
gold kings and interest czars of the East, 
the ranges of the San J nan, Sangre de 
Christo and Dncompahgre do not con- 
tain a star-kissed peak from whence 
Satan could tempt the human tide which 
will follow those who lead in emancipa- 
tion from the servitude planned by man- 
ipulators of corporate wealth. 

When you appealed in vain for work 
or an equitable division of the fruitage, 
we stood ready, willing, yea, anxious to 
join in the use of const itutional measures 
to cure the ills which were upon us. We 
cheerfully paid the tribntes exacted by a 
protection which was confined to a sea 
coast, and rejoiced in your prosperity. 
When your looms were idle and your fires 
drawn we hailed with joy the arrival of 
free material that would furnish remun- 
erative employment, yet believing that 
the true conditions were not understood 
—that relief was in still another direc- 

Sat it l in 1 1 that you are not here to rep- 
resent alone the survival of the strong, of 
the skilled in handicraft ; to legislate In 
the interest of a label on a loaf when 
thousands are hungry ; to prohibit child 
labor when there is no work for man, the 
working classes look for the edicts of 
federation which will go forth through 
you from the centennial State that are to 
proclaim peace and plenty throughout 
the land. 

While engaged in your noble work, the 
sterling silver of Colorado's greeting will 
multiply a thousand-told the welcome so 
oft expressed in Celtic tongue: "Caed 
Miile Failthe." 

The Mighty Wavoof Reform. 

But no combination of fraud and trick- 
ery can stem the mighty wave of reform 
that is upon us. For ages labor has stood 
with blanched cheeks and supplicating 
bands, lifting Its ragged cap to arrogance 
and power, craving in abject humility 
the right to toil. Labor has been under- 
paid and overtaxed, It hsa borne the 
burdens of soulless corporations, and hsa 
been csst into prison when It raised Its 
voice in protest. But from the horizon 
of the future come rays of inspiration 
and hope ; a new, strange power .has 




The many apparently complex roofs 
vhivh are nowadays placed on frame 
buildings are apt to discourage those 
mechanics who are ambitious to Bucceed, 
I bo Id order to aimplify and bring them 
within the grasp of all I haTe in this 
.^article adopted a plan of roof of some- 
what unusual form. 

rid, 1. — t'LAN AND LAYOUT OW SOOr. 

At Fi(. 1 the plan is A B D E F U H 
1 J L and K, being the plan of a small 
frame house costing about $2000. Fig, 
S. is an end view or gable elevation 
showing the pitch is of the common 
rafters which we will assume to be full 
pitch, or 12 inches rise and 13 inches run 
on the steel square. A B is the top 
line of the plate across the bay, 
or across the widest part of the 
house. A K is the span across the 
main walls and E J the rise or pitch ; 
therefore A J will be the length of the 
common ratters on the plan Fig. 1, that 
will be set on the plate A K from N to 

On the seat of the hips N D, square up 
the rise N T equal to £ J, Fig. 1 , and join 
D T for length of hip, with top and plate 
bevels as at D and T. It will be 
noticed that these rafters are parallel on 
the lay-out because their seats are par- 
allel, therefore they must be correct, the 
valley rafter L Q to stand over L P la 
determined in like manner also the hip 
8 K to stand over K. 

Ab I have shown in my previous 
articles in Thi Cakphntir several ways 
to obtain the lengths 
of jack rafters on halt 
pitch roots I will not 
repeat this simple 
method here but go 
on and give lay-out of 
bay window timbers. 

Referring again to 
the engraving Fig, 2 
we find that the plate 
line of the bay H D 
is higher or raised up 
4 teet above the level 
of the plate line of 
the principal or main 
walls as A G B; to 
find lengths of rafters 
we go back again to 
Fig. 1. Here on the 
seat ol the hip E U 
we proceed to square 
np the rise U V and 
join E V which will be 
the length of the hip 
U V being equal to 
the rise J, Fig 2. 
There will be four hips 
this length to stand 
over E 0, F U, G U, 
and If 0, on the seat 
of the W X. Square 
up the rise X Y and 
join W V for length of 
valley. There will be 
two needed, one tor 
each Bide. Jacks can 
be found ea before de- 
scribed. Regarding 
the jack ratten reach- 
the valleys over W X to the 
P, I might state that 

of ail 

0. 8, 

Belotf it * 
received by Um 
December, 1*H. 

moneyi received alDoe December 81, will 
be published Id neat month'! Oilrnru. 

Whenever *oy error •ppwu* notify the O. B. 

Ing from 
hips D N and O 

the bottom and top cuts will be alike 
up to the points N & O where the hips 
join the ridge N O. Against It they will 
be a square cut on top edge with the 
down cut as at J Fig. 1 . 

When calculating the timbers or lay- 
ing out roofs of this description, too 
much care cannot be bestowed in watch- 
ing the exact number of rafters required, 
the right and left band cute of the bevels 
on the jacks, etc., and the exactitude of 
frame to the neat lengths required so as 

via. 2.— PBOJBcrtoN or aooy 
on the ridge. A G, Fig. 2, is 
across the narrowest part of the 
or from A to B, Fig. 1, and E M Is the 
rise or pitch, consequently A M will be 
the length of the short common ratters 
and the bevels will be as represented at 
J M and A. 

Now to find the lengths of the hips 
and valleys and bay window rafters, 
refer to Fig. 1, and commencing at the 
near valley G M square up the line M 
K, make it equal to E M on Fig. 1 and 
join OB. OB will be the length of the 
valley with top and bottom bevels as 
shown. into its place, 

Herewith I illus- 
trate by two sketches 
the methods to be 
followed in framing 
wooden walls for win- 
dow openings Fig. 1 
Is the plan and on it 
will be seen the dif- 
ferent details of con- 
struction of the win- 
dow frame including the weight pocket 
which should ordinarily be 2| inches 
from the back of the policy stile 
to the face of the stud to permit the 
weights to paw freely up and down. The 
top header is usually doubled and the 
construction is the same as shown on 
Fig. 1. Fig. 2 is the bottom header 
with the sill stool and apron and the 
construction is clearly shown and easily 
understood by a close study of the 
pieces and Fig. I Is the top header 
referred to above. About 1 inch is 
allowed to permit the frame to slide 




Directory of Carpenters' Business 
Agents or Walking Delegates 

Boaron, Mam - W. J, Shield*, 721 Waahiiinlon 

Btree', (Room 8.) 
BaooaxT*:, N. Y.-R. Beatty, P. O, Bos 18. 

H tali on W, or SM Fulton Street.— J. J, 

Manning, 4« BerRen Street. 
Bcrr*M>. N. T,-Wm RoberWon, 8 


Cbicaoo. Ill — A. 0attertnull,4» I* Salle Street. 
anvLAn>,0.- Vincent Hlavllrt, residence, 12* 

Oerren Btreet ; office, room 11, 1M Superior 


Ooli.boe Point, N. Y.- John He Ira rich, College 

Point, Long Island, N. Y. 
Habttord, OOBH.-r, O. Wall 81 Aihley Street. 
Hops, rmv ill*. Kv.-James We* tern. 

I«IH AWSPOMS, IKD.-J. W. Prullt. 

Mii.wack**, Wis -J Bettendorf. 

New YosK.-BenJ 11. Hart, S31 Oolurobiii Ave., 

and Prank Bchultt, 413 K Ninth Street, 
Norwood, MiM,-J,im« H*dd*n, P. O Box 421 
SB ABO*, PA.- B. P. Bttdd. 

Br. LoDIB, Mo.— V, H, Lamb, 4318 Larpy Avenue, 
Bfbikhfislji, O.—V, M. Poole 

Labor-Saving Machinery, 

Machinery, considered alone, shortens 
the hours of labor, but when in the ser- 
vice of capital lengthens them ; in itself, 
it HghteDB the labor, but, employed by 
capital, lengthens the intensity of labor ; 
in itself it Is a victor of man over the 
forces of nature, bat in the hands of 
those forces; in itself it increases the 
wealth of producers, but in the hands of 
capital makes them paupers.— Karl Marx. 

Are You to Blame, Header? 

When we know that 150,000 people go 
to bed on charity in the one city of New 
York every night; that 8,000 human 
beings are boried in Potters field In that 
same city; that 40,000 women work for 
wages so small that they must sell them- 
selves, beg, steal or slave, don't you think 
it about time to change a system that 
produces such conditions in the richest 
country on the lace of the globe ?— 
PeapU't Caxue. 

It la Not the Natural Order. 

John Boyle O'Reilly once wrote: "The 
masses are poor, Ignorant and <i is organ- 
ized, not knowing the rights of mankind 
on the earth, and never knowing that 
the world belongs to its living popula- 
tions, because a small class in every 
country has taken possession of property 
and government, and makes laws for its 
own safety and the security of its plunder, 
educating the masses generation after 
generation, into the belief that this con- 
dition is the natural order and the law of 

, < 

Government Railroads In Australia. 

In Australia, where the railroads are 
State owned, you can ride a distance of 
1,000 miles across the country for $6.50, 
first class too; while working men can 
ride six miles for two cents, twelve miles 
for four cents, thirty miles for ten cents, 
etc> Railroad men receive thirty per 
cent, more wages for eight hours of labor 
than they are paid in this country for 
ton hours' work, and yet the profits of 
the railroads of Australia have enabled 
to abolish the internal 

Some Peculiar Typos of Union Men. 

Every cause is burdened with a class 
of adherents who shout themselves hoarse 
when carried on the wave of success, but 
who return with the subsiding, waters. 
Trade unions are particularly afflicted in 
this respect with such members- The 
union is regarded as some being or god 
composed of material in which they have 
no making, and with which they have 
nothing in common but to accept all 
benefite and to abuse when in trouble. 
There are union men by choice and 
others by circumstances ; union men who 
enter the ranks as soldiers prepared to 
fight and if beaten to retreat in order to 
fight again if possible, othere who boast 
of their unionism when everything is 
prosperous ami membership means acon- 
tinual dress parade, but should an out' 
break occur andtheBe members be forced 
to share the privations of active service, 
they set to work abusing the officers and 
causing despair in the ranks instead of 
clinging more desperately together. It 
seems almost incomprehensible that 
workmen with common interests should 
act so contrary to common eenee. If only 
a part of their practical knowledge nsed 
in creatine: the wealth of their employers 
was nsed for a proper management of 
their common interests we would have 
reached that stage when the present 
labor movement would be antiquated. 
Again, there is another element in trade 
unions who are always ready to follow 
the wake of the flatterer, the demagogue, 
the gay deceiver, who with honeyed 
words and grand promises would lead 
them down the slippery path over the 
precipice of disorder, while the thorny 
crown of martyrdom is placed on the 
beads of the true counsellors who have 
the courage to present disagreeable facte. 
— Paving VuiitTt' Journal. 

A Yast Revolution. 

We are in a vast industrial evolution. 
I must intensify that and say revolution, 
and we are in it as we never were before 
because the conditions are higher. The 
conditions for such astate of things never 
before eilated. Under despotic govern- 
ment the king used to say to a thousand 
men, " Go out and hew timbers, quarry 
stone, wall in my city, build a tomb or 
build a temple." They had to go. Now 
we have come to the age of personal lib- 
erty and co-ordinate power, and it is so 
great that none of us who have studied it 
can profess to understand It thoroughly. 
We are in the midst of a vast movement, 
and none of us would arrest it if we 
conld. What we want to do is to study 
it, to ntllise it, and the only solution at 
last Is " in love serving one another," to 
recognise the service of man toman, and 
for each one to gladly taks his place In 
the vast correlations and co-ordinations 
of such a world and lovingly and gladly 
fill his place,-//. W, Tkamai. 


The debt of the United States at the 
close of the war was in round numbers 
about $2,000,000,000. The people have 
paid something near this amount since 
In interest and of principal, and yet it 
would take more corn, wheat, oats, cot- 
ton and tobacco to pay the debt due by 
the Government of the United States 
now than it wonld have required thirty 
years ago to have paid the entire debt. 
This is caused mainly by the redaction 
of prices of these commodities dae to 
the contraction of the currency during 
this twenty -five or thirty years— Cotton 

Striking At The Polls. 

Well, ye theoretical gentlemen who 
have been appealing to the workingmen 
to abandon the industrial strike and 
strike at the polls, what do you think of 
it? Does the result of the elections suit 
you ? No. Few of you are knaves, the 
balance are fools. There is only one 
kind of organization that will keep the 
workingmen together, and that is true 
unionism. The fact that the working- 
men are trade unionists does not prevent 
them from Btriking at the polis, but 
some of our " advanced " friends seem 
to think differently. The well meaning 
theoretical reformer is more of a menace 
to reform than the dishonest rascal. 
The honest theorist is trusted because he 
is honest, but as a rule he does not 
understand the workingmen. With few 
exceptions he has unconcealed contempt 
for trade unions— he soars higher. We 
have often observed that the radical 
theorist is not long inside of a trade 
union before he becomes exceedingly 
practical and ofttimes obnoxiously con- 
servative. And when the skin on his 
hands thickens to callousness, the " pure 
and simple" trade unionist is an anar- 
chist compared to him.— Coatt ,Seam<m , i 

An Unbridled Plntocraey. 

A Correction Due Our 


General Lloyd Brice writes in a recent 
number of the North American FOvitw : 
" We are living in the shadow of an 
unbridled plutocracy, caused , created and 
cemented in no slight degree by legisla- 
tive, aldermanic and Congressional ac- 
tion; a plutocracy that is <*r more 
wealthy than any aristocracy that has 
ever crossed the horizon of the world's 
history, and one that has been produced 
in a shorter consecutive period ; the 
names of whose members are emblazoned 
not on the pages of their nation's glory, 
but of its peculations , who represent no 
struggle for their country's liberties, bnt 
tor its boodle; no contests for Magna 
Charta, but railroad charters, and whose 
octopus grip is extending over every 
branch of induatry ; a plutocracy which 
controls the price of the bread we eat, 
the price of the sugar that sweetens our 
cup, the price of the oil that lights our 
way, the price of the very coffins in 
which we are finally buried." 

The rich man says that labor is discon- 
tented. What kind of a thinker are you 
that you expect the people to be con- 
tented under such distress as there now 
is, and then try to deceive them concern- 
ing its true cause. There is no content- 
ment anywhere and there should not be. 
Kings want their subjects to be contented; 
masters, their chattel slaves ; employers, 
their men on charity soup. The officers 
want the people to be contented to pay 
taxes to keep them In luxury, the trusts 
want the people to be contented while 
they fleece them. Contentment means, 
under such H ri'umrtances, iguoranceand 
slavery. All over the world the masses 
■ee a vision of a glorious future where 
justice will reign, where men who pro- 
duce the wealth of the world will con- 
sume that wealth.— Lcui* vi lie New Era. 

His Notion of an Ideal Union. 

Weary Walk ins ; " They's only one 
thing keeps me from becomln* a working- 
man and joinln' a union." 
Dosty Rhodes : " What's that ? " 
Weary Watkins: "I can't find no 
what's on a strike all the time." 

In our November issue an item ap- 
peared from a travelling member of ours 
who had stopped over in Kansas City 
and wrote us from there protesting 
against the introduction of politics in 
trade unions, and urging that "the 
sooner our Order abandons impracticable 
and abeurd Ideas the better it will be for 
us." In publishing this we did not say 
the item came from Union No. 100, of 
Kansas City, and per request of President 
Michler of that Union, we now wish to 
relieve Union 100 of any responsibility 
for the opinion. 

But one thing we can not understand 
is bow Uoion 100, or any of our unions, 
could vote for the Single Tax proposition 
and at the same time vote for the State 
Socialistic platform. The Single Tax, it 
anything, is essentially the acme of 
individualism, whiie the Socialistic plat- 
form is the most consummate collectiv- 
ism. One is the opposite of the other, 
and the two school b of thought are in 
radical antagonism to one another. We 
can understand how a State Socialist 
can favor a nationalization of the land ; 
still, that is not Single Tax. But how a 
Single Taxer— one who yearns for the 
restriction of governmental powers and 
for the minimum amount of State inter- 
ference, can line no for State Socialism, 
is one of those anomalies that had better 
he left for "zukunft" philosophers to 

Capital and Labor. 

"Yes, sir," said a pompous New York 
manufacturer, " I consider mysell a bene- 
factor of the human race- I feed two 
hundred people in my factory." 

"You do?" replied a bystander. 
"Goodness! And all the time I was 
under the impression that they fed you." 
— 'lejrat Hitting*. 

the Detroit Convention of 


Brotherhood ©f Carp* n Urn end Joiner* of 
|.«, held Aug. 6-11. 1888, U»e following 
relation la 

WVrwu, The rapid Influx of unskilled aud In- 

in pete ni men In the carpenter trade he* bed. 


of late yean, * very deprewdug and injurious 
effect upon the raecheni<» in the business, mod 
hu e tendency to degrade the standard of skill 

and to give no encouragement to young men to 
become apprentices and to meatef the trade 
thoroughly; therefore. In the beet . I Inter?* I of the 

craft, we i 
Ing rules: 

Baxmoir t. The Indenturing of apprentice* la 
the heel mean ■ calculate it to give that efflcUnoy 
which It la desirable a carpenter ahould | 

and also to give the neoessury guarantee to the 
employer* thatKome return will tie made to I 

i pet* ut work- 
Looal Unions 

tor m proper effort to turn out < 
men , therefore, we direct that all 
under our jurisdiction ah all use every possible 
mee.ui, wherever practical, to introduce the sys- 
tem ol Indenturing apprentices, 

Bkc. 1. Any boy or person hereafter engaging 
himself to hum the trade of oarnen try, shall be 
required to nerve a regular apprenticeship of four 
ouuseculive years, ami shall not be considered a 
journeyman unless he has oonipllud with Ibis 
rule, and Is twenty-one year* of age at lbs com- 
pletion of bis apprenticeship. 

Bite. I. A), boy* entering the nerpenter trade 
with the Intention of learning ' 
be held by agreement, I: 
tract for a term of four j 

8*o. 4. When a boy shall have 
trteln li 

an employer to serve a certain term of years, fa* 
shall on no pretence whatever, leave said em- 
ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free consent of said flrnt employer, an- 
iens there I* Just cause or that such change I* 
made In SM sequence of the death or relinquish- 

turn to his "tnployei 

Bat), ». It Is 1 1 'olned upon each Looml Union to 
make regulutit, ,s limiting the number of *P- 
prentices to be employed In e*cb shop or mill tm 

all Union* are 

one for such number of 
seem to them Just; and _ 
mended to admit to membership apprentice* la 
the last year of their apprenticeship, to th* *wd 
that, upon the expiration of their term* pf*j£ 
prentioeshlp, they may become acquainted wis* 





FOR PINS AND SUPPLIRS during the mouth 
ending December 81, 

any errors 

without delay. 

notify the G. 8. 

CI Alms Approved In December, 1894. 

No. Nana. Uaww. AMT. 

aou P. M. Pierce " •»» oo 

30.17 Mr. 3. Pro vol t 81 » 00 

9068 F. B"*iell)el 21 300 00 

3059 M. Kit-line " 20° 00 

b060 J Kr»Ui M H 00 

1 V. Kutilck ■ • M 3M> 00 

8062 li. M. Benson W KO 00 

3063 li. Murphy 63 80000 

6084 S O Victor 113 200 00 

3066 Mrs L A Graate ..... Ill 60 00 

3006 D. Lampoon 163 400 00 

8087 Mrs. I, CotTman ISO K> 00 

80*8 L. Tread way 208 M 00 

306* Chas. MaAsmann .... 1X8 200,00 

3U70 Mr*. M. Bernard 228 50 00 

3071 J. W aunt-rill m i n 338 200 00 

3072 Mm. T. Toft 270 10 00 

3073 Mrs. A. Hazletl 276 60 00 

8074 M. Stafford 286 20000 

3078 Mm. N. Man kin ....... 299 M 00 

4076 K. H. Set Ik op . . . . 360 200 00 

8077 P. Williamson 881 100 00 

8078 Mr*. H. M. Gray 881 50 00 

3079 H.Parker 882 200 00 

J. W. Burtee 431 200 00 

8081 N.ANyquiat «J 200 00 

8081 J. Hougeron 434 200 00 

3081 J. Vanpelt 200 00 

8084 Mra. B, A. Hu.k 453 60 00 

Jaa. A Hid more BH0 100 00 

O. W, Barwlck 692 300 00 

Mrs. Q, DcForesl 768 M» 

Total W.70O 00 

The Awakening. 

And the poor of the land ahall rejoice 
When the Nation attain shall be born, 

When the rich who hare robbed them of bread. 
0/ their honors and profit* are 

And the tare* ahall be j 

And the wheat In our garners be stored ; 
A nd the ballot the Nation shall turn, 

Por we need not the spear or the sword. 

The tollers, like gtante, are waking. 
But to And that their shackles are straw ; 

Ai,d the laws are had for the making; 
And they soon will be making the luws. 

And true as the heavens above us, 
As the earth and lta bounteous store. 

The toilers shall equally share It, 
And avarice rule is no more. 

- 8. G. OtUll, in (touting Nation, 

All Very True. 


, the Onions (Tax. etc.) 13 833 IS 

(Supp'lea) 288 18 

*' Advertisers 80 00 

" Rent and Gits 28 45 

" Clearance-*, etc 3 

Balance on hand It. cember 1. 1894 . . . S 398 W 

Total 16.592 17 


For Priming 1*7 SS 

" OlHce, etc 624 1> 

" Tax to A. F. of I... November .... 60 08 
" Delegates to Denver < '.invention , . 602 60 

" Benefits Nos. W to 3087 47tO 00 

Balance On band .lull. 1, 1*8 ■ W »7 

Total , IM81 17 

Detailed Ex»eiweH— Dttemlier, 189*. 

Printing 1,000 Portala M 00 

" 1,000 membership < ards . . . 3 60 

1 000 stub rr-rvipta . . 3 76 

» 17,000 ooplos December Journal 166 28 

Sl-lOO-paae l.-dgers 

1,003 Nuu-bcsds 

Postage on Dt-. ember Journal .... 
I witters for December Journal 
Journal . . 

1,600 postal* 

Fifteen telegrams 

Kipraasage utt supplies 

OMoe rent for December 

Salary and clerk Mr* 

Tax to A. F. of L„ November 

10,000 Mhographed letterheads . . . . • 

Rubber seals, etc 

Check relumed Union 311, Montreal. Can. 

New grate and repair* to stove 
Stationery ■ • 

Type writer re pill ra 

|lu K h McKay, Denver Convention 

D P. Rowland " 

Jaa. J. Linehau " 

p. J. McGuire " " 

■tonaSta Nos. 80H to 3067 

ft ■ | • 

A Self-rattteufnir and Folding Saw- 
Clam ]>. 

Mr. A. T. Binkerd, of No. 159 Kobin 
son street, Allegheny City, Pa , a mem- 
ber of L. U. 211 has invented and will 
put on too market a new and novel self 
fastening and folding saw-clamp. 

It is lighter, longer, and holds firmer 
than any other metallic saw -clamp on 
the market. It folds similar to a pocket- 
knife and occupies hut little more space 
in a tool- box than your claw hammer. 
When located at a suitable place, say on 
a saw-horse, bench, tool-box, window 
ail), on the edge of a board, plank, joist, 
stick of timber, pile of lumber, on the 
rail of a fence, or any other suitable 
place, it is fastened almost instantly, 
without the aid of any screws, or other 
means of fastening whatever. The means 
of self fastening is obtained by arms pro- 
jecting at each end at a rectangle to the 
rear part of the clamp horizontally. £ach 
arm ii about an inch long and isanpplied 
with a spnr about one-half inch long at 
a rectangle with the arm and pointing 
downward for the purpose of penetrating 
into the wood and holding the clamp 
firmly in position. It is also provided 
with a ' ' gum sound deadener." The in- 
vention claims to possess several advan- 
tages over all other saw -clumps, vis., It 
folds up nicely for the purpose of occupy- 
ing the least possible space. It has the 
lightest possible weight, with sufficient 
strength. It is an instantaneous self- 
fastener and firmly holds In place and is 
adaptable to a diversity of place to whieh 
it may be fastened. 

It will doubtless sopply a long felt 

We do not wonder that honest, con- 
scientious labor agitators become dis- 
gusted and heart sick when they find 
on the other hand an ignorant, unthink- 
ing, unmovable mass, giving ear to the 
minions of plutocracy and crucifying bo 
called leaders with the selfishness of 
beasts ; and on the other hand a coterie 
of narrow bigots, rankling with preju- 
dices and petty jealousies, going ont of 
their way to throw mod at these same 
agitators because they are unable to 
mould bnman nature to the liking of 
their most holycriticB.— Cleveland Citizen. 

I'HiLip BlIHLrl. from Union «9, Chicago, 
111-, for embeszlement. 

W. Whzil, from TJnton 730, Chicago. 111., for 

((appropriation of funds. 

Ed H*ab, from Union 314, Louisville, Ky.. 
for embezzlement of Union funds. 

Kobt. Wiitt, Ex-Treasurer and W, H. OOOD- 

«t, Ex Financial Secretary, from Union 38, 
Chicago III., for misappropriation of Union 

B F. PufUUTOjr, from Union 63, Chicago, III., 
for not turning over money entrusted to him by 
a candidate. 

J. B Mitchell, from Union 7*1, Chicago, 111,, 
for misrepresentation aa to bis former connection 
with the Brotherhood. 

Mask Tatlox, from the Unions of New Or- 
leans and U. B. generally for wilful slander of 
and bad conduct toward members. 

P. A. I blow from Union 116, Martin, Tenn., for 
defrauding fellow members and trying to break 
upthe union. 

Hakby Edmonds, from Union 370, St. Louts, 
Mo., for being a defaulter aa ax-Treasurer of 
Union 370. 

W. W. Cox, from Union 468, Hot Springs, Ark. 
for general bad conduct. 

Chab Giw, from Union 3, Cincinnati, O., for 
acting as a U. S. Deputy Marshal during the rail- 
road men's strike. 

Faax-K Dbabal, from Union 64, Chicago, 111., 
for acting aa deputy marshal during railroad 

Danger of Repeal or Amendment of 
Law In New Jersey. 

I . ft t • • 

. 16 .3* m 



Frio* 13.00 


la LFrio. 11.00 

Mo, a, ■ |i.oo 

Sent free by mall on receipt of prtos by appil - 
axMon to R. LEONARD. General Agent P. O 
SSftaa B, taftap OHr. N- J M.mb«r of L. U. 461 
a ted In 

The Fair Wages Clause In England. 

In a vast number of cities and towns 
in England, through the efforts and 
work of the trade unions, the city, county 
and town councils have adopted rules or 
ordinances something after this style, 
and we quote that of Brighton, viz. :— 
" Every mechanic, artisan, craftsman and 
laborer employed by the contractor in 
the course of such contract shall be paid 
not lees than the standard rate of wages 
in force in this district, such standard to 
mean the rate agreed upon by the 
Masters' and Workmen's Associations in 

Hand; Wood Catting Tool 

July 19, ISO*. 

It appears another effort is to be made 
to either repeal or amend the present 
very effective Mechanics' Lien law of the 
Slate of New Jersey. A bill for that pur 
pose has been introduced in the Legiala 
tore ot that State. 

The whole scheme is in the interest of 
the banks, boilding and loan associa- 
tions, and financial institutions of the 
State. The argument they advance is 
that "financial institutions which would 
gladly loan money for building purposes 
where real estate was unencumbered, are 
prevented from so doing on account of 
this law, which deprives them of the 
protection to which capital is justly en- 

We were under the impression that 
capital loaned in building operations 
was already amply protected and fully 
secured by the ordinary civil law cover- 
ing bond and mortgages, without asking 
to come within the purview of the 
Mechanics' Lien law, or without need of 
the repeal or amendment of said law. 
The existence of the Lten law on the 
statute books of the State compels con- 
tracts should be given to responsible 
contractors and builders, or in default 
thereof holds the owner responsible for 
wages unpaid. 

This has a tendency to eliminate Irre- 
sponsible employers from the business, 
id acts as an element of safety and 
security to the mechanic and laborer In 
the construction or repair ot buildings 
If any amendment of this law la at all 
necessary, it should he one to secure a 
priority of lien in favor ot labor per- 
formed and to prevent long and unneces- 
sary stays of execution, where judgments 
for payment of wages have been ren- 

Let all our Locals of the U- B. and of 
the building trades and all workingmen 
in the State of New Jersey stand on 
guard against any repeal of the Me 
chanics' lien law. Pour in letters to 
your representatives In House and Senate, 
and tell them in unmistakeable tones yon 
want no repeal of this lien law, and if 
any amendment Is to be made, let it be to 
widen the operation of the law still 
more Ln the line above indicated. 


For gaining or routing out stair stringers, fitting 
In window pulleys, cutting ou 
In Hush bolts on doors, etc, 

Out pocket piece*, filling; 
:., fitting In striking and 
mo nine kick -pi ales, dadoing from Si In. to any width, 
either straight or On a curve. Agents wanted. Car- 
pe n l* rs preferred Hamplesent. post paid Many ad- 
dress upon receipt of price. Send for < ' 






Something for Carpenters to 

The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America, was founded In Convention 
at Chicago, August 12, 1881. At first It bad only 
12 Local Unions and *042 members. Now In ton 

years, it baa grown to number over 716 Local 
Unions in over 610 cities, and S4,«77 enrolled 
members. It Is organised to protect lb* Oar pen- 
ter Trade from the evil* of low prices and botoh 
work; its aim Is to encourage all Igher standard 
of skill and better wages; to re-eatabllsb an 
Apprentice System, and to aid and assist the 
members by mutual protection and benevolent 
means. It pays a Win Funeral Benefit of from 
IU5 to »M>; Member 'a Funeral Benefit. 1100 to 
1200; and Disability Benefit 1100 to (400. In 
these General Benefit* to4.6M have been *» 
pended the past year, and $ZB3 648 the past ten 
years, while (471,000 more was spent for 81 ok 
Benefits by Ibe Local Unions, Such an organ!- 
aatlon is worthy the attention of every Carpenter. 
TK Brotherhood is also a Protective Trad* 
Lnlonas well aa a Benevolent Society. It baa 
raised the wages in SOS cities, and placed Five 
and a Half Million Dollars more wage* anaually 
In the pockets of the Carpenters in those cities. 
It reduced the hours of labor to 8 hours a day ln 
Hi cities, and I hours a day Id 416 cities, not to 
speak of 467 cities which have established the S 
or ft- hour system on Saturday a Br this means 
12,160 mora men have gained employment This 
it the result of thorough organisation. And yet 
very few strikes have occurred, and very little 
has been spent on strikes by this society. 

pecent tuwnwii cn|iuic w juiu.iuu 
is an invitation to rem aaaa Intelligent 

It ia not a secret oath bound organization, 
competent Carpenters are eligible to Join, 
this ' 

mechanic to send ln your application for 
' Unloi 
iood ; 

mallTn comparison with Hit, Unetlun aod^it I 

bershlp in the Carpenters' Union of your city. II 

to your It 




The K tanl I.ubor slowly waken 

Ami atrelrhe* out hit »mu, 
While Greed and Pride with Inward fear 

Are quick to Bound alarms. 

Like noisome (lie*, while Labor (dept. 

They've preyed on every pore, 
Till sting* and ill* have roused htm up, 

And now his Bleep in o'er. 

With strong right arm he'll sweep aside 

Ills blind and puny foes- 
No vampires now his life can steal 

While lulling to : 

How vnin the hope by use of force 

To crush and hold him down ; 
No power on cisrili can face bis might 

Whene'er he seeks the crown. 

For I-abor's king where Justice sways— 

When no corruption blight — 
Then haste the day whan Freedom's rays 

Hhall shine out pure and bright. 

And may Ibe wish for common Rood 

Kitend, and govern all- 
True happiness will ne'er be found 

Where 1 1 reed and Pride enthrall. 

—AUxandtt Spmrrr. 

Practical Plans and Estimates. 


HE plan which wc 
will now take into 
coneider a t io n i s 
one ot a neat 1}- 
Btory cottage of 
nine rooms, with 
large halls, bath, 
pantry closets, etc. 

Size of floor plan 
is 33-6x46 6. 

The cellar in esti- 
mated under the 
front and two middle rooms, and to 
finish 7 feet in the clear. 

Foundation and cellar walls to be an 
8-inch brick wall. 
Length of cellar wall, 125 feet. 
Length of foundation wall, 52 feet. 
Distance around outride wall plan, 160 

Heisht of first story, feet 6 inches. 
Height of second story, !) feet. 
Main cornice, 208 feet. 
Porch cornices, 54 feet. 
Number of window frames, 22. 
Number of door frames, 22. 
Hard pine finish throughout. 


160 yards excavating, 30c . . . $ 48 01 
1,500 brick laid in foundation 

$8.60 127 50 

10 lineal feet chimney breast 

with fire-place, $2.00 . , 20 00 
76 lineal feet ordinary chim- 
ney 80c 60 80 


$a r >o so 


2, 8x8 22 tt. sills 176 

12, 6x8 18 " sills and girders ... 768 
250, 2x4 16 " aide st'd'ng and plates 3,750 
120, 2x4 10 h psrtition studding . 780 
60, 2x4 18 " " " . 720 

60, 2x4 18 " rafters 000 

100,2x414" " and cellar beams W0 

50, 2x8 22 " floor JoitU 1,460 

25, 2x8 16 ' 525 

25, 2x8 20" " " ..... 676 

7, 2x6 10 " porch " 70 

4, 2»6 10 64 

9 478 

0,478 ft. in frame $16.50 per m . $160 84 
6,100 " sheeting walls and roof 

$18 per m 91 80 

2,500 ft. 5-inch siding $25 per m. 62 60 
.'4,800 " 4-inch flooring $30 " " 90 00 
17,000 shingles $8.50 per m ... 69 60 
700 ft. beaded ceiling $30 per m 21 00 
1/100 " J finish, corn lee, Jambs, 

etc., $40 per m . . . . . 44 001 

500 ft. 1 ft finish casings, steps 

and outside finish $40 p m $20 00 

100 ft. lft hard pine fin. $:i0pm BOO 

300 " ft hard pine fin. $25 p m 7 50 

600 *' 10-in base $2.50 per h . 12 50 

1,200 " 5 -in casing $1.50 per h . 18 00 

72 plinth blocks 8c 5 70 

116 corner blocks 5c 5 80 

12 windows 24x82, 2 light $2 24 00 
8 windowB24x30,21ight$1.75 1400 
2 windows 24x30, marginal 
lights for bath and bed- 
room $2.00 4 00 

66 M 5-in.oak thsholde $4 p h- $ 2 64 

2 corner beads 25c 50 

Mill work on porch and cornice 25 00 
Front stairs 20 44 

$836 00 


33 sqrs. framing and laying floors 

$1.30 $42 00 

26 sqrs. framing, sheeting and 

siding $2 50 f» 00 

8 eqrs. framing ceiling 50c. . 4 00 


80 lbs. 20d nails 

20 " 

200 11 

800 " 

75 « 

CO " 

70 ■ 

80 " 

25 " 

4 " 


12 pair ot blinds 24x32, 2- 

Iight$1.50 18 00 

8 pair blinds 24s 30, 2-!ight 

$1.40 11 20 

2 pair blinds 24x30, 1 -light 

$1.00 2 00 

1 transom 10x32, 1 light . . 100 

3 cellar sash 12x26 1 It. $1 3 00 

1 front door 3x7 lj .... 800 

2 folding doors 2-6x7-8 1 J $6 12 00 
7 doors 2-8x7 1 1 $8.50 ... 24 50 

3 doors 2-6x7 1 J $3.36 ... 9 75 


20 sqrt. framing, sheeting 

shingling $3.00 

170 lineal feet main cornice 15c. . 

96 lineal feet gutter 6c 

500 lineal feet of base 4c ... . 

21 door frames complete, $2 50 
1 folding door frame complete 

22 window frames complete 


3 cellar frames, $1.25 

Wainscoting kitchen 3 50 

Finishing sink 2 00 

60 00 
25 '.0 

5 78 
20 00 
52 50 

8 00 

60 50 
3 75 

6 doors 2 6x8-611 $2.00. . . 12 00 

4 doors 2x6x6 1|$1.80 ... 7 20 

180 ft. 3} In, cm mid $1.76 p h. .1 15 

80 "9J « " " $1.50 ph. 90 

300 "8 « bed » $1.50 ph. 4 50 

800 " ft quarter round 60c p h. 4 80 

360 " parting stops 50c per h. 1 75 

850 " ldn. window stps 60c p h. 2 10 

390 " 2 in. door stops $1. 25 p n. 4 87 

100 " wainscoting ctp $1.50 ph. 1 80 

100"3Hn- waterUble $3 p h. 2 00 

Finishing bathroom 

Finishing 5 closets at $1 25 . , 

Front stairs 

Cellar stairs , 

Work on front porch . . . , 

Work on back porch 


Oatside comer casings . . . . 
<)at«ide base 124 lineal feet 4c. 

ft 00 
6 25 
15 00 
2 50 
25 00 
IS 00 
12 00 
8 00 
4 96 



lOd finish 

8d " 


3d ' *' 

22 set blind hinges 18c .... 

550 tbe. sash weights, ljc. ... 

6 Bkeins Bash cord, 60c 

88 sash pulleys, 4c 

22 sash locks 15c 

23 pair bntts 8^x3 } 35c. • . . . 

2 flash bolts 75c 

1 (root door lock 

21 mortise locks and trimmings 


8 doz. wardrobe hooks, 15c , . 

20 door stops, 21c 

96 lineal feet gutter, 10c. ... 
100 " " conductors 3 in. 10c. 
260 feet tin roof, porches, 8c. . . 

64 " valley tin 10c 

Flashing chimneys and tins for 
windows ........ 



3 40 
8 96 
6 87 
8 60 
3 52 
8 30 
8 05 

1 60 

2 00 

21 00 
1 20 
9 60 
10 00 
20 80 
8 40 

4 00 


Excavating and masonry . . . 
Lumber and mill work .... 

Carpenter work 

Hardware and tin work .... 


Plastering 1,000 yards 25c. . . 

Mantel complete 

tias fitting 


Furnace complete for hot air 

$131 54 

$266 30 
836 00 
451 12 
131 54 
100 00 
350 00 
50 00 
25 04 
70 00 

120 00 

$461 IS 

$2,290 00 

A special feature of this design is that 
the rooms are all large, well lighted 
and so arranged that each bedroom is 
supplied with a large closet. The house 
is designed for 16 feet studding which, of 
course, makes it necessary to plaster on 
the rafters in finishing the second-story 
rooms. This design could be carried out 
fall two stories for ao additional cost of 
about $150. 

Again, tbe arrangement of the rooms 
on the first floor is such that the dining 
room could be aeed as a bed -room if it 
was so desired, using tbe sitting room as 
a living room. Time, if it is desirable 
the same general appearance in the de- 
sign can be retained if only erected as a 
one-story cottage of five rooms. 



convenient for members or this Brotherhood, 

WlHl.I J** T- Weekly pej 
member* of 
and where practicable should be adopted. 

Oo stilt l,tn« -Wc will not use any mill or 
Other work innnufiu lured In a rial tpstiUition, 
ar hrouicht front any town or oily where cbeep 
tabor pre raj Is. 

Labok's Holiday.— We favor tbe adoption ef 
the tlrst Monday in Hrpiemher a» La^or'a Hgj} - 

day, and we reiuuiineri 
endeavor to observe the name. 

Eight Hor/M.-Our I* U.'s shall (!o all in theb 
power Ut make the Klghl hour rule universal 
and to sustain U»«w unions that have now esteb 
■l*»«d the Klghl hour aysU'tti. 

Am KARUt V sdibjta x di no— The O.E.B. shoul a 
do all in Its power to discourage alrlkea, an-* 
adopt sutli means a* will tend fa» f 
aid lob If u riders' " 
and employer* 

Lnv Lawn.— Wo desire uniform lien lawi 
throughout the United Htatee and Canada*, mak 
In* a mechanic's lieu the lint mortgage on real 
••Fate to secure the wages of labor first, and 
materia] second. Such 1 
without long stays of 
<teoe**ery delays. 

BtriLDicrj Trades I.r.Aacrn.— Each L. TJ. shat- 
rtrive to form a Ix-ague composed of delegate 
from the various union* of the building trades t< 
tts respective city, and by tills means an empto ' 
wont bureau for these trades) can be created. 

GaADJKQ Ware*.- We are opposed to any sys- 
tem of trading wages in the Local Unions, as ws 
deem the same demoralising to the Ut " -ads 
further in osntlve to reck lees com petit! tti§ 
the ultimate tendency when work is ». «. I* 
allow AisL-cleea men to offer their labor at third 
class prices. We hold that the plan of Aging * 
minimum price for a day's work to be the eeiee* 
and best, and let the employers grado the i 








r ^SWy N tne meanwhile, the king, 
jV-AB-i^— accompanied by the least 
odious members of his 
'y council, had with much 
' dread and misgiving made 

their way to the camp at 
Mile End. Being permitted 
to advance and address the 
armed peasants, the king 
said : " Good people, I am yonr king and 
protector, wherefore are you assembled 
in armB? What would you have from 
me ?" William Wraw, a Poor Priest and 
leader of the Essex men, replied : " We 
would have you free ua for ever, our 
children and goods, so that we be no 
longer Berfs or reputed aB such-" " So be 
it," answered the king. "Let the men 
of each county straightway return by 
villages and towns aa they came, and 
only leave behind two or three men of 
each place. To such men I will intme- 
diately deliver written letters which shall 
secure all you a-dt and will be a pardon 
for all oflences against ns in marching 
with armed men aa an army with ban- 
ners." In order, however, to give this 
Btrategy the appearance of sincerity, up- 
ward ot thirty clerka were employed in 
writing letters of enfranchisement and 
pardon, which they gave to the deputies 
of the insurgents, who; departed imme- 
diately after receiving them, When the 
news of the issue of these letters to the 
Essex men waa received in London, many 
villages and towns 'of other counties ap- 
pointed deputies to receive Buch letters 
and returned home, but the ahrewder 
leaders restrained this movement to a 
great degree- 

The king and council, who had received 
information of the capture of the Tower 
and the execution or the chief ministers 
with great alarm, now sought a place of 
refuge. Informed that the king's mother 
was safe in ber palace in the city, they 
made a wide detour around the walls, 
and, toward nightfall, entered the city 
from the westward, and soon thereafter 
safely reached the Wardrobe. 

Ob Saturday morning, June 15, the 
king dispatched Sir John Newton to seek 
Walter the Tiler in hia city lodging and 
negotiate with him concerning the de- 
mands of the men of Kent. The Kentish 
leaders, with clear sight of the obliga- 
tions they owed to the London and other 
civic brotherhoods, and of the difference 
of conditioner the rural population of 
Kent and other counties, were not will 
ing to have their people return home 
until more explicit concessions and seen 
rities bad been obtained. The negotia 
tions were therefore prolonged ; hut at 
length Walter the Tiler was induced to 
accompany Sir John to Smith field, out- 
side the city wall to the north -weet.where 
the king and his courtiers, with the 
mayor and aldermen, were superintend 
ing the iBsue of letters to the men of 
Hertford and Middlesex. Arrived at 
Smith field, Walter advanced to the king 
and, without any formalities, demanded 
explicitly, not only enfranchisement for 
the serfs and those reputed as such ; bat, 
also, aa a measure of relist lor townsmen, 
the right of tree trade in town and out of 
town ; the abolition of the odious poll- 
tax, and the full restoration of the ancient 
rights of freemen — such as the right of 
cutting wood for fuel and building in all 
forests, of grazing and hunting in all for- 

Iesta, parks and commons, and of fishing 
in ill waters. 
Walter had scarcely ceased speaking 
when Walworth, the mayor, drew bis 
dagger and, from behind, stabbed him 
through the throat, knocking him from 
his horse. The king and hia courtiers 

then reined in their horses around the 
prostrate leader to conceal what was pass- 
ing, and a squire of the royal household, 
named Ralph Stand ish, thrust his sword 
through Walter's heart. 

The body, still surrounded by the 
horsemen, waB dragged to the priory of 
St. Bartholomew, a few yards away, where 
it was hidden. The king then and there 
conferred the honor of knighthood on 
Walworth, the brothel keeper, and en- 
dowed him with an estate adjoining the 
murdered leader's birth pi ace. 

When an end was made of delivering 
the letters of enfranchisement and par- 
don to the men of the several counties, 
they set ont on their homeward march 
singing songs of joy. But as the men of 
Kent returned over London Bridge they 
little dreamed that preparations were 
being then and there made to set up on a 
gory pole, above the gateway, the bloody 
bead of their leader— faithful to the death 
—Walter the Tilelayer. 

When the citizens of London awoke 
on Sunday, the morning succeeding the 
triumphal departure from their city of 
the insurgent delegates, they arose with 
the firm belief that a great popular vic- 
tory had been won, and that the aboli- 
tion of serfdom had been achieved. But 
as the startling rumor of the assassina- 
tion of the Kentish leader and the king's 
connivance in that dastardly deed be- 
came known, the popular exultation was 
changed into anxiety. This inquietude 
soon developed into positive alarm as 
successive messengers brought the om- 
inous tidings that the abbot of St. 
A limns when confronted with the king's 
charters of emancipation, had boldly 
denied their validity, and that many 
orda bad openly denounced the king's 
action as an attempted violation of their 
baronial rightB aolemnly guaranteed by 
the Magna Gharta. 

The aituation waB indeedcritical. The 
whole of K ii gland, or the actual working 
classes thereof, from Yorkshire to Devon- 
shire, from Scarboro, in the north-east, 
to Plymouth, in the sonth-weet, had 
sacredly maintained the vast organiza- 
tion of the Brot bcrhood for twenty years ; 
and, at length, had on the day appointed, 
taken up anna in defence of the common 
cauee- Yet, within a few day a after the 
rising, concert of action between the 
forces of the several countiea seems to 
have been disregarded, and the men of 
the several villages and cities of certain 
counties seem to have acted entirely on 
their own judgment in returning to their 
homes when the object of the rising ap- 
peared to have been achieved. The 
difficulty of subsieting Buch great masses 
in or near one city for any considerable 
time, without a regular commissariat 
exercising military powers, must have 
been evident from the first ; and the early 
disbanding of the assembled forces was 
no doubt regarded as inevitable. Never- 
theless, the dispersion of the forces in 
and around London muBt be regarded as 
a calamity to the popular cause ; for as 
the armed workers retired to their 
home**, the courage of the lords revived, 
their panic passed away, and within 
three days thereafter the great and less 
barons of the realm bad assembled a 
mighty force of forty thousand disciplined 
Boldlers around the neuclna of the royal 
army in London, 

Burning with shame for their recent 
panic fears, eager to wipe ont the stain 
on their military reputation, and frenzied 
with the thought ot loss of social posi- 
tion, the lords demanded of the royal 
council that the king's pardon for all 
offences committed during the rebellion 
should be cancelled; and that stern 
retribution should be immediately ez 
acted from the chief movers in that re- 
bellion. The demand of the lords was 
conceded; andthearmy moved by parallel 
columns into Kent. Wholesale arrests, 

'followed by ruthless executions, swiftly 
marked the progress of this infuriated 
host. But the avenging army was soon 
brought to a halt by the news that the 
EsBex men had re assembled in arms and 
were once more marching on London- 
Retracing ite steps by a forced march 
through the decimated country-side 
and recroeaing the Thames, the army 
again poured eaatward. Soon a halt was 
called, for on the bordera of Essex a del- 
egation from the insurgents of that 
county met the king, and, displaying 
hefore his eyes his recently granted 
charters, asked to be informed if those 
charters did not make the Essex men, bo 
far as freedom was concerned, the equals 
of the lords. 

The nominal historians would have oe 
believe that the king, enraged at this 
request, poured a torrent of insensate 
villification on this delegation ; bnt the 
text of a royal proclamation of that 
date warranto us in believing the king's 
answer was couched somewhat as follows 
—"At the importunity of many insurg- 
ents in and from several counties of our 
kingdom, certain letters patent under our 
seal were granted to them, giving eman- 
cipation from all serfdom to our subjects, 
and pardon also for offences committed 
agai n at os. You shall Btraight way return 
to those who sent you and inform them 
that these letters were issued by us with- 
out due deliberation, and considering 
that the concessions of these letters 
tended to the prejudice of our crown, and 
to the injury of ourself, the prelates, 
lords and barons of our realm. There- 
fore, with the advice of our council, i i 
have cancelled theae letters, and c > 
order that those who have in the r 
posBession such charters of emancipation 
and pardon restore them to in and our 
council, under penalty of forfeiture of all 
they can forfeit to ue. We have sum- 
moned the clergy and barons, with two 
knights from each county, end two 
citizens from each town, to meet in par- 
liament and decide whether our subjects 
shall be freed from alleerfdom. Further- 
more we command that all and every 
tenant, free or othe:wise, do without 
resiBtince or delay, the usual services 
and labor to their lords, and we rigor- 
ously prohibit them to demand any lib- 
erty or privilege they did not enjoy be- 
fore the late troubles." 

Having listened In silence to the king's 
shameless declaration of his treacherous 
policy, the delegation retired and then 
made all baste to rejoin the main body 
of their compatriots. Undismayed by 
the information brought by the delega- 
tion concerning the strength and quality 
or the rapidly approaching army, the in- 
surgents resolved to make a stand for 
their liberties in the glades of Hainault 
Forest, Here in a short time their skilled 
axemen fortified the chosen position with 
felled trees, so as to counteract the over- 
whelming superiority of the enemy's cav- 

Although the xbroniclert, who gener- 
ally revel in the details ot military en- 
fnurements, have vouchsafed na little 
more than the barest mention of this 
important conflict in the depths of the 
great forest of Essex, we may readily 
believe that this first pitched battle be- 
tween the lordly chivalry and the Essex 
brotherhoods was long and stubbornly 
contested. The army assembled under 
the royal banner was commanded by the 
Earl ot Buckingham and Lord Percy of 
Northumberland. It consisted of not 
leas than forty thousand men. But inde- 
pendently of its numerical strength, it is 
Bald to have been the most powerful 
army ever before assembled in England. 
So far aa mere numbers are concerned, 
the insurgent force was probably some- 
what superior to that of their opponents ; 
but the effective strength of an army In 
the Middle Ages waa calculated on the 

basis of the number of Its mail-clad home- 
men, or of Its knighthood, each knight 
being supported by his personal follow- 
ing ot mounted esquires and men-at-arms. 
The foot-soldiers of an army, no matter 
how numerous, were regarded as almost 
worthless for real fighting. The footman 
indeed were scarcely deemed worthy the 
name of " soldiers." It Bhould be under- 
stood that the insurgent force was almost 
exclusively composed of footmen. 

Bnt a great revolution was taking place 
in military no less than in industrial 
aflaira at this period. The working class 
of England, the peasantry and trade 
unionists, had for generations been hab- 
ituated to practise with the long bow. 
Local and personal rivalry in arcbery as 
an athletk; pastime had gradually devel- 
oped the bow until it came to be recog- 
nized as the most terrible engine of war 
then in existence. The how of a grown 
man, twenty-five years of age, was seven 
feet long and three inches thick, the 
range of such a weapon being foor hun- 
dred yards. It was faith In the potency 
of this poor man's weapon ; it was 
confidence in tbeir ability to lay the 
whole strength of tbeir trained bodies to 
bend tfc d mighty yew bow, to draw to 
its very head the heavy oaken war-shaft, 
trimmed with the gray goose feather and 
to pierce man or horse, unless clad in the 
best Milan eteel, at any distance short of 
three hundred yards, that emboldened 
the men of the Brotherhood to stand at 
bay against the combined royal and 
feudal forces of the realm. 

It will be understood that not all the 
insurgents were euch skilled bowmen, 
and it is probable that the greater part 
of them were axe or " bill " men, for 
euch were absolutely necessary. Armed 
with bill- hooks, such as were ordinarily 
used by most of these men in their labor 
ot trimming hedges and trees, and set 
upon ash staves some seven teet long, 
these bill -men were formidable combat- 
ants at close quartern. Did a few cavalry 
succeed in the face of a withering arrow- 
flight in forcing their steeds to charge 
up to the line of bowman, the biilmen 
rushed to the archers' defence. A blow 
with a bill would shiver the toughest 
lance ever couched by cavalier. To seize 
the horseman's visor with the hook of 
the bill or to lop off a leg of hia horse 
would generally dismount the most 
experienced rider. Flung heavily to the 
ground and unable to rise, perhaps, 
owing to the mere weight of his armor, 
a blow of the bill wielded with both 
bands, even by the humblest " hedger 
and ditcher," might be sufficient for the 
ambition ot the proudest knight. 

It should he added that a considerable 
proportion of the royal army was also 
composed of archers, and those of no 
mean reputation for skill. Again, the 
insurgents were at the diesd vantage of 
being but scantily provided with body 
armor ot any kind, either steel or leather 
defences for the head or body ; bnt they 
bad the advantage of the shelter of their 
hastily constructed breastworks, and the 
further advantage of a position In the 
forest which obstructed tbe deployment 
and alignment of their opponents' 
cavalry. In short, the men of the 
Brotherhood bad now the opportunity of 
selling their lives at a goodly sacrifice 
and of teaching the oppressors of labor 
a lesson which would be impressed on 
tbeir memory. 

We have no means of knowing tbe 
details of this hard-fought battle of 
Peverell. We are told, however, that tbe 
battle ended not until the close of the 
long summer's day ; and when night fell 
both armies rested on the field. 


The shrill blast of the brazen trumpets 
that sounded the reveille on the follow- 
ing morning and called the wearied 
soldiers to a renewal of the attack was 
not answered by the hoarse bray of the 
defenders' horns ; and when the royal 
troops, fearing some surprise, cautiously 
clambered over the blood -stained barri- 
cade they found, aa tbe sole occupant of 
the stubbornly defended position, five 
hundred dead bodies. 

The insurgents, white limited stock of 
arrows did not, probably, enable a con- 
tinuation of the defence, and whose num- 
erous wounded needed skilled medical 
attention, had, all unsuspected by tbeir 
opponents, effected a masterly retreat to 
the ancient walled city of Colchester. 





United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

PiMUKed Monthly, on the Fifteenth of each 


M N. Ninth St., Plain. , P«. 

P.J. McOciuE, Editor »nd 

»t the Poet-OOiee at Philadelphia, Fa., 
dm second -dans matter. 

Spb»ckiptios Pbick :— Fifty cento a yew, in 
, postpaid, 

all letters and money to 

P. J. McGpiKK, 
Box 881, Philadelphia, P». 


Koi.m una, not lawyers, were the first 
conveyancers of land, and blood was 
used instead of ink,— Herbert Spencer. 

Ovib one hundred years ago the laws 
of Massachusetts declared that any man 
who held land in idleness three years, 
lost his title to it and it became the prop- 
erty of the man who cultivated it. 

Jealousy, envy and personal selfish- 
ness are the dangerous stumbling blocks 
to perfect unity and harmony. Clear away 
the atones, friends. " It is an unweeded 
garden that grows to seed,"— 7ypo- 
gra/thical Journal. 

The was extended the nominal era of 
freedom so as to include the black man, 
but it did not make him free, nor will he 
or his white brothers ever be free until 
both he and they can retain in their 
pockets the wealth rhich they create.— 
Wendtll Phillip*. 

Irdbpindknt Iabo. political action is 
good and the workers cannot get too 
much of it, says the Cifvr Maker »' Journal, 
but it should not be tacked on to the 
trades union movement. There is room 
in this country for both movements. Let 
ob agree to keep the two separate, and 
both will profit by the decision. 

Many of our rich mm, said Andrew 
Jackson in his message, July 10, 18:12, 
have not been content with equal pro- 
tection and equal benefits, but have 
besought ne to make them richer by acta 
of Congress. By attempting to gratify 
their deal res we have in the results of oar 
legislation brought section against sec- 
tion, Interest against interest and man 
against man in a fearful commotion 
which threatens to shake the foundation 
of the Union. 

be examined with care, and the 
items of income and expense ehould be 
carefully footed up and added by two of 
the three Auditors. 

The bank book of the Treasurer Bhould 
be called for and produced, and the re- 
ceipts for tax, etc., sent theG. 8-T. should 
be called for and examined, so as to see 
the Local is paid up and not in arrears. 

Report of Auditors should then be 
made to the Local regularly each month. 
The Auditors should be paid for their 
services, whenever their work ie done in 
this form and where there are sullicient 
members to take much time. 

Making History Kii|ddly. 

A Few Words of Advice to 

Auditors of Local Unions should exam- 
ine the books and accounts of the F. 8., 
the Treasurer, and the Trustees regularly 
once each month. It would atop a good 
deal of fraud and trouble if attended to 
properly. Each item should be com- 
pared carefully, The day book or cash 
book should be compared item for item 
with the ledger. Some Auditors never 
look at the ledger, and only glance over 
the cash book. 

The right course is for on* Auditor to 
take the cash book and call off each entry, 
and a second Auditor should look 
through the ledger and see each item as 
called off is entered in ledger correctly— 
date, amount and ill. The items of ex- 
and bills and vouchers should I 

What an array of stirring labor eventB 
the past few years! The pulae throbs of 
the labor movement are felt even in 
these stagnant times. 

FirBt came the adverse decisions, one 
after another, of Judges Taft and Kicks 
at Toledo, of Judge Billings at New 
Orleans, of Judge Paxson against the 
men of Homestead, of Judge Jenkins, in 
the Great Northern Railway Strike—all 
against Organised Labor. 

Next come the decisions of the United 
States Supreme Court in favor of the 
eight- hour law for letter carriers, the 
decision of Judge Speer of Georgia in 
the engineer' case, of Judge Barrett of 
New York in the garment workers' in- 
junction, of Judge White in the Builders' 
Exchange conspiracy of Pittsburgh, of 
Judge Harlan of the United States 
Supreme Court Betting as'de Judge Jen- 
kins' decision. 

Then there is Attorney General 01 ney's 
opinion as to the organization of Reading 
Railroad employees and the report of the 
United States Strike Commission as to 
the Pullman strike — all in the favor of 
Organized Labor. 

Added to this count the great strikes 
of the coal miners, of the Chicago rail- 
road men, of the North-western Kail- 1 
road men, of the Fall River cotton 
operators, and countless other straight, 
stand up fights against lower wages. 
Surely the labor movement In America 
is making history at a rapid rate. 

How the Moseyed Conspiracy lias 
Worked General Disaster. 

The year 1893 according to all financial 
authorities, was the most disastrous in 
50 years to all industrial interests of the 
country. That ie to say it was the worst 
ever experienced in the United States. 
The year started with wide prosperity 
and an enormous volume of trade. But 
in Jane, 1893, came the crash of banks, 
the wreckage ot railroads and general 
financial collapse, stagnation in trade, 
great decline In prices with reduced pro- 
duction and widespread lack of employ- 
ment and excruciatiig misery and dis- 
tress among wage workers. 

Then followed a constant drain or gold 
from the United States Treasury to meet 
payment of securities abroad and gold 
dividends on investments held by Euro- 
pean capitalists, with a constantly de- 
creasing revenue to the Government and 
the menacing danger of a deficit. This 
was the game and conspiracy of our 
money mongers in Wall street to force 
the Government to issue interest-bearing 
bonds. And profitably and well th«b- 
game has worked, until they have the 
Government by the throat and the 
pockets and industrial resources of the 
people in their* clutches. 

Meanwhile, in 1803, there were 15,650 
business failures— 50 per cent, more 
numerous than the previous year and 400 
per cent, greater in volume ; 241 

suspended — many of them national 
banks. Seventy- four railroads went into 
the hands of receivers, comprising 1*3,000 
raileB of road and involving 1,051 mil- 
lions of capital. Twenty -four per cent, of 
the entire railroad mileage of the country 
is nov in charge of receiver. 

In the money market there has been 
the widest extreme of stringency and 
plethora. Until the latter part of August 
there was an extraordinary stringency. 
The banks lost three hundred millions of 
depoBita. Call money commanded as 
high as 1 per cent, and interest. Time 
money was practically unobtainable tor 
a long time, and commercial paper ruled 
at 12 to 15 per cent. The New York 
banks issued about forty millions of loan 
certificates, and thus averted a terrific 
commercial smash. Gold began to be 
hoarded, and then all kinds of money 
and currency was unobtainable except at 
a premium. But with an abatement of 
the panic, and with an eitraordinary 
liquidation and reduction in business 
operations, the deposits of the banks 
have enormously increased. 

The year 1894 has shown very Blight 
betterment of conditions only here and 
there with some small subsidence of 
financial disasters and bankruptcies. 

The outflow of gold still continues, and 
the money mongers still demand the 
issue of more interest-bearing bonds. 
The American people are being lolled 
into a quiescent indifference to the fan- 
cied financial security of a gold standard 
under the blissful syrenic teachings of 
the daily press. 

But amid all, the true American patri- 
ots who love the public welfare more 
than private gain, are on the watch- 
towers of public opinion and are arousing 
the people to the real danger. And 
whether true financial reform and the 
inauguration of a scientific American 
currency is now defeated or postponed, 
the American people will never rest con- 
tent until the power of the moneyed 
conspirators in Wall Btreet is over- 
thrown, and the sovereign right of the 
Government to be the sole source of issue 
of all currency is irrevocably established. 

We are hopeful for the yeer 1895. The 
daybreak of sanguine intelligence has 
ushered in abundant promisee of a better 
season after spring has fully opened. 
And, with a change tcr the better in gen- 
eral trade and with financial security 
more prevalent, there will be a rousing 
revival of all trade and labor organiza- 
tions. Get ready, for the long night of 
despair will pass, and with its disappear- 
ance will come the mid-day sun of a more 
general prosperity and an awakening ot 
the working people. 

Ten New Unions and Seven 

Of late the following new unions have 
been granted charters, viz. : Union No. 
254, W. Palm Beach Fla. ; 250, Belt, 
Mont; 281, Indian ol|g Iiid. (a con- 
solidation of several Indiana pollsUnlone) ; 
308, Newark, N. J-; 309, New York City 
(cabinetmakers); 310, Terrell, Tex.; iitfO, 
Kalispel, Mont. , 381, Kalamazoo, Mich.; 
370, Lenox, Mass. ; and ;i75, New York 
City (house Cramers). 

The following lapsed anions have been 
reorganized, viz. : Union 174, Grand 
Forks, N.Dak.; 387, Flatbush, N. Y. ; 
401, Franklin, Pa.; 529, Rogers Park, 
111., 548, Town of Union, N. J.; H28, Chi- 
cago, III., and 719, Huntingdon, W. Va. 

HiLL»Boao, Tax — Contractors in this 
place made an endeavor to return to 
the 10-hour day. Bat Union 711 
np and prevented it. 

The Quarterly Circular sent oat by 
the G. S. with the password early last 
month to the locals has been highly 
praised. For it has had splendid effect 
and has aroused the bulk of the Locals 
to a live, aggressive activity. Public 
meetings are being arranged, and a 
general stirring np along the whole line 
has been provoked. 

Naw Constitutions are now ready. 
Cost, $5 per hundred, or 5 cents each in 
any quantity. Bend in your orders to 
the G, S T. 

I >ur I -oca i. Unions last month in more 
than half the cities andei our jurisdiction 
weredisplaying a healthy growth in mem- 
bership and a general lively revival of 

Ones every three month b the Trustees 
of the Locale should call in the cards of 
the members and compare them with the 
cash book and ledger. It would keep 
accounts etraight and prevent fraud and 

Meeting of the General Executive 

The new General Executive Board held 
a nine days' session last month at the 
General (Mice in this city, beginning 
January 7 and adjourning January 
16, Much general business of import- 
ance was attended to, and the books and 
accounts of the General Office for the 
preceding Bix months were thoroughly 
examined, audited and found cor reef in 
every particular. 

The new bond of General Secretary- 
Treasurer P. J. McGuire, for |iW,000 was 
examined and accepted, as it is furnished 
by the same Indemnity, Trust and Surety 
Company which baa been bis bondee for 
years. Inasmuch ss the general vote on 
the new amendments to tbs Constitution 
has combined the two otlices of General 
Secretary and General Treasurer, P. J. 
McGuire now becomes the General Secre- 

The new Constitution as amended in 
various particulars, went into effect Jan- 
uary 14, 1896, per decision of General 
President Owens and the G. E. B. at this 
meeting. All the newly elected members 
of the G. E, B. were present. The pro- 
ceedings will be published in detail in 
next month's Cabi'S-nt**. 

The next meeting of the Board will be 
held April 1, 1895, at the General Office, 
124 N. 9th street, Philadelphia. Owing 
to election of this Board late in Sep- 
tember at the Indianapolis Convention 
September 25, 1895, the regular quarterly 
meeting early in October had been dis- 
pensed with by vote of the G. K. B. at 
their special meeting, September 28, 

of Eighth General Convention 
of the U. B., held at Indian- 
apolis, Ind , are now ready. 
Price, five cents. Send orders 
to P. J. McGUIRE, 

P. O. Box, 884, 
• Phila.Pa, 

Appeals and Agitation Cards. 
Good reading for Non-Union 

Furnished Locals free. Let 
your R. S. write the Gen. Sec, 
for them. 


General Officers 

or tiir 

United Brotherhood or Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

General President.— CI iwa K. Owens , Westchei- 
ter, WiMtchciiter do., N. Y. 

General Hecrelary Treasurer— P. J. McUdibje, 
Box 881, Philadelphia. Pa. 


First Vice-Preaident- Henry Gale, 330 W. Ver- 
mont at, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Second Vice President- I*»uls E. Tossey, 601 
Lar.iod »t.. East,- Detroit, Mich. 


{All correspondence for tbe tl , E, H must be 
mailed to the General Secretary.) 

W, J. Shields, 10 Cheshire St., Janmlea Plain, 

8. J Kent. 2018 8. St., Lincoln. Nt h. 

J. Williams, 31 Hptlnj? si., Ullca, N V. 

A. CaUermull, B'JH S. Halstead st , ChleaRo, HI. 

Jos. G. Gernet, 181 Foot Ave., Bellevue, Ky. 

All A lion. 

A man without country is he who in born ; 
In a nation where from htm bin htrthrfifht Is 

Hy a law that deprives him of IhuiI or, of leave 
To earn what tin- sweat of hi* brow should 


A Few Maxims. 

Keep cool. 

Stand by the organization of your 
craft ; it will Bland by you in times of 
adversity . 

Pay fair duea, the higher the better ; 
fair dues create a defence fund that will 
stand between you and an avaricious 
employer in dull times. 

Establish an out-of-work benefit in 
all labor organizations ; it enables the 
members to live daring times of indus- 
trial depression without being forced by 
hunger to take one another's jobs, and 
assists to retain the membership. 

Labor organizations with high dues 
and out-of-work benefits maintain both 
the wa*es and the membership during 
industrial stagflation. 

Labor organizations that depend upon 
enthusiasm and blufl find themselves 
bankrupt during times of commercial and 
industrial inactivity. 

A member's duties in a labor organisa- 
tion do not end with tbe payment of the 
regular dues ; all members should attend 
the meetings of the union, where all 
anion business should be transacted, 
street corners are not the places to 
transact the boBitiess of the union. 

Never condemn a fellow -member until 
he has a trial and a chance to defend 
himself. A character assassin is the 
meanest man on earth. 

Do not be too ready to believe all you 
read in the so-called plutocratic press 
about strikes and the men who manage 

Subscribe tor, support, and read the 
labor papers. 

Do not believe that so-and-BO is crooked 
simply because Borne hair-brained bla- 
therskite told you so , demand the proof, 
if it is not forthcoming brand the sland- 
erer as a character aBsaBsin, and avoid 
him as you would a plague, lie doss 
mors tnjnry and 1b more dangerous to 
le labor movement than small-pox is to 

Study carefully the records of the two 
»ld parties and men— and their motives 
rhe manage tbem. If you find they 
not mindful of your beet interests, 
[ hare enacted legislation and mea- 
ln the interests of the c 
Hess of tbe masses, manfully 
aside and fearlessly vote for the 
or party whom you believe to be 

Jse all means; use both the labor 
lomic organization and tbe ballot to 
the best interests of 

War Among the Carpenters of Chicago. 

Chicago, III. — At the Indianapolis 
Convention of the U. B. of Carpenters 
last September a statement of troubles of 
our D. C. in that city with the Amalga- 
mated and K. of L. carpenters was pre- 

It shows ; Borne years ago before District 
Councils were organized in the V B-, the 
Knights of Labor carpenters and the 
Brolherhod were about equal in strength 
in Chicago. The Amalgamated Society 
of Carpenters likewise bad branches in 
Chicago. To harmonize the whole, a 
council was formed called the United 
Carpenters' Council. This council had 
more power than that given to our D. 

C. 'b, as assessments could be levied and 
strikes ordered without consulting with 
the Locate affiliated ; the trade rules and 
initiation fee was uniform and made 
therein. Finally a D, C. of the United 
Brotherhood was established in 1888, but 
as a matter of fact it had no jurisdiction, 
and was always subservient to the United 
Carpenters' Council. 

As time went on, the U. B.,as a matter 
of course, gradually absorbed both of 
these organizations until the year 1K92 
when, on January 1, the total strength 
of tho K. of L. was 171, and that of the 
Amalgamated about 157, whilst the 
U. B. had a membership of 4,000. Our 

D. C, by virtue of this change, began to 
assume its proper position, and it gradu- 
ally became apparent that the U. B. 
would eventually control the interests nf 
the carpenters in the Chicago district. 
That fact was also apparent to tbe other 
rival organizations. From that time 
every act of theirs showed their hitter 
opposition to us. 

It must be borne in mind that at this 
time thousands of dollars were being paid 
into the United Carpenters' Council 
every quarter by tbe U. B., the rate 
being about twenty-two dollars to one 
dollar paid in by the others. As tbe 
funds were expended for the benefit of 
all three organizations, including the 
work of organization, and at one time 
also for the payment of strike benefit, it 
will be readily Been that whilst being an 
expensive institution to keep up tbe 
United Carpenters' Council gave tbe 
Knights and Amalgamated Carpenters 
all the benefits possible to be obtained 
through a powerful organization like 
ours, although the K. of L. did not pay 
as much dues as our members, and the 
Amalgamated, although paying more, 
the largest percentage of it went toward 
special benefits and consequently not 
contributing in any way toward tbe 
expense of forcing up the wsges, as for 
instance, they paid a superannuation 
benefit, etc, and whilst making tbe dues 
higher did not advance wages one cent. 
Finally the condition became such that 
legislation in the United Carpenters' 
Council became impossible, as both the 
organisations named repeatedly refused 
to be governed by the majority, and after 
six months' useless effort on our part, 
and the rejection of several reasonable 
proposals from us, on their part, we 
finally adjourned the U. CC. tine die by 
virtue of our majority therein. 

We bad in the meantime become 
afli Haled with the Building Trades Coun- 
cil, the laws of which provide that only 
one organization of each trade shall be 
recognized, the result of which was that 
the K. of L. and Amalgamated could ob- 
tain no working cards unless taken out 
through out D C- To meet this condi- 
tion, we, in the interest of harmony, pro- 
posed to supply the cards to them at the 
same price charged to us and without our 
name being printed .nereon. 

This proposition was treated with con- 
tempt, the answer be'ng that If they 
could not get their cards from the United 
Carpenters' Council they wonld do with- 

known to even quarrel with any 
The only cause of his assassination was 
that as three carpenters came out from 
work in tbe building he recognized one 
as an old-time acquaintance and called 
out he wished to speak to them and went 
alone toward tbem to persuade them to 
desist from scabbing, when one of them, 
John Kem perm an, of the K. of L , drew 
a pistol and shot tbe old man. 

Besides this cowardly murder warrants 
were sworn out and several of our mem- 
bers arrested for intimidation, assault 
and conspiracy. The costs of defending 
our men as arrested, of defending injunc- 
tion suits, of prosecuting murderers, and 
paying stri ks benefits has cost thousands 
of dollars. But i n this fight our Chicago 
Locals and the General Office have 
responded liberally. 

Slavery ot Two Kinds. 

out any. We then withdrew the offer, 
and onr position now is, tbat if tbey 
want a card they can have it by paying 
tbe same as our own members pay for it, 
providing, that they comply with onr 
working rules as laid down by tbe D. C, 
including a uniform initiation fee as Bet 
by tbe D. C. 

About the end of last July an injunc- 
tion was granted by Judge Horner, of the 
Circuit Court of Chicago, preventing the 
Bnilding Trade Council or tbe D- C. from 
interfering in any way with their mem- 
bers on any job through their business 

The result of this was that in the 
month of August the president of the 
D. C, Bro. A. Cattermull, was cited to 
appear before tbe conrt along with two 
of bis assistants, H. Martin and F. Austin, 
to show cause wby they should not be 
committed to jail for contempt of conrt, 
this was followed np by the president of 
the Building Trades Council being cited 

On these occasions the utmoBt endeavor 
was made by them to have the above- 
named committed to jail for contempt of 
court, and it was only by retaining good 
counsel that we were able to give them a 
set-back from time to time, as we wished 
the legality of the injunction tested first, 
which was difficult, as most of the judges 
were on their vacation and only one was 
sitting to test emergency cases. Finally, 
however, we got a hearing before Judge 
Hanecy, who, after hearing some of the 
argument on both sides, decided to set 
final hearing for September 27th, and 
entering an order at the same time 
against their citing any more of our offi- 
cers or business agents in tbe meantime. 

The joint membership of both of these 
organizations on July 1st, last, was about 
450, whilbt our membership waa 5,500 in 
the U. 8., or about a total of over 6,000 

Prior to the adjournment of the United 
Carpenters' Council, they had violated 
every rule in existence in this district ; 
they had taken ex-members of our unions 
at one dollar per head, and in some cases 
as much as they could get out of tbe ap- 
plicant, whilst our regular fee was 1 10,00 
and wonld have been f25 00, if they had 
not taken euch a course. 

To-day tbey are working with stabs 
for any rate of wages, and have re- 
peatedly ofiered to supply all men needed 
in cases where we have bad strikes, for 
thirty cents per hour, while the union 
rate is thirty-five. 

Growing ont of this state ot affairs in 
Chicago, two men have lost their lives 
during tbe strike on tbe Marquette 
Building. Mr. Dovl«, of the Plumbers' 
Union, was shot one day, and shortly 
after Bso. Donald Geceb, of Carpenters' 
Union No. 28, met bis death by a pistol 
shot from a Knights of Labor carpenter, 
named John Kemperman. 

Tbe strike on the Marquette Building 
grew out of a violation of trade rules of 
the Ktectrical Workers' Union by tbe 
Fuller Construction Company. After 
investigation the Building Trades Coun- 
cil of Chicago called ont the union men of 
all trades employed on the building. Tbe 
Amalgamated men refused to come out, 
and after we bad ordered our men out in 
sympathy with the other building trades, 
they made a deal with the employers to to market fifteen pounds of cotton tbat 
supply Amalgsmated men to take tbe'rhave cost him 11.80 to make— and gets it. 

Yes, there is a difference between the 
great American freeman who works for 
wages, and the chattel slavery of long 


The master had to feed, clothe and care 
for tbe slave whether he had work or not. 
They don't have to do tbat with the 
wags slave. The master bad to bunt up 
slaves and buy them. Tbe wage slaves 
hunt up a master and offer themselves 
for a bare existence. 

Tbe black slave was put up to the high- 
eat bidder. The wage slave puts himself 
up, and underbids his fellows for tbe 
privilege of work. 

The black slave never bad any fear of 
want. The wage slave lives in continued 
dread of it. 

Tbe slave had a permanent job at a 
certain price. The wage slave never has 
a permanent job, and at an ever decreas- 
ing pay. 

The black sla ve waa seldom overworked 
to his injury. The wage slave ie habitu- 
ally worked to the utmost, regardless of 
health. The black slave was never forced 
to imperil bis life in battle— tbe master 
did the fighting. The wage slave is hired 
to go out and get shot when the employ- 
ers have a difficulty. 

Yes, there is a difference, but altogether 
in the favor of chattel slavery - 

Great, free Americans ! Well, just a 

few.— Coming Nation. 

places of our men. These Amalgamated 
men, as fast as they went to work, were 
sworn in as special police and armed with 
revolvers, and were under orders to 
shoot. Finally, on December 4, laat, 
Donald Gauss, an old man aged 66, a 
member of Carpenters' Union No. 28, and 
formerly a member of the Amalgamated 
Society, was shot three times, through 
the lungs, shoulder and back, which re- 
salted fatally next day - Thia was a cold- 
Gruer waa 

What They Want. 

Colorado can produce a gold dollar tor 
twenty-two cents. It will probably pro- 
duce upwards of twenty millions of them 
this year for less than twenty cents 


Tbe " intrinsic value" idiot will find 
much to set him thinking in the above 
truthful statement. 

Speaking of "gold dollars with a dol- 
lar's worth of gold in them," we cannot 
resist the temptation to roast the old 
parly fanatics who rote to enslave them- 
selves through the "honest dollar" 

•«I want a dollar that la worth a dol- 
lar, "shouts the fool farmer, and he hauls 
two bushels of wheat to market that have 
coat him #1.40 to produce-and he gets 

" I want a dollar tbat is worth a dol- 
lar," shouts the silly planter, and ha carta 

"I want an honest dollar," howls the 
laboring man, and he does $3.00 worth of 
work— and gets it. 

" I want an honest dollar," shrieks 
the hide- bound merchant, and he adver- 
tises his goods at panic prices— and gets 

" I want tbe earth and all that Is on 
It," says the money-owner, and ha 
quickly makes his notes and 
payable in gold— and ha 



( Ihit Department it open for our readers 
and members to ditcuss all phase* of the 
labor problem. 

Correspondent* should vmte ononesiU of 
(he paper only. 

Matter (orjnihticalion mast be in this office 
by the t6th of t)ie month preiious to issue.) 

A Socialist's flews. 

Editor of Thk Carpenter, 

DON'T know if Mr. 

Hugh McGreg- 
|lj or is one of the 
' special writers 
of the Carpen- 
ters' journal 
who gets paid 
for his articles, 
but if he is he 
gate his pay 
from a class of 
people who 
should not pay for delusive articles, such 
as he writeB for The Carpenter, in hie 
"Rough Sketch of a Rough Straggle," 
which takes up Borne five columns of our 
worthy paper every month now for over 
a year, which is very lengthy and tire- 
some reading, and a jjreat many members 
don't even read any more. 

In the last number of September he 
started out, like all capitalist newspapers 
do, who are either muzzled or subsidized 
by can it a list or religious classes, which 
two latter classes go band in hand in the 
way of diverting the attention of the 
wag o -slaves from the main issue. He 
compares the socialists and economists 
with the anarchists, which appears to 
me that be must be a paid agent of the 
capitalist classes to do so, so that I sup 
pose he is too intelligent a man not to 
know the diflerence between socialist 
economists and anarchists. And if he 
don't know the difference I should advise 
him to stop writing his old history and 
study up the new. 

The socialists and economists want the 
function of government extended so that 
the government, or in other words the 
people, shall own and control all indus- 
tries, and that all industries shall he con 
ducted in tbe most economic way possible 
on a co operative basis, under wbich ail 
citizens, male and female, shall be equal 
share-owners and have a voice in all mat 
ters of importance , while the anarchists 
want no government or laws at all, but 
simply industrial freedom without any 
restriction whatever. So the men who 
try to pot these two different theories to- 
gether, which are as much opposed to 
each other at fire and water, most he 
either fools or knaves and a paid capitalist 
tool to do so. He says M as tbe socialists, 
economists and anarchists all combine in 
these days with the political labor lead- 
ers to divert the minds of the workers 
from the idea of the trade union as one 
permanent and independent whole, so 
toward the close of tbe middle sgen did 
the military, legal and commercial classes 
combine with the self-seeking members 
of the manufacturing class to subvert the 
trade unions and betray municipal lib- 
erty. Then, ae now, grave dangers 
threatened the integrity of the onions 
from without, and then, ae now, the 
most dangerous enemies to the voluntary 
organization of labor were to be found 
within the unionB. The eons of the three 
thousand trades unionists who died de- 
fending 'the red banner of London, em- 
blazoned with the figure of St,raul,"' 

It appears to me that Mr. Hugh 
McGregor can't be anything but an anti- 
socialist economist or a paid knave of 
the capitalist classes, as a writer in a 
labor paper, to prejudice the producer 

of all social wealth against their best 
friends; as he must know better than to 
state that socialists and economists divert 
the inindB of the workers from the idea of 
trade unions. The socialist may advocate 
independent political action on the pari 
of labor, and even call the trade union 
pure and simple," but it is not pure 
and simple. Look at the last thirty years 
of trade unionism and you will find that 
thirty years ago something like 75 per 
cent, of this country's wealth was in the 
hands of the common people and LV> per 
cent, in the hands of the capitalist,while 
to-day it is the reverse. A few capitalists 
are now in possession of 75 per CBnt. of 
all tbe wealth of the country and 25 per 
cent, in the hands of the sixty-five to 
seventy millions of people, besidesa pub- 
lic and private debt or over thirty billions 
of dollars. This being a fact, can Mr. 
Hugh McGregor with candor say that 
trade unionism is a success? I doubt 
not trade unions have done a great deal 
of good in the way of education, reduc- 
ing the hours of labor, and raising wages 
wherever it conld, but it has not kept 
pace with modern capitalism, in wbich ie 
now the great danger to the trade unions, 
but not the socialist. And any can- 
did man wonld not charge socialists and 
economists with diverting the minds of 
the workers from tbe idea of the trade 
union, but, on the contrary, all socialist 
papers and writers do all they possibly 
can to make workers of all kinds join tbe 
respective unions of their craft. 

The socialists all over the world are in 
favor of trade unionB and help them in 
their struggle against the capitalist class, 
the robbers of the fruits of labor, as all 
capital is the pro duct, of labor. The so- 
cialists in St. Louis are helping the strik- 
ing brewers and all other labor anions. 
The socialist* in France, Germany, Eng- 
land and Belgium and all other countries 
are helping the trade unions as much as 
they possibly can. 

I suppose Mr. Hugh McGregor has 
never read tbe platform of tbe Socialist 
Labor Party of the United Stateo of 
America, or he would not make such ad 
missions as he made in The Carpentrr. 
I refer him to the social demands No. 5 
—"legal incorporation by ihe States of 
local trade unions which bave no national 
organization." Is that diverting the 
workers' minds from trade unions or 
drawing their minds to it V 

As to tbe socialist combining with tbe 
military, legal and commercial classes, 
would be another admission of nonsense, 
as socialists all over the world make 
demonstrations against militariim, and 
call them the lazy dragged of the sabre 
and wholesale murderers and assassins, 
and expose the fraud of the commercial 
classes of to-day, and show that all 
commerce and trading is only general 
cheating, buying the product of labor at 
one price and selling it at another with- 
out adding any value to the commod ities, 
like, for instance, when a merchant buys 
goods for 100 dollars, he sells these same 
goods, without adding to their value, for 
110 to 120 dollars, according tot what the 
goods are. 

I think if Mr. Hugh McGregor bad 
studied "Capital," by Carl Marx, and 
some other books on political economy, 
and written his articles upon economy, 
they would be a good deal more interest- 
ing and pertaining to the readers of the 
end of the nineteenth century, and his 
time and talent would have a great deal 
more value and have done more good 
then it has by looking back to the 
eleventh and thirteenth centuries, to 
ecclesiastical action, to Edward I and 
Edward II, to kings and rulers, to Crcmr 
and Rome and Italy, and Church and 
clergy and matrimony ; to the dignity of 
e solemn sacrament --t the Pope and St 
John the Baptist and St. Mary, and the 
Church alone preserving the Latin lan- 

guage ae a barrier to barbarism and con- 
serve a universal medium for tbe dissem- 
scinitiation of knowledge. 

Look at the people who come from the 
couutrieB where the Church baa pre- 
served the Latin language, and Bee it 
they are less barbarians and have more 
knowledge than others, and you may find 
the contrary. 

And for a just rate of interest on 
money, which don't exist, as interest on 
money is usury, nnd usury ?s robbery, 
and robbery is unlawful, by either natu- 
ral laws or human-made laws. 

He also refers to the devil, which I 
should like to know what animal that is 
—if the devil is one of God's creatures. 
I suppose the devil must be a good fellow, 
as a good God would certainly make no 
bad or unhappy beings. 

But now, when Mr. McGregor finds 
out that the delegatee to the eighth gen- 
eral convention of the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America have recommended the discus- 
sion of political economy to the local 
anions, I suppose he wilt go for them as 
had as for the socialists, economists and 
anarchiBts, or may be more, as he may 
have thought that he had some control 
over them with bis articles in- The Car- 
i'bntsh. But Mr. Hugh McGregor is not 
going to stop the wheel of progress, with 
all bis nonsense, by saying that we are 
to-day bo blinded by tbe cant of political 
economy on the subject of supply and 
demand that we allow manufacturing 
rings to charge what they please for the 
work of transforming raw material into 
consumable articles ; and we allow the 
commercial class to make corners to ex- 
tort unlimited Bains for tbe necessaries of 
life from a vast unorganized and econ- 
omically disfranchised mass, who are 
never tired of bragging of their freedom, 

I think Mr. Hugh McGregor don't 
know anything about political economy, 
or he would not call it cant ; and, if he 
does, he can't be but an enemy of the 
human race, or a paid tool in the hands 
of the capitalists. 

What the workers the producers of 
all Bouial wealth, want to day is, not so 
much to know tbe past, as what is past 
cannot be changed now; but they want 
to know what to do at preeent to better 
the deplorable condition they are now 
in ; to get rid of the competitive system, 
and to get rid of their oppressors and 
deluders of all kinds. 

Ed. Arvaelbtkkn. 

Uni'm .132, Los Angela, Cat. 

Mr. McGregor's Reply fo ArnnHstcen. 

Editor of Tns Cahpenteb : 

EALLY 1 am in- 
debted to you (or 
knowledge of ft 
recent criticism 
of "A Rough 
Sketch ot a 
lib n g h Strug- 
gle " contained 
In ft letter by 
Edward Arnsel- 
etcen and would 
ask the favor to make as brief a reply 
thereto ae the nature of the subject will 

A perusal of the letter in question 
shows that it consists of an accusation, a 
criticism and an assertion ; an accuse 
tion of the present writer's motives, 
« criticism of the historical method em- 
ployed by him, and an assent on that the 
Socialist party is favorable to the trade 

You will permit me, 1 trust, to pass over 
in silense the accusation referred to, be- 
cause it is unsupported by proof, and 
becausesucbdrftg.net accusations, how- 
ever much they may be in 

socialist custom, are foreign to the 
fraternal spirit of trade unionism and 
revolting to the traditions of judicial 
fairness etill cherished by the American 

Regarding our brother's criticism of the 
historical method ot social investigation 
allow me a tew words. I am not so dull 
as to be unaware how " tedious " it is to 
those persons who are prepared with an 
infallible remedy for the several evils 
which aillict society to be compelled to 
listen to a recital of tbe previous condi- 
tions which have produced those evils. 
I am aware that such an investigation 
must be tedious to those who have 
reached the limit of social knowledge ; 
to those who allege that the trade union 
is only a transient form of organization, 
a necessary evil at the best, if not a 
positive obstacle to progress, to be im- 
posed on by an ;impru<lent attempt to 
prove that the trade union is a perma- 
nent social initiation with a policy of 
its own ; a policy naturally and spon- 
taneously springing out of its past 
history, and not one fabricated by pro- 
fessors, politicians, or zukuntt hilders of 
Bny kind. It cannot be otherwise than 
that men of all sects and schools who 
keep to the ancient practice of judging 
social institutions from the point of view 
of their own minds, instead of from 
that of the race, should detest that his- 
torical method which exposes the worth - 
lessnesB of their cherished antiquated 
method. It cannot be otherwise than 
that political labor Jeaders, with their 
limited stock of selected quotations war- 
ranted to offend none but the " bloated 
capitalist," should dread that method 
which proves that the labor question ie 
inseparably intertwined with the deepest 
moral problems and cannot be settled on 
economic grounds alone. And it cannot 
be otherwise than that those socialists 
who regard with disfavor all attempts to 
indicate any road to social peace which 
does not proceed by way of a social revo- 
lution should hate and despise tbat 
method which substitutes explanation 
for class hatred, and paves the way for 
conciliation] instead of anarchy or des- 

In regard to the 1th ird point of oar 
brother's letter, I mast admit it is possi- 
ble that, the Socialist party is favorable 
to the trade union in a certain sense, just 
as tbe lying down together of the lion 
and the lamb ie possible in a similar 
sense, bat tbe trade union is not willing 
to-day, ami will be more unwilling in the 
future, to play the part of the lamb , 
whether the political lion has capitalistic 
or socialistic claws- 

What is tbe record of tbe Socialist 
party which, from its platform and in 
every one of ite sheets, so arrogantly 
demands the submission of the trwde 
union to its dictation ? 

The practical economic influence ot 
the Socialist party may be easily seen by 
those who bave eyes to Bee and the 
capacity to reason from cause to effect 
and vice versa. But a single comparison 
may not be out of place. The trade 
union, founded on tbe free allegiance of 
the more intelligent and unselfish work- 
ers, naturally reflects the best aspirations 
and develops the moat vigorous collective 
action of which the trade is capable 
under certain given conditions. These 
conditions are not always as favorable as 
they might be, And they are certainly 
not improved when inside and outside of 
the union we find men, perverted by de- 
lusive social theories, who, in their 
fanaticism, denounce the union as im- 
potent. Bat these fanatical theorists, 
even those who refuse to perform their 
duty to the union, cannot deny tbe 
union's great prestige, for many of tbe 
latter class, while blatantly proclaiming 
tbe impotence of the trade union In 
general, are found carrying the cards of 



Imitation (billige and schlect) unions, 
thinly disguised under the specious but 
false title ot " progressive " 

The political influence of the Socialist 
party is alto obstructive to trade 
onion progress and chiefly because of 
the illusory hopes it generates in 
credulous minds of an immediate eola- 
tion of the labor question by State aid. 
How alight is the basie of such hopes 
becomes apparent when we recognize that 
in the thirty years since the first organ- 
ization of the Socialist party, under the 
name of the International Working- 
man's Association, the concessions gained 
by labor have been in a direct ratio to 
the strength of the trade union and in 
an inverse ratio to the strength of the 
Socialist party in each country. 

Presuming that the trade union knows 
what it wants and is capable of express- 
ing those wants in articulate speech, the 
political influence of the Socialist party 
is doubly obstructive because it imposes 
a clique of Fabians professing to be the 
genuine exponents of working clase 
opinion not only on the bona fide repre- 
sentatives of the trade union in conven- 
tion assembled, but also on the public 
wishing light on the subject of labor's 
actual claims. Under this head it would 
be well to note that Mr. George Shipton, 
honse painter, and secretary of the Inter- 
national Trade Union Congress held in 
London in 1880, reported to that con- 
vention that "no delegates have ever 
been proposed by Germany or Austria 
who have at any time been workmen or 
members of trade onions. 11 

The political influence of the Socialist 
party also tends to divert the minds of 
the workere from the fruitful labor of 
building op the living organism of the 
trade union by calling on them to engage 
in the barren and hopeless task of re- 
arranging the dry bones of the expiring 
miliUry-legal Stat*. 

The political influence of the Socialist 
party is also strikingly manifested in 
the division of a multitude, who might 
and should be among the most active 
defenders of the union, into two bitterly 
hostile and mutually counteracting fac- 
tions. Since the convention of the 
International Workingman's Aeaociation 
held in 1872 at the Hague, those factions 
bave made the trade union their battle 
Held and recruiting ground and each 
succeeding year has seen the fratricidal 
strife aasume even wider proportioi 
onttl at the last Trade Union Congress at 
Zurich the three first days were spent 
in fighting and the remaining time was 
spent in gloating, or brooding over the 
resnlt of the miserable contest. This 
insane struggle between the fanatical 
factions of Marx and Bakounin affords 
no hope that reconciliation or any 
decisive victory is possible, because each 
faction day by day accentuates its 
differences ; the one faction ever becom 
ing more arbitrary and intolerant, tbe 
other faction ever becoming more reck 
less and ungovernable. Tbe tendency 
of the Marx faction is thus summed op 
by one of its own sections known as the 
" Jnngen :" they ssy that "the chiefs 
of the Social Democratic party, who are 
idolized beyond measure by their credo- 
loot companions, have so corrupted the 
old movement of the proletariat that it 
has degenerated into a mere parliamen 
tary policy of reform, which is in itself 
ridiculous. " Tb e Bakounin faction is cer 
sly not open to any such charge of 
lidity if we may judge from the text 
[its " Revolutionary Catechism " which 
lys: "While we permit no other 
ptivity than that of destruction, we 
aire that the form in which this 
ivityis exercised maybe manifold; 
son, the dagger, the rope, all alike 
e hallowed by the spirit of revolo- 

with America who had tbe misfortune to 
be present last winter at the immense 
mass meeting called for the benefit of the 
unemployed of New York, at Madfeon 
Square Garden, and witnessed tbe organ- 
ized mob attack of the Socialist Labor 
Party upon the trade onion speakers 
there. The scenes and sounds of that 
night can never fade from the memory 
ot fall to rekindle the blush upon the 
the cheek of any who were there, and 
had ever boasted of the American regard 
for free speech, or had the least spark of 
regard for public decency ; nor will they 
ever more be in doubt of the attitude of 
the Socialist party to tbe trade union. 

And now I will draw my reply to a 
close, hoping our brother will receive it 
In kindness, and as. the result of many 
years experience ot the labor movement, 
gathered in many a city from the bloe 
waters of the Adriatic to where the mas- 
sive Bockiea lift their snowy creata from 
the broad plains of the West. There is 
much in the future that appears obscure 
and perplexing to my unassisted vision, 
but relying on the common sense of the 
great mass of my fellow workers to de- 
fend the integrity of the trade onion I 
feel that the emancipation of the 
working class by the working class itself 
is assured. The conviction that the 
trade union is the natural rallying 
point of the workere, that the trade 
union is the only institution wherein 
the workers can effectually organize 
their collective power ; that the trade 
union is and ever will be necessary to 
insure the workers against tbe sufferings 
resulting from tbe accidents and tbe 
failing powers of life, to determine tbe 
continually recurring questions of tbe 
hours, wages and condition of labor ; and 
to peaceably solve the difficult social pro- 
blems which from time to time present 
tbemselveB to every civilized community 
is a conviction that grows with every 
hour and deepens with the increasing 
experience ot the laboring masses. 

The history of each trade union struggle 
to dt fend its existence and to realize an 
ever wider and higher nnity is day by 
day revealing to our eonciousneas and 
continually deepening oar sense of a vast 
collective development of working class 
energy, intellect and devotion, ever more 
assuming an organic unity of purpose 
ever more completely blending in one 
the best aspirations of every rice and 
century and increasing by forming that 
grand influence which moulds the lives 
of a vast multitude of workers to-d*" 
and must ultimately shape the life of 
nations and societies. 

I Iran McGrigob. 
Nm York City, December, 1894. 

No one will ask what all this has to do 

Things to be Remembered. 

Tunic* month* to arreere subject* * member to 
ose of benefits. 

flTHM'Y attendance at the 

and Interest to the Union. 


Mimbsm goln 
provided with a 

off to Another cfty should be 
j card. 

auld be under bonds and 

the bonds riled with 1 

Trustees' reports should be prepared semi- 
annually and forwarded to the Q. 8. Blanks are 
furnished free for that purpose. 

Am. changes In Secretaries shout d be promptly 
reported to the G. H. , and name and address oi 
the new Secretary should be forwarded. 

Orqaiwr the Carpenters In the unorganized 
towns In your vicinity, or wherever you may go! 
Hold public meeting* or social festivals at stated 
occasions ; tbey will add to tbe strength of your 

T.ettbbs for tbe General Office should be 
written on olHcal note paper and bear the seal 
of tbe Local Union. Don't write letters to the 
Q 8. on monthly report blanks, as such oommu- 
■e not In 

A LI. Moneys received by the G. 8. one month 
are published in tbe next month's Journal 
Moneys received can not be published In this 
journal the same month they are received. It 
takes some time to make up the report and put 
It Into type. 

Thi only safe way to send money Is by 
Office Money Order or by Blank Check or Draft 
as required by tbe Constitution. The G. S. la 
not reponnlble for money sent in any other way. 
Don't aend loose cash or postage stamps in pay 
- for any bill due the Q. ft 

Eight Hoar Cities. 

la a list of the cities and towns 
earpentera make tt a rule to work only 
hour* a day : 

Alameda, Oal. 
Ashland, Wis. 
Austin, III. 
Berkeley, Oal. 
Bessemer. Col. 
Brighton Park, 111. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Oerondelet, Mo, 
Ohioago, 111. 
Chicago Heights, 111. 
Denver, Col. 
Rest St. Louis, 111. 
tt nglewood, 111. 
Evanstoti. 11L 
Fremont, Col. 
Grand Crossing, III. 
Highland Park, HI. 
Hyde Park, III. 
Indianapolis, IndL 
Kensington, III. 
Los Angeles, Oal. 
Maaor Htatlon, Pa. 
Maywood, 111. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
w. «— ..-.n Ind. 

Horeland, 111. 
Lynn, I" 


Murphysboro, III. 
New York, N. Y. 
Oakland, Oal. 
Oak Park, III. 
Pasadena, Cal. 
Pueblo, Colo. 
Rogers Park, HL 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Sacramento, Cal. 
Santa Barbara. Oal, 
Ban Fre..cteco, Cat " 
Han Joae, Cal, 
Ban Rafael, Cal. 
Sheboygan, Wis. 
South Chicago, 111, 
South Denver, Col 
South Evanston, HL, 
Town of Lake, HL 
Verona, Pa. 
Venice, 111. 
Washington. D. CI 
Whatcom. Wash. 
West Troy, N. T. 

Chelsea, Mass. 
Cliarlerol, Pa. 
Charleston, W. Va, 
Charlestown, W. Va. 


Corona, N. Y. 
Covington, Ky, 
Columbus, Us. 
Columbus, Ind. 
Camden, N. J. 
Concordia, Kan. 
Columbia, S O. 
Colllnsvllle, HI. 
Oohoes, N. Y. 
O oral can a, Tex. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Charles town, Mass. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Co >■ so polls, Pa, 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Colorado City, Col. 
Colorado Springs, Col 
Cora wall, N. Y- 
Corryrille, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ky. 
Des Molnee, Iowa. 
Da v en port,Io w». 
Dover, N. H. 
Decatur, III. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Denlson, Tex. 
Dedbam, Mass. 
Dorchester, Maas . 
Duquesne, Pa. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
Dallas, Tex. 
Bl Paso, Tex. 
East Liverpool. Ohio. 
Bast Saginaw, Mich. 
Bast Orange. N J. 
East Portland, Oreg. 
East Boston, Mass. 
Ka* ton , Pa, 
Elizabeth, N. J. 
El wood, Ind. 
El wood, Pa. 
Brie, Fa. 

Engl* wood, N. J. 
B vans vl lie, Ind. 
Everett. Mass. 
Exeter, N. H . 
Eureka, Oal. 
Fair Haven Wash. 
Pall River Mass. 
Flndlay, Ohio. 
Fitch burg, Maes. 
Fresno, Oal. 
Frankford, Pa, 
Franklin, Pa. 
Fort Worth, Tex- 
Fort Wayne, Ind, 
Fostorla, Ohio- 
Franklin, Mass. 
Oalesiburg, III. 
Galveston. Tex. 
Grand Rapids Mich. 
Groat Calif, Mont. 
Greensburg, Pa. 
Green field, Ind. 

The Real Monarchs. 

The men who really rale the world are 
limited in number. Tbey own the gold 
and have kings and queens and govern- 
ments at their call. When a new loan 
ia wanted, they make their conditions. 
Tbe minor details of government are left 
to take care of themeelves, and the people 
adjust themselves to these conditions as 
they can. Values go up or values go 
down aa suits the interest of the money- 
begs. They are the arbiters of peace 
and war and of the fate of nations.— 
Cincinnati Commercial. 

"ilow la a Hat of the cities and towns 
earpenter* make It a rule to work only 
bout* a day. 

Alblna, Oreg. 
Allston, Mass, 
Amesbury, Mass. 


Merlden, Conn. 
Moline, III. 
Mobile, Ala. 
Muncie, "nd. 
Mound btI lie. W. Va. 

Arlington, _ . 

Arrenae* Harbor, Tax, Muskegon, Mich. 
Aneoorte*, Wash. McKeeeport, Pa. 

Mt Pleasant, Pa. 
New Britain, Conn. 
NeUonvUle, O. 
North Kaston. Mass. 
New Kensington, Pa. 
Norfolk, Va. 
New Orleans, La. 
Newport, B, I. 
Newport, Ky. 
Newport News. Vai 
Newtown, N. Y. 
Newbury port, Mass, 
Nanalmo Brit. Col. 

Park, N, 
Astoria, Oreg. 
Ash evil I e, if. O. 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Auburn. Me. 
Akron, O. 
A! toon a. Pa. 

ArtnSy* M 

"i, Ind. 

A Bare Faced Insult. 

Scribner't Monthly said of the man who 
is compelled to travel in search for work : 
"He baa no rights but those which 
society may tee fit to bestow. He has 
no more rights than the sow that wallows 
in the gutter or the lost doge that hover 

Allegheny City, Pa. 
Albany, N, Y. 
Austin, Tex. 
Bekersfleld, Cal. 
Bay Oily, Mich. 
Bar Harbor, Me. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Belle Vernon, Pa, 
Bath Reach. N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y, 
Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Butler, Pa. 
Bayonne, N. J. 
Boise City, Idaho. 
Bridgeton, N, J, 
Burlington, Iowa. 
Blaine, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Ohio. 
Bradford Mam 

Brunswick, Me. 
Breddock, Pa. 
Ballaire. Ohio. 
Belleville, III. 
Belleville, Can. 
Bellevue, Pa, 
Boston, Mass. 
Bridgeport, Conn, 
Brockton, Maes. 
Beaver Fella. Pa. 
Brookllne, Mass. 
Butte. Mont 
Carrol lto n, Oe. 


N. I>a Crosse, ' 
Natch as, Miss. 
New Cumberland, W.V 
New Castle, Pa. 
New Haven, Coon. 
New Haven, Pa. 

New Roohelle, N. Y. 
New Westminster, B. C 
Nyeck N.Y. 
Newark. N. J. 
NaMck, Mass. 
Newton, Mans. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 
New Bedford, Mass 
New Albany, Ind. 
New Brighton, N.Y. 
New Brunswick, N. J. 
Northampton, M 
Norwich, Conn. 
Norwalk , Conn. 
, N. J. 

Oswego lN* Y. 
Ogden •Utah. 
Olean, N. Y, 
Ottawa, Can. 

Ontario, Oal. 

Gloucester. I — 
Greenville, Pa. 
German town. Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn. 
Grove City, Pa. 
Glen Core, N, Y. 
Hot Springs, Ark. 
Homestead, Pa. 
Hamilton Can. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Halifax, N. B. 
Hampton, Va. 
n« ii ford, Oal. 
Haverhill, Mesa, 
Hackenaack . N. J. 
Herri roan, Tenn. 
Herriaburg, Pa, 
Henderson, Ky. 
Hudson, Mass. 
Herkimer. N. Y. 
Hooslck Falls, N, Y. 
Hyd Ark.Hw, 
Hoboken, N. J. 
Hotyoke, Maes, 
Houston, Tex. 
■evMten Bela-bta. Tex. 
Htngham, Masa. 
Irvtngton, N. Y t 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jackson vllio, 111. 
Jackson. Mich. 
Jacksonville, Fta. 
Jean net to, Pa. 
Jersey City, N, J. 
Kearney, Neb. 
Knox fill e, Tenn. 

Kingston, N. Y. 
Lanstngburg, N. Y, 
Lawrence, Masa, 
La Crosse, Wis. 
La Junta, Col. 
transport, Ind. 
Lowell, Mass. 
Lynn, Mass. 
Leech burg, Pa. 

Omaha, Neb. 
Orange, N. 3. 
Olympla, Wash. 
Pa w tuck ft . R. L 
Port Chester, N. Y. 
Punxsutawney, Pa. 
Pensacola, Fta. 
Peterborough, Can. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Port Townsend, Wash. 
Passaic, N. J. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Pomeroy, O. 
Portland, Me. 
Port Angeles, Wash. 
Portsmouth, N. H. 
Portsmouth, Va. 
Portsmouth, O. 
Poeetello, Idaho. 
Poughkeepsle, N. Y. 
Peterson, N. J. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Pierre, 8. Dakota. _ 
Parkersburgh, W. Va. 
Paris, Texaa, 
Portervllle, Cal. 
Peoria, 111. 
Providence, R I. 
Qulncy, Masa. 
Racine, Wis. 
Rochester Pa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Richmond, Ky. 
Richmond, Ind. 
Rock Island, III. 
Pondout, N. Y. 
Koxhiiry, Maes 
Booh ester, N . Y. 
Rosedalo, Ind. 
Revere, Mass. 
Riverside. Cal. 
Red Bank, N. J. 
Redlands, Cal. 
Rock ford, 111. 
Rutherford, N. J. 
8. Fram Ingham, Msg*. 
Springfield, Mass. 
8t Augustine, Fla. 
South Omaha, Neb. 
Bouth Norwalk, Conn. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Salem, Maes. 
B tone bam, Mass. 
Somervllle, Mass, 
Somervtlle, N J. 
Sal tabu rg, Pa- 
Salt I.eke City. 
Ban Angelo, Tex. 
Sandusky, Ohio. 
Shreveport, I A. 
Stamford . Con n. 
Sea Cliff, N.Y. 
Springfield. 111. 
Springfield, Mo. 
San Leejndro. Cal. 
Bteubonvllle, Ohio. 
Santa Anna Cal. 
Santa Rosa, Cel. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Bt. John's, N. 8, 

Boottdele, Pa. 
kane, Wash. 

Lafayette, Ind, 
Un caster, Pa, 
Lewlston, Me. 
Lincoln, Neb. 
London, Canada. 
Locklaud, O. 
txjng Island City, N. 

Long Branch, it. J. 
Louisville. Ky. 
Manchester, N, H, 

Marlboro. Masa. 
Marlon, Ind. 
Morrlstown, N. 3, 
Manayunk, Pa. 
Maiden, Masa, 
Mtllvtlle *r J. 
Media. ' 
Meadvt' Pa. 
Med fort '-sjl 
Marbleh fla*. 
May field, /vj 
Monongahela, Pa. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
Martin's Ferry, O. 
Maspeth, N. Y, 
Mil ford, O. 
Mamaroneck, N. Y. 
Mercer, Pa. 
Mid d ten bo rough, Ky, 
, N. Y. 

Censhobooken, Pa, 
Cortland, N.Y. 
Ottumwa, la. 
Hlllsboro, Tex. 
Bangor, Pa. 

" villa, Ind, 


Island, N. Y. 
Sweater, III 
B tough ton, Mass. 
8. Abingdon, Mass. 
St Catherine, Ont 
San Antonio. Tex. 
San Bernardino, Cal. 
Scran ton. Pa. 
Bharpevllle, Pa, 
Sharpsburg, Pa. 
BL Paul, Minn. 
Santo Crux Cal. 
Saginaw City, Mich. 
Hloux City, Iowa. 
Sheepshead Bay. N. T 
Seymonr, Tex. 
Seymour, Ind. 
•hi m 7T.il If. 1, 

Tampa, Fla. 
Taunton, Mesa, 
Tawaa City, Mioh. 
Tarry town, N. Y. 
Terro Haute, Ind. 
The Dalle*, Oreg. 
Tiffin, Ohio. 
Toronto, Ohio, 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Toronto. Ont., M hra 
Trenton. N. J. 
Trinidad, Col. 
Troy, N.Y. 
Tarentum, Pa. 
Turtle Creek, Pa. 
Union Hill, N, J. 
TJtiee. N. V. 
Cn Ion town, Pa. 
Vancouver, B.C. 
Victoria, B. O. 
Vlsalla, Cal. 
Waxahatchle, Tex, 
Wellsburg, W. Va. 
West Holjoken, N. J. 
West Duluth, Minn. 
Warren, Ohio. 
.Winchester, Ky. 
Wtnthrop, Mass. 
Windsor, Can. (Ont.) 
Weymouth, Masa. 
Wabasn, Ind. 
Wallbam, Mass, 
Waco, rex. 
W. Newton, Maes. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Washington, Pa. 
Wilmington Del. 
Whitman Mae*. 

Woburn, Mass. 
Winchester. Mass, 
Wheeling, W. Va. 
Wllklnsburg, Pa. 

Winnipeg, Man. 
Wood side, N.Y. 
Wlnfleld, N.Y. 

YrMkum, Tex. 

Vonkera, N Y. 
Youngetown, Ohio. 

Zeneevllle. Ohio. 

College Point, N. IT. 

WlUlamabridge. N. Y. 

La Sane. 111. 

Rockland Me 

Battle Creek Mich 
Flushing, N, Y. 

Dover, N. J. 

Mllburn. N, J. 

Mt. Washington, O. 

Psru, III. 

Boekvllle, Oau. 





The world is mine, to live In and enjoy, 

l.» mine, to love in and to weep. 
Is mite to build upon, bill not destroy, 

li mine to labor in anil «deep. 
The world t« mine, my heritage It ls : 

It !• not mine alone ; 
Who's born of woman. It ii also bis, 

His title in my own. 

'Tin more my own thsn were it given me 

To bold in undisturbed repose, 
for me alone, a desert it would be I 

Men make it blossom like tbe rose. 
And whoso will rot f.ir my title fight. 

Must likewise bis resign . 
And whoso tramples on another's right. 

Abridges also mine. 

To stand together; neltticr can i 

Our joint responsibility. 
The Injuries we do each other shape 

Tbe common, innul defllluy. 
Our interests ore mutual, communal, 

Wherever we msy be; 
The blows which on a cowering fellah fall, 

Are an affront to me. 

Americans, 'tis time we understood ! 

Our flag, the red, the white, the blue, 
Mean Freedom, Equal Rights and Brotherhood 

For all earth's children as for you. 
That fellow- men in Pullman or Onthay— 

It matters notbl. g where— 
Are driven as slaves beneath a despot's sway, 

Thst too, Is my affair. 

The world grows smaller ; men are closer drawn 

Antlpodeans now are neighbors. 
And sympathetic strikes announce the dawn 

Of justice for each man who labors. 
National lines are nothing ; all 1b this i 

Whoso wills every man 
To be as free as be would be- he la 

My fellow- countryman. 

Our grands! res summoned hithe' tbe oppressed 

Of every nation ; they have thronged 
Unto us from tbe east and west, 

The souls by cruel tyranta wronged. 
Our land is full ; let us our shield 

To wheresoe'r men be ; 
"While anywhere men to des; 
I am not wholly free. 

• Dawton, in the Railtniy Tiints. 

thie. : It is an attempt to bring to pass 
the idea of human development which 
has animated eagea, prophet" and poets 
of all Bgea ; the idea that a time must 
come when warfare of all kinds shall 
cease, and when a peaceful organization 
of society shall find a place wherein its 
framework if for tbe beet growtb of each 
personality and shall abolish all servitude 
in which one but inbaervee another'a 
gain. Nor ehould it excite surprise to 
divert the movement from its true path 
into destructive byways. False guides 
are ever found combating true leaders, 
and there is backward motion, as well as 
advance. Dut frequent whirlpools and 
innumerable eddies do not prevent the 
onward flow of the mighty stream.— Prof, 
Richard Ely, 

Where the Credit is Due. 

When times ars good and capital is 
making large profits one year after 
another, yon seldom hear of any case 
where a corporation voluntarily inc. eases 
the wages of its help. Whatever Increase 
the worker receives is usually brought 
about by his trade union, acting under 
mora or less favorable circumstances. 
When times change tor the worse and 
the prospect of reduced percentages 
begins to loom up, then the laborer 1b 
asked to share the burden. If the de- 
mand is successfully reflated, or the 
reduction mitigated, the credit ia again 
due to the strength of the workers' 
organization. These are facta that ought 
to be studied, and the better the working 
man understands them the sooner will 
he be able to insist upon receiving all 
that is really his— The Citizen, JIdyoke, 

A Mighty Poor Excuse, 

An exchange, speaking in opposition 
to governmental control of railroads and 
telegraphs, says it emacka too much of 
"socialism." When the editor of that 
paper in question writes a dunning letter 
to one of hie many delinquents, puts one 
of those cheap little " socialistic " 6 Lamps 
upon it, and drops it into that " social 
istic " hole, cut there to receive it at the 
socialistic" post office, he loses sight of 
the "smack of socialism." When he 
does up the mail of his scant edition and 
sends the "devil" to deposit it with 
Uncle Samuel at the poet office reception 
hopper, there is no thought of " pater 
nalism." When he walks from his place 
of business to hia home, through well 
paved streets, on clean, convenient side- 
walks, protected by well d re b aid and 
well-bred policemen, and enjoys all the 
privileges of a well conducted municipal 
corporation, he doesn't tear his shirt in 
a rage at tbe possible fate ot falling into 
" socialism." Tbe governmental control 
of railroads and telegraph is nothing 
more than the governmental control of 
poet offices and post roads and the muni- 
cipal control of streets, alleys and police 
regulations, and if the latter is " social- 
ism," we cannot see anything to be 
alarmed at in giving it wider scope and 
power.— Labor Signal. 

The labor movement, in ita broadest 
terms, is the effort of men to live the 
lives of men. It is the systematic organ* 
ized struggle of the masses to obtain 
primarily more leisure and larger econ- 
omic resources; but that is not by any 
means all, because the end and purpose 
of it all is a richer exiatence for the 
toilers, and that with respect to mind, 
■oul and body. Half conscious though 
it may be, the labor movement ia a force 
pusbtug toward tbe attainment of the 
purpose ol humanity; in other words, 
the end of tbe true growth of mankind, 
namely, the full and harmonious develop- 
ment In each Individual of all human 
faculties— the faculties of working, per- 
ceiving, knowing, loving ; tbe develop- 
ment, in short, of whatever capabilities 
of good there may be la us. Tbe true 
of tbe labor movement ia 


Pbebk Editiub : 

A votre invitation je m'aaia i adreseer 
nos freres Canadians et Ataxics is an sujet 
de buts de notre Fraternity Unie. Oe 
sujet n'est pas origins! a notre genera- 
tion, en tout ages il a exieter des organi- 
zations de tra vaillents, pas toujours avec 
les mgmes buts, mais toujours former 
pour prendre avautage de 1' unite* si neces- 
saire a 1' accompli sine nt de leurs projets. 

Lab charpeutiers et menu! Biers on a 
trouve en etudient les histoires des pays 
european, ausal bien que celle de 1'Ame- 
rique, a toujours 6ti l'avant-garde a cette 
egard, mala jamais avec la ferveur et Ten- 
thusiasme de cette age au|ourd'huis. En 
tous environs on let vols bien organiser 
ou en formation, lis est pae necessalre je 
crolx de re peter lei 1'hlstolre de notre 
Fraternity unie, en existence depuiB 1881 
on a records une hlstolre de triomphe 
pour its metier dans les Etata-Uois, prea- 
que incomparable. II eat vrais qu'on a 
£te* repousse en des endroits au regard 
des salalree, mais en tous c&s on a red nit 
lea heuresde travail, le progree est si bien 
connu il nqa membres, au moina a ceux 
qui sont intereBsee, qu'il est inutile sur 
ma part de faire plus que de l'ajouter 
sans prendre le temps de le prouver. 

Toub noe membrt-j qui sont en avance 
de la crusade aavent bien que beaucoup 
de nos membres ausal que bieu dea menoi 
fliers paa membres manquent l'energie 
ou la courage de leurs conviction A regard 
de la grand necessity de changed lea eon- 
en vlroany, 

e'eet pour ceux-cl que j'ecrit et i'espt>re 
que cette epiBtre ne eera pas en vain. 

II eat bien connu de tous charpentiers 
et menuisiera intelligent que eouBlea con- 
dition ou on exiate la demands de touB 
patrone en tous avocation et en tout en- 
droit, eBt en premise lieu tie produire 
plUB de commodit<5s et en suite de pro- 
duire au prix le plUB baB possible, e'eet 
le can paa seulement dans notre metier, 
mais aueei bien dans les autrea induatrieB 
enfin, e'est leur but et its appelant a leur 
assistance lamachinerie improve, laeotie- 
divieion de teue travaillantt, I'emplois 
d'enfantB et de femmes et particuliCre- 
ment ils Be forment en grande corpora- 
tion avec un capital etdes resources illim 
itable quelle est le resultat, ila vient 
presque impossible* pour l'indlvido de 
procurer uu sal aire eultiaant pour avoir 
Boin de lui mfime, bien moins de sa fa- 

Avec le progr»>8 de I'univere on B'aper- 
cois' d un desire d'etre bien vCtu, plus 
accomplie et d'avoir une habitation qui 
contorme I cette age, l'individu a'agite 
d'improver ea condition Bociale et il voit 
bientot qu'il est necessaire de e'accosier 
avec ceux qui ont les m^aoes aspirations, 
enfin il voit que aeul il eat aana pouvoir, 
et il e'agite et profite de 1'exemple dea 
patrons, s'asaemble avec autres de son 
metier eat ils forment une organization 
pour accomplirce qu'il eat impoBBible de 
procurer eeul. 

Cela eat la raieon de la formation de 
nos unions et quand on est unie h per- 
fection et on dirigent noB efforts eneem- 
semble, toujours guides par la raieon et 
la justice, nos efforts ont presque toujoure 
un boo resultat- 

Bans doute lea charpentiers et menuiB- 
iers ont lea yeux ouvert et il est pas aur- 
prenant qu'ils ae forment en Fraternity 
avecl'objet de reclammer le metier Je 
connais ancun metier qui eBt ai abuser 
ou plus degrader que le notre. Les viel- 
lards nous montrent la difference en ret 
age, et celle de trente ou querents ans 
pass6, le menuisier d'aujourd'hui eat ni 
respecter ou considerer et la eeule mani- 
0:re de se faire vatoir est de a'unir et par 
cela de commander le respects et la re- 
muneration qui nous est due. 

Les statics du pays nous in forme que 
l'homme ordinaire produit en gnat re 
heure tous qui eBt neceBsaire pour ion 
existence pour la journoe. EBt il surpre- 
nant que tant des peraonnes Be trouve 
sans ouvrage et devienB trcs sou vent lee 
sujeta de la charity. N'est ce pas que le 
but qu'on a de red ui re lee heu res de tra- 
vail, un benefit a la community aossie 
bien qu'ii nous, une qui, apart d'etre un 
avantage a l'ouvrier, est une benediction 
pour tout le monde, est vraiment noble 
et doit C-tre considerc' un eSort a con- 
tlnuer le progrcs eociale et induetriel de 
la nation on. le projst eat cooaommy. 

J'eapere, mes freres, que les grands 
buts de notre fraternity soient jamais 
oublier et que tous noa efforts puiasent 
continuer a Improver la condition dea 
char pent iera et msnulssiera dans notre 
jurisdiction, et que tout ceux qui voiyent 
riendebon dana notre fraternity soleyent 
blent At eoavertl k voir que I 'unity 
eBt la forte, et que les grand prlncipea de 
notre fraternity sont ausai ceux de tout 
cauadienB et franeaiB, ou trouverais vous 
trois mote plus admirable la liberty, 
I'unity, l'egality. II est impossible de 
vous quitter Bans demand er votre indul- 
gence h cette effort. C'eat ne paa l'epltre 
d'un ycolier, mais celle d'un menuisier 
qui pou r 1 e moment m i t de cAt6 son tablier 
pour la plume, croyant qu'il est capable 
de voua interest-; dana son sujet. S'il je 
trouve aucune evidence d'approciation, 
9a me fera grand plalair de m'approcher 
encore una fois de vous par la m£me 
route (dlt) notre journal. 



Becnow 1. Tills organization shall be known 
M the Amalgamated Council of the Building 

fiEO.t, This oounc 1 1 shall be composed of dele, 
gate* duly choseu fr. .m all societies In the build* 
Ing trades, who shall, before being admitted, 
produce credentials signed by the president and 
recording secretary of their society, and shall 
have the seal of thetr union attached. 

8ko, 9* In ease of a secret society, the seal of 
their lodge attached shall boa sufficient guaran- 
tee of their genuineness. 

Sgo. 4, The officers of this society shall consist 
of a chairman, vice-chairman and recording sec- 
retary, corresponding secretary, financial secre- 
tary, treasuver and sergeanUat-ertiis. 

8co.fi. The chairman and vice-chairman shall 
be elected at each meeting, and shall be nomi- 
nated from delegates of different societies, nor 
•halt any chairman sit In Judgment on any cats 
affecting the union he belongs to. 

Bsc. ft. Tho recording secretary, corresponding 
secretary, financial secretary, treasurer and eer* 
gea 11 t-at-armi shall be elected quarterly) the re- 
cording secretary shall receive such Salary as 
this council shall deem advisable. 

ABTtCLg 11. 

RsctiopT 1. The executive Amotions of this 
council shall be vested in the officers and dele- 
gates while In session, and In such committers as 
Uils com ell may find necessary to conduct Its 
business under this constitution, 

Bit*. 2. The objects of this council shall bete 
central lie the united effort* and experience ot 
the various societies engaged In the erection and 
alteration of buildings, and that they may form 
one common council, and with common Interest 
to prevent that which may he Jujurloua, 

properly perfect and carry into effect that which 
they may deem advantageous I 
for the common good of all. 

Sic a All trade and lal>or societies represented 
la this council, when desirous or making a de- 
mand for either an advance of wages or an 
abridgement In the hours of labor, shall, through 
their detegates, report Uie same to this council, 
prior to the demand being made, when. If OMs* 


curved In by a two-thirds vote of all thel 
present, at any stated meeting, tbe action ahall be 
binding. This section shall not prevent any 
from acting on Its own responsibility. 

Loom E. Tossy, 

any trade society represented In 
may desire material aid, shall 

to this council, and, If approved 

Azncxa in, 

Scctiok 1. No trade ahall be entitled to mora 
than three votes on any question that directly 
affects the material I rite rex Is of any trade society, 

8 EC 2. All trades or societies represented shall 
be entitled to three delegates. 

Sac. a Any society having 
branches shall be entitled b> 01 
each branch. 

AarlCL* IV. 

Shtiok 1. 
this council that I 
state their case to 

by the delegates, ahall bring tbe mi 
their respecUva organisations for 


ARTir I,K v, 

Skctio* 1. Itshall be the special duty of this 
council to use the united Strength of ail the 
societies represented therein, to compel all non- 
union men and "stalls " to conform to, and obey 
the laws of, Uie society that they should properly 
belong to, 

Hkc a It shall be the duty of any trade or 
labor society to use ertry lawful means to In- 
duce all non-union men or scabs to lieoome 
members of their respective unions and anr 
trade society failing in their Just efforts, shall 
bring the matter before this council throng* 
their delegates, with all the facta In the ease, 
with the names of the men, II possible, where 
employed, and the name of the employer, the 
same to be presented In writing with Uie signa- 
ture of tbe president of the society affected, 
when th Is oou net 1 shall take 1 mined late action In 
the matter, and, If deemed advisable, this council 
way, by a two- thirds vote of the delegates then 
present, form I tig a quorum, order a withdrawal 
of any or all trades or societies who may be on 
any building where said uon-unlon men or 
scabs may be employed. This order shall bs 

«at 'ates f' ih^varlous iociiife*? 

A BT11 "t.B VI- 

fiacmo* ]. Afl societies represented In this 
oounetl shall pay the sum of two dollars saoh p«4 

Bsotiox 1. On demand of a union represented, 
a general strike shall be ordered to reinstate a 
member or members who have struck and are 
refused employment on that Job thai was struck 
Use. a. Any walking delegate or delegate* of 
any society erdsrltig a sirike without the one- 
sent of tills council, the trade he represents shell 
be held responsible for the wages or the men on 
strike. This shall no* prevent a dslsgste from 
ordering a strike of the members of the society 
he represents to adjust Ita own Internal i 
without the assistance of this council. 

Hbo. a Members of a union seeedlng from a 
parent organ I nation and form I n g a separate union 
•hall be excluded from this council. 

^Bac.4. All branches < 


1. When tbe members of two 
represented In this council work al r 
trade, It shall be unlawful for one to 
of the other when on strike. 

ABTicxa IX. 
flacrtog 1. No society or branch of S 
shall be allowed to strike more tba 
ployer at ft time, unless there are two or 
• the same Job. 

•a nog 1. Two-thirds of all the 
sented In this oou not I shall farm ft 
Bsc. 3. It shall take two weeks* 
tion and two-thirds majority to 




*», Mobile— V. J. O'Connor, 4M Franklin n. 
M. " (Col.) W. Q. Lewis, 711 8t. Louis it 







-Walter Moore. 818 Market it 
J. B. Walker. 078 S. 8Ute it. 


Aumiu- Jacob EoMk, 1811 R, R are. 

Los AstiaLga- H. Gray, Rox 224. 

PA»ADNNA-Geo. W. Reed, Box SOS. 

RimaiDB— Chas. Hamilton, 4th and Euca- 
lyptus n o, 

BacbambNTo— B. B. Mason, 1017 J it. 

Sap KtiiciiDtlKi — H. Wegnori. Box TOT 

SAN Fbanciboo— Secretary of Hint. Council 
B. L. Malehivry, 117^ Fair Oaks at. 

If . L. Wendell. 23 Nlm». it. Hta. B. 

(Her.) Wdi. Jllge, 1231 J, Mission street. 

Guy Lathrop, 1 17 Turk at. 

Ban Joes— K. R, Ore wk. 

Saw KaFaBL— R. Boott, Box S73. 

flANTA BAMABA-E. A. flmltb, 

Santa Cbo«— Geo M, Thompson, 147 
nut eve. 


Halifax, N. B.-A. Korthup, IM Morris st. 
Hamilton— W. J. Frld. M Nelson et. 
Lon uon — B, J. Aunt, 706 Dundee at. 
Montreal— (Pr.) B. Level lie, MO Jvopan at., 

U net, 
H. T. Holland, M Kent at. 
(Ft 1 Jon Bedard, 8 D I humbly Ave. 
Br. Catbabibtbb— Henry Bald, J*uis* sL 
St. John, N. B - W. F. Oronk, 133 Adelaide 

Tobonto— D. V. McNeill, 388 Hamburg ave. 

- B. O.-L, G. Doldge, Box 300. 


878. ALBXABDBIA— B. W. Rtchman, 

363. AndbbsoN-W. B Mitchell, 304 8. Main at. 

Ml. OoHNBmeviLL*— A.O.Moffett,91» Sycamore it 


00. Joe. F. Wurlh. 902 F.. Columbia at, 

743 (Bi e WnT"Mai^s.'nd W B.^T«.*"M*nn, 1008 

B Mleh. st. 
IBS Fobt Watxi — A. S. Hear 301 Taylor at 
738. Frank FO kt — Prank Btroihman, 1st dt South 


187. Hauohtillb>— I. b. White 

Indian APoue—Becretary of District Council. 
D. L. Btoddard, 70 Lockerbie at. 

80- (Oer.) Fred. Sl*hlhut,229 N line St. 
181. H. F.. Travis, 273 Brook side ave, 
4*8. J M. Prultl, 3*8 Prospect St. 
318. Lata imih H. G. Cole, 887 Bouth at 
783. " (Ger.) Jacob Hherle. 138 Union St. 
744, Looahspobt— J. L.Hcbrock, 730 Eleventh st. 
MB. MabiON— Jas. Townaend. 
Wl Mpbcib-J. I>. Clark. 718 Klrby ay. 

19. Nllf Albany — A. T. Smith. IflO W. Mh St. 
78*. Richmond — Jefferson Cox. 827 N. 10th street. 
429. South BggD— Geo. Leaner, Box 6BH 

48. Tbbbb HaCtb-S. Hutlen. S13 8. Uth at 
«i8. ViNi*nwbn-A. O, Pennington, 118 N "that 
881. Wababh-R. P.Maoy, Box 




880. Oolobado Orrv— G. F. .. 
BIB. OolobADO Broa.— O. Oeldler, 88 Franklin at. 

W. DaamB— D. M. Woods, 3283 Logan Ave. 
410 Ptjbtblo— J B. Farmer, «M W. 14ih st. 

U' TmiNlDAD-K.O Here*. 881 N 


11*. BmrDOMPOBT— Charles Watklna. 00 Alice st 
48 KA*TTOBl>— Wm. A. Nellson 83 Wooster St. 
M MxUDDt- Goo. J. Stanley. 2SW East Main st 
17. Nrs BBITAIN — Job n Hill Lord, P O. Box 902. 

798. Nrw HsvBJt— G. B. Cblpman, 40* Weehlng- 

1 *wl* M Asyl una st 
744' KOBWALB— Wro. A Kellogg, Box 891. 

117, Nobwich— A. D 


SM. BomLIWOTON— Wro. RulT, 1118 KMiabelh at 
rw4 DaybnpOBT— W C. Meyers, 914 Harrlaon at 
88. DM Moutaa-A^ Y\ Swayne, 788 Oak it . 

76L t>TWsl^-A' MffStf&lt. Davta at., B. 8. 

_ MoOeully Hh ASeneoast*. 
R Gardner. Box M8. 


m. CoyTNOTOb-A. Cherrfngtoo, SI E Thomas 
786. " (Oar ) Joe. Kempsen, 311 W. lltb st 

Ml. Oatton— James Hoaklng. 
443. Hopbihsttllb}— W. n. Hall. 

[xiuistillb — Secretary of District Council 
HS. Huffman. 81«34lh at 
7. 8. W. Downard. 1718 Portland ave. 
1O8 H. 8. Huffman, 018 Twenty-fourth st 
214. (Ger.) J Schneider, 1888 Brent et. 
739. (Carl Butler Leebolt, 1718 flanoock at 
<We Nasi roar— M. McCann, Ge«. Dell very. 
PAMma—W^. Williams, W tWOth st 


llbajb— Secretary of District Coud 
dl. P. G Welter, 618 Josephine st 
78 J. J. Becker, 3WH 3d st. 
249 P D. Boas, 8' <W Oon*l*iie« st 
704. H HafTneT, «H8 Fullon St 
788. John Balser, 813 Vlllere St 
Peter Gen 



819 Ban to* Btatiob— O. 

Artkut ave 
180. Kansas OtTT— 
877. BraiNsriMLD— J. H 

Button A. 
480. St. JoaaPB— A. L. Ourttss, 3007 Ji 
BT. liOtJi*— Secretary of District 
V. 8. Lamb, 8848 Ode) I ave. 
Geo. J. Swank. 3124 Alice ave. 
(Ger.) J. Burkhard. 3333 B. 18th st, 
(Ger.) R<lw. Klesslln Rl 2318 N. Market at 
James Shine. 4384 Blaine ave. 
(Ger.) D. Fluerel. 1417 Benton at 
S. G. FenrUHOn. 817 W. Jefferson *v*. 
Otto Scb uls, 3848 Co i /.ens ave. 
(Ger.) G.Jablonaky. 2030 Clara ava. 
[Oer.l Henrv Thlele. Loughborough and 

Gmvola ave. , 

(Stair Bldrs.) Wm. U. TledermuQD 3014 
Lemp ave. 
804. 4 MI!lwrlg;hts>-J. S Miller. 
899. O. H, Gulpe, 1S38 Olive St. 
'84. «W Mill) P. A. l*n,.Wn 


88. An a 00 id a — C. W. 8tai.. 
188. Basib-A. I. Woodbury. 
318. Hut— J. D Geoolian. 
113. BorniCrrr— H.P. Lapler 
xM. Obbat Fall*— A. J. Kmro 

Gain. 810 5th 





B78. KrwoOLB- W. H. KlnBsry . 1813 N 38th at. 
Omaha— Secretary IHstriot Oounoil, O. Beln- 
hart, 918 N. Twenty-seventh st 
181. (Ger.) K. Ruppert, Ml* Martha st 
888. (Uan ) J. Tolslrup 
427. Thus. McKay, 

170. Niaoaba FALLe— E E. Cornell, 4U Elmwood 

474. rtYAOT— Bobt P. Wool.Boi 488. 
101. ONBONTA— A J. Ryan, E E. 

W. H. K Jones, Rye, FT. T. 

404. Po 

308. Pot.10 hbbbt*i» — G. E. Baker, 









RouHBSTva a M. Fletcher, 81 Reruott It 

" (Ger.) Prank Bchwlnd. 4 May Plaee, 
Bomb— D. Parry, 111 N. Madison street 
Bbnbga Falls— H S. Uastner, 806 Fall st. 

rmTB?U^A^^^> til y 'of ^Ms t"(5>0 L el ' , 

O T Hh»T. l»«th »vo. New Brighton. 
Post Rif bmond— J. Koenan. 388 Jersey at 

New Brighton. 
Btaplbton— P. J. Klee, Box 497. 
8TUODU- {Ger.lE. Kretsch.724 Butternutt. 
Tabbttows— D. Page, North Tarry town. 
Tbot— Bobt Laurie, Box 68. 
Otic A — G. W. Griffiths, 340 Dudley 
WATNBTOWK —P. J. Donee y, 3 Union 

Araanel st. 
WiruiT — E B. Gregory, B»x 171. 

_ CHasTYB, Courrr V — Secretary of 
trlot Council. Jamea Gagan, 
at, New Roche] le. N. Y. 
Wbbt Tbot— Charles Angus, in Id at 
Williams Barou— John Edgley, Box R 
TorTMBa— C has. Gordon, 142 J 

H. W.Malllnson.aiOl 

Fosxa-R, 8. Tyler, 1301 N. M at 

m-i 1 " in eii tiiB> xs«> r 

ilrup 1813 8. lethat 
, 3823 Prank lin st 


ROCKTILLS — Hugo Hoiipe 
WATUBOBT— Joseph Sundlford, Box 880. 

40. WlLMIN<»TOB-W, P. Crawford, 1310 W. Id. 


LF. Burner. 1001 Hst N. W. 


(Ool.) M, B DunUp, cor 
Bawk and Colon sta. 
8BS, JacxsoNVILB.— G .T. Hood. 828 W. Church St. 
71 PmsbaooLA — Geo. Marble. Box 71. 
Ifj E (Ool.) A. H Petti way 818 B Cliaaeat 

•04 Tamtpa— J. Hud nail. Box 44 Ft, Brook. 
294. WBBT PALM Bs*r«-W. V. Rushing. 


118. Aogcbta— (Ool.) T. P, Lewis, 1309 Philip at 
•s* Dcsun— A. A Oowart 

r. W. Waterhouae, 1411 Third at 









Bsllnv ills— has Dlttman. 311 E. 8th at 
BMosrrog f x — J. B. Latrimoulle, StTtf Wm. 
Canton- Homer Whalen, 841 W.Dass Place. 
OmiOAOO— Hecretary of District Council, 

H. MctJormack, 49 La Balls st, 
A do) |>ti HLamru 1M W. Ijike St. 
(French) T BeaudrY. 18 Blhurn ave. 
J. H. Stevens, 80M Dearimrn st 
W. R Bowes. 7831 Coles ave Bla. "R." 
fBohfm.) Vaclav Soma, 073 W 18th at. 
(Ger.) Aug. Belche, 4048 At lai.t lest 

f mmj B Eugborg. 80 Heine at. 
sr ) Theo. Ueach, 5337 Union ave. 
m Bsuiietts, 1744 N. Clark at 
(Ger.) Jas. Bell, IS 10 Van Hornet 
(Ger.) Jobs Suckran, 916 W. IStli St. 
1 Roll, 1 B P VansleeniMirg.H71i«thst,ata. T, 
(Stairs) Gust Hansen, 3*: 8 Austin sve. 
(Polish) I Maslak, 127 W Blscklinwk at. 
(Bohem ) Boh. Chilli!**). 1102 Kldrieave. 
Jas, T Bennett. 1 188 Wlfoox ave 
(Ger.) (Mill Bench Hands) F. H. 4«uKraeyer 

1IM Hinman St. 
H. Fried rich. M Heine place, 
P. Larson. 781 Jane st 

W. I'lllman.-M. T. Ash, Bo 1 17, W. Pull 


1 ^ 

Geo. Blioetlle. 
St JjOtna K Wendllug.6'3 Illinois »v 
Kl.K ■ u nrr — (Ge r . ) H. rlleltng. P. O Hoi t» 
Bno LI W OOD— C . F. Nugent, S4S liii-sl nut si 
■VANSTOV— J. P. McFerran, 1420 F.ruerson st 
FBBNWooD— '. Huh man, Jefferson, cor lOSil 
OALBSBtTBO— P. F Hwsnsun, 78. K. North st 
G a d C boss/no - < i .TAImers, 7 7'2( > 1 1 o Inn 11 ave 
Bum- D. 0. Mora* 
H 10 bland PASS— J. H Zlmmsr . 
Htob PabX— H. S. Baker. 7016 O slash y ave. 
jACgeo STILLS— S, P, Garter ,713 E (Members 
(Pr.)-E lApolice, 314 116th st, 
Chios go. 
.. W. Dean, Box 88 
LaSallm-F. B. EllloU, 1 1 18 Creva Oour st 
LlNOOLN-B, F. Poe. 837 Sixth St. 
M on KorrTH — Frank Wataon 
MOBgtLASD — J. T. Hume, 1839 Kinds st. 
Oak PabK — Aug. Mlcholsky, 27 Marengo at. 
OTTAWA— John D. Geary, 216 I)el>eon at. 
PbkiN— Ctias. Eyiae, 421 7th at 
Pbobia — B W. Shuch, 20«>, Haneook at. 
PbbtJ — David George. 

rr— Wm. Benner. 1031 Kentucky st 
Island— Jos. Neufeld, 427 7th st. 
Pabz — 

Onioaoo— J. O. Grantham, 
wards ave.. St*. •..Ohloawo, 
I. Thompson, 8431 
street, Chicago. 

ohn Zaring. 1889 N. Id st 
W, J. 

LSWISTON-A U. Flags, M Spring st. Aobnri 
M(DnialJ. 181 York st. 




1th. I WIMow st. 

_ -W.H Beenan.ll87K Fi 
(Ger.) H.B.rJohrc 


District Oounoil -Secretary, D. Ma- 

ins Fayette st, 
, 806 N. Wolf at 

looey, O Holly ave., O^bridg^Mass. 











of Dtatrict 
P. A. Morley, IS Village st 
W.J. Shields 10 Cheshire St., Jamaica Plain. 
( Jewish.) L. Ricliler 146 Salem at. 
(Shop Hands) W. B. Jardlne.lBurnaldeave.. 

Cam sal dob— D. Maloney, 6 Hotly ave. 

- A. B, McLeod, 18 Ml, Auburn St 
BAR Boston— J B Potts 121 London st 
Fall Rivbb Jas Walton, 1 Branch st 
FlTCHBOaa — Weather bee, V- Green st 
Glotj o bsi SB — H.W. Davis 188M<p)ewood av 
HlvsaaiLL— P. D. On a 100 IxK'kest 
Hinoh AM — Ooll n CM. my bell, Box 118. 
HotTOBB—M. D Sullivan, 109 Sargent st 
Mtroaos— Geo. B. Bryant. Box 1M. 
Hydb Pabn— B Daly. 41 Garfield si. 
liAWBBNfja— Jatnefl Hcl^treti, 180 Water st, 
LiNox-Jno P. Klrby. Box 14S. 
LowBtls— Prank Keppler, 291 Lincoln st 
I.tsx— M. L. Delano, 108 Lewis st 
Mabslbhbad— K. H. Roach. Box 81. 
Mablbobo — J. O, Don oh lie, 31 School st 
HATtog— 8. P. Annls. 18 Oakland st • 
Nsw BanroBD— O G Francis. 14 8pruoe st. 
NaWTog— Secret ary of District Council, C. 

L. Connors, West at. 
NwWTOB-Wm. Boucher. Box 71. 
Nbwton (Tbntbb- Fred Botsner, Box 739 
Nobth Adams-Job. Dary. MV» Proapeot at. 
Hosts Baatop— August Ledln, Box 188: 
Nobwood— Jan. Haddsn, Box 434. 

SDTgfOT— A. O. Brows. Box 130, Wollaaton: 
ozrcbt-H. M, Taylor, Fanton St., Dor- 

Balhm-F. A. Bvttta ISmlth sve 
Saxontill*— .las. J. Tutlla. Box 100. 
bombs vi 1.1.B— Ira Doughty, 8 Carl ion at. 
Rr BIganHLD — ( French) I, B e s s ett e. Box 7M 

" A. P. Russell. 68 Raaeg St 

t*roTJOgjTOF— P O. Fowler, Box 1088. 
i-aunton- D. O King. lOGen ttobb. 
Wai.tHaM— John Reflly,M4 River st, 
Wbbt Nbwtos-H. F Ryan, Box »4«. 
Wbtbodtm-B. J. Pratt, Weymouth Hslghts 
WoatJSBiB* 0. D Flake. 730 Main st 









Secretary of District Council, 
D P. Klrvrin, 4S Myrtle ay. 
174. Jamea Finn, 887 Orange st 
6S8. (Ger.) Alex. Rickert. 416 Elk st 

6 AJUrraVDaxt— Herbert Clark, Perkins st 
488 AUBITBB— W. W. Gillespie, 118 B. Genesee, 
Ifj. B:N»aA«TSN— O. H. Toner, Box 993. 

Bbooblyn— Secretary of IHstriot Council 
T. B. Lineburgh, 890 Gates ave. 
M. Oonnv Island — H, B.Young, Box 118, Grave- 
send, L.l. 
100. M. A. Maher 61 Irving Pi. 
147. M. B. Nichols, 8 Poplar strtet 
176. Robert Logan, 192 Grove st 
847. Gbaa. Monroe, 61 St. Mark's ave. 
288. M . Spence, 86 Van Buren at 
Ml, (Ger.) F Kramer, 9* Jlai burg ave, 
881. 8 E. Elliott. 89 Rockaway ave. 
187. C. H. Richardson, 94 E o road way. 
481. Wm. Carroll. TVS Bergen st 
471. Fred. Brandt Ml 6th ave. 
187. (Millwrights) W. B. Kelk, 13 Butler at 
889. Jaa. Black. MB **d St. _ ., 
Burs ALO— Secretary of District OonnoU, 
Geo. U! liner. 874 Genesee St. 
t. W. H Wreggltt, M Trinity st 
9B. (Ger.)B. Luenst-, 13) Bote at 
k O. Yokomj 18 Ferguson av*. 

Hans Larsen, P.O. Box 868. 

T ai 


Flu — Henry P- Gant, 
Batonnb— Stephen Hussy, 743 Avenue B. 
BllMlKM- J. H. Beeves, 14S Fayette at 
OAKDgai— T. B. Peterson, 887 Mechanic at 
Dovbb-L G. Pott 
Klixabnth-H. Zimmerman, M7 Pay av. 

Bo. Elisabeth. 
Bliiabnth— (Ger.l J hn Kuhn, 837 Martin st 
Bnwlbwood— S. L. Westervelt 
Robossn -P. Stetglelter. 1*9 Garden at 
H AifW bnsaCB — T. Heath, 380 Slate st 
HOOSON OOOBTT— D. C, Secretary, David 
Morrison, 814 Palisade av*., Jersey City 
Jbbiibt t iTY-G. Williamson, 320V* Sd st 
(J C. Heights) D. K. Hadaall, 494 Uentral av 
Long Bbancb dies. B Brown, Box Ml, 

Long Branch City. 
Milbiibn— J. H. White, Short Hills, 
Millvillb— Jas. McNeaL 
MOBfturrowg-C. V, Deals, Lock Box 168. 
Nsw aba — H G Long. 1.0 Norfolk st. 

(Ger.) G. Arendt. 698 8. Uth st 
OoBANio-Zacn. T. Alas. Box 70. 
PaTBBAOS- (Holl ) A I. Meenan, 38 N Main. 

P. B. Van Houten, 713 K. 17tn 
PabbAIO— Prank Wentlnk. Box 113. 
Pbilupssobo — Wm. Hodge, cor. Mulberry 

and Spring Garden eta., Baston, Pa. 
PLAiNFimLD— Wm. H. Lunger, M Westervelt 
SoMBBVlLLB— W. W. Plltetiger. 
Summit— Edward Hait'n, hoi 618. 
To«« of Dhiok-Jos. WohKarth, Weehaw. 
ken P O. 
T, Reed, 153 


_, Glass, 111 H. Thornton at 
BbLLAIBB— Geo. W. Curtis, Box 10. 
Bbldokfo b* — John A, Pawoett 
Buctbus— J. A. Pink. 
Canton — Keller Huff. 87 Center at. 
OaiLLicoTB*— Chas. Bchwarts, S3 No. 
ory street 




OJ Jf imoc,. 

OiNorgFATi-Bocretary of Dlstriot Oonnoll, 
D P. Rowland. 103 Symmes at .Walnut 

3. D. Plaeher. 188 R. McMlcken ave. 
SW. (Ger.) Austin 1 Weiss, 869 Freeman ave. 
8M (Ship Carp ) J. A. Hamilton, 830 B. Fit 
8x7 refill) Geo. Marshall, 4S7 Main st 
181. (Stairs) H. Hogg 437 Milton sv 
8M, A Berger, 337 retgua at. Station A. 
66t A. J. Haines, 301 Delta ave. Station O. 
887. M. A Harlow. 284 Eastern ave 
678 L. A. Groll, 118 Jefferson ave., Sta. K. 
681. P. A. Wagner. 7W Freeman ave. 
689. Wm. Ethel, 1M4 W. nth at. 
699, P. Welbar. 87 Lid dell st , Palrmonnt 

Vincent Hlavln 168 L. 
11. A H Blair, M Bar lee st 
m, (Bohem.) Pr. Dlvoky, IM Petriest 
Mt (Ger.) Wm. Keropke, 83 Norwood st 
MS. (Ger.) Theo. W el h rich, 16 Parker ave, 
448. (Ger.) Fred. Albrecnt H Brooklyn st 
461, H. J. Blgs-.MSaylesr 
gjl. tX>L»JaaB Hill—H^^i ^ 

C. Farley, 158 Boon st 
8X A O. Welch, 763 W Broad at 
436 John Gahan. 968 Leonard av», 

Dattob— Secretary of District Con noil. 
8. G. Mathers. 38 Catherine st 
UH. W. C. Smith. IM E. Huffman ave. 
146. (Ger.) Jos. Wlrth.Sll Clover at 
m (Oar Bldrs ) Geo. Hrenner, 650 Herman st 
~ DBLAWABB-C.A.Rubrecht. 17 University av. 



DatTLB Oaan-A Mo K anal e. Ill North sv 
Ubtsoit— T 8. Jordan, 417 Beau fall ave. 

O. H Glbblnge, 877 Meaublen st 
GSAVD RAPID* Aug Nelson, 16 Marlon st 
Jaxataotl— H. Behan. 208 Deyo st 
Labs I.indbn -A. IamcoI, PO, Box 405. 
LrjDiNOTOg-A R. Dibblo, P.O Bos 898. 
MANISTSB-Wm. Blodjget 806 Maple at. 

rjVimuw-Bec*of T D O , O. B. Oralgsn, 111 

N . Jefferson ave., B. 8. 
J, 1. Murphy, 633 Farwell at. 
[Mill) L. Atafer 181 Barnard st. W. i. 

Haier, isi narnaro n. 


L. H_e*<l*7. « 1S 

11th at, B. 8. 


374. K- O. Yokom, 18 Fergusoi 
440. Jo* Ruddy, Jr.. 1348 Jefferson st 
99 (loNOBS— A Van A man. 22 Oeors* st 
640. Oollbob Point.— G, A. Picks), 6th av*. and 
lltb st 

Ml. OoBNWALL-ON-HrDSOB— E. Hacker, Bos Ml. 
806 OosTLAND- IC W. OrandaM, 8 Map eave 
816. Blmibla-B. M. Snyder, 7(1 B Maikat 
918. PiBHKii.L-os-HunaON - Jas. Hay as, 
Imvui. N. V 
Flushing- P. 8. Field, IM New liOeusl st 
Glbs Oovm L. L.Geo. Montfurt. 
Glbn* Falls— Ira Van Dusen W Sanford at 
laviSttTOX-Alex H. Smith. Box 187, 
ITBLAOA— K. I,. Whiting, tn I.nke ay*. 



KiBOSTOB— J. Deyo Cblpp, Hug JOO. 

ML iJTTLi Palia-*". B. Man'gBo IM Garden st 
Mt. Vbbnob— J. Beardslay. 181 N. 7th ave. 
N gWBTJBOM— L O. Healy, 46 Johnson st 
Nbw Roombll»-H MoGeough.a Division at 
NaTWTOW«, L.I.-J. B Wey^Corona P.O., U 
Nbw YoB*-Be<Tetery ol Dtattlst Oonmrl) 

J, H Wright 330 W, 14th st 
K. A. Rodd. 1848 Cblsholm st 
Jas J. Kane, M7 B. S8th st 
J. U. Lounsbury, Hudson Bids , 801 W. OTlb 
(Jewish) Job n Ooldfarb, lit Madison St 
A. Watt, Jr., 939 Columbus ave. 
(Ger Pr timer*) O. Koechcle, 9187 3d ave, 
ri. Seymour isoo Id sw, 
,. (Boan.) Joe Haslun, IC W. lOOtb st. 
484. (Oer.l II Metbcrger, 633 E, IBCtb st 
4M. Bd Bartlette. Ml 81 h svs. 
471. Wm. Trotter. 818 Mb ave. 
478. P. J, Doherty, 3813 Arthur ay* . St*. T, 
497 (Oer.)G. Berihotd. 43 Blvlngton at, 
toe Patrick Kavaosgh.MI W4»th at. 
SIS. IGsr.l Richard Kuehnel, 81 Ave A, 
TOT. (Pr. Oanadlau, L. Bel I mare, M8 I 
711. J. P. Spain*, 8488 8th eve 
7M. (Ger Millwrights and Mi llers) 
SM 17th at. So. Brooklyn. 











Firm lay — W. Alspaoh 828 Adsms st 
Hamilton— W O. Munch, 1141 Beaton st 
I ronton.- A. D. Nevtmeyer, 135 R. R, g'n 
Lima— J. Vanawerlngeti, 7118. Main st 
Lock la nd —Chas. B. Hertel, Box 183 
Kadibonvills- R L Balden, Box ML 
Mabibtta — J. W. Forester, 800 41 h st 
MabioN— H. O. Anderson 367 B. Prospect st 
Mabttn a Fbtbbt— Thos V. Salisbury, 
Mtddlbwowx?— Jaeob O Kern. Heno, O. 
vt Wabhibton— W 1 H. Nicholson. 
NBLBOrvtLLXt— Frank Barron. 
NOBWOOD- A K Best. Ivan hoe av.. 

Norwood Cincinnati. Ohio. 
POMBBOY -J H. Fowler, Mason City , W. Va. 
PoBTsaorrrH — J. F. Wan less, Box 838. 
Sandusky — J. H Brown, 838 Haneook st 
BraiNOFTBLD— W. B. Knisley, 315 Linden ave. 

D. H. Vlrden, 810 B 6th st. 

Tiffin— A We^igle.^ 181 Hyoamore_st, 

3, District Council, B. G. Mo- 
Pi I leu, 283 Webster st 
J. W Mitchell. 49 Vbt os at 
(Ger.) Chas. Lota, 1116 Sherman at. 
Yorjgorrowg— C. N. Crosier, IM Baldwin at. 
Zanbsvillb— Fred. Kappas, Central »va., 


«0. ASTOBiA— Jacob Frey . Ml Bond st 
V, POMTtAND— David Henderson. Box 


dl. O. L Hohney, 70 Wilson ave. 

an. (Oer.) Robert Gram berg 31 I ten at. 

1*7. AUTOOg* — H. L. 8ml lb, 2006 41 fa avenue. 

WL BAgoog John Albert. Box 180. 

M*. Bbaybb Falls-A. Burry , Box 811, Hew 

: CgBa^^fi^rfTlugby^" 1 







FBANXFOBD— J B, Naos, Ml* Kays tons , 

Faasklis- M. D Ollna 

BxisaITow b — J . B. Martin. M W, Dweel > 
auaniPlfl' J. II. Howe, Mt Concord st. 
HA MiaariM — Q . W. Wen 1. 1x36 Herr at. 
HOMBSTgAD— J. A. Wolff, Box II 
JbaNNBTT*— J Q, Baksr Penn Station. 
La boasts s — O. H»!iaetl, 804 New Holland a* 
MoK bbnpo xer— B G Gilbert, 1010 Brick alley. 
Mabbfimld— B. H MoConkey, Carnegie, Pa. 
MmsjONB.-J D Boyd 
Nsw Kxor*i>0TON J, O. Reed, Box 11. 
New Oastlb— W W. MoClsary, 388 Harbert 


Matthias Mocra, 411 N. 6th st 
(Kensington) Chas. t. Span (tier ,1 
(Ger.) Jo* Oven. 1019 N. 4lh St. 
( Mill) J . Duerlnger, Jr.. MSI 
Pit JSNUBjOM — Usui etei j of 

W. P. Patton, 18 John st 
H. G. Sobomaker, IM Webster *t, AJlsaj. 
(Ger.) Adolpfa Bate. 181 11th st, 8. S. 
B. End) F A- Klnoey, 6161 Shake* pear* st 
P. B. Robinson. Juliet SL, 14lb Ward. 
(Oer I Lud wig Pauker, 1810 Brsedt at, a S. 
PsTNYarrvi wnwy— Wm. Kvane.Box 187. 

last dm. 1UI Green wiob St 
, N. Gutemtttk, Box 188. 




Borahtof — Kesri 

Hubert Gould, 8] 
f»oo. Hteenhack , tfOS Oxford Ht. 
R BoRAWTOlMGor.) 0, Rue»ch, 7» Palm at. 
Hhamoem— H, A. L, Smluk.BlOB. Oameroi 
Hhahok— B. B. Brock way, 17 Fi relet. 
Tabenti™— T. O. Miller, Box 287 
Taylor George Wicks, Box 46. 
LI it io stows— W. h. Koouta, 18 Morjrantowr). 
Wilke»-Bar&»— A. II. Ayera. S 1 Ponost. 
Willurhfobt— L. F. It win, 441 Hepburn «t. 
York — Bd, Mlckley, 19 N. Peon it 


176. Newport- -P. B. Dawloy. 6SH Thames *t 
811. Pawttjcxbt Ji*h B. Huffy. 2Si Weeden BL 
M. Pao vniKHca -Jo*. Aiken. Rear a* Sutton til. 


B. A. Washington, 12 
-(Uol.) O. A. 


j» K noxvuxr— N. Underwood , 14 Anderson at, 

1.2*. MabtIH— B, H. JefTYos*. 

AM. MicMI.il" -II. P Callahan. Hlatlon B. 

in*. Ni-Hi inj. J F. Lmnuebacke, 14* N. Col- 


uli. AUWTIB--II Koeaaler, 1913 B reek en ridge at. 
7S1. Corsica WA -W. J Ko-t-r. 1110 W, Hth ave, | 
ISM. 1>*lla» -K J. Medio, Box 2W. 
H71. Dajnao*— O. H. Miller, mi 30*. 
177. Ft. Worth — a Krause, Cor. New York and 
Willi,- -Is 

411. GM»**viLU»— A A. Ijilrrt. 817 E. Truelove. 
•US Galtrmtoh— <1. K Itallanl. Box 896, 
Ml, " (Ger.l llichard Heldel, N. W. Cor, 

M arid 2Tlh hIh. 
711. Hii.uiboro— M*t lure H. Parker. 
114. Houston— A. llcnnliioii, Box IDS. 
367. haw AKToNio-G W, W. Buillh, Kublolo 

store, Hock Quarry Road. 
MO. " (Ger.) T. .TauernlK, 1111, B. Commerce 
717. " A. G. Wletael, 13S Centre si. 
EM. TatLoR-W B PybM. P. O. Bos 698. 
823 Waoo-B.G. Longgulb, 11 Walnut sL 


ma i.t i.4ki Cttt— Geo, B 
Bo. St. 


MS. BnRLiBOTOW— J a*, Oh 1 1 da. 33 North at, 
t». Kutland- J A. Thlbault, 8 Terrill at. 


183, Rhjhmost*— Wrn H. Gaul. «* 
Ml " (Ool.) J. B. 


HI. HBATTua— J. C, Hermit, Bos lttf. 


111. UuAaxawroR— J, L. Jonas, Box HW, 
1M. OlaeEsbURO— J. 3. Bldanour. Box St, 
119. Bleim D K Martin. Box »». 
tat. Kaibuoht— I, O. Jones. 

719 HltRTlMOTOW-T. It.Gllktaon, 1829 4Ui eve. 
177. MAtTiMaBiiEu— Geo. L BohopperL 

<*>. WeLI**lTtM»-B*mL pRttM»OU, 

8. WhbbU»<J -A. I,. 

Bee. Dlalrlct 


Ma. Gb 




BAY W. Wagner, 828 N Mediaonit. 
LA CRoaaR-Joh" Letd*. 1808 Adama at. 
Haduor— Wm. Moll, 208 Murray at. 
sIiLsvACR**— Hooretarv of IMNtrlct Council 

Herman Obreoht. 64. B Pierce at. 
(Gar. ) Wm. Bub lit*, 740 IBtn at. 
(Ger.) Jonn He I ton, tori, 7M 7tb *T*. 
(Ger.) J. Werner, IH8 II III si. 
(Gar.) John Hawmann, Iff Ml at 
Kriiai Beck man, 11*2. Uihat. 
Otto Kent. 185 4Lh at. 

No. LaCkomb*-0. I .event u*. 21 OS Sana at 
OsEXoae-Joaepn Turtle. 401 Ml. Vernon at 

I'us.s a Law to Iti'irti lull' Stiili* and ACiitil- 
rlpul (JoulructorH In Employing 

page II of tlie October 
0* k i'kktkk we pub- 
liilieii r copy of t 
bill whli:b will be 
proseatetl to the 
HtatB I^Klslatore ot 
New Jereey tbin 
winter. Tbe bill 
has been prepared 
by lira. J. It. Mannitleld, of Union 107, 
Klitabetb, N.J. 

la defence of tbie bill Bro. Mannitleld 
writes: "It is tbe doty of the state to 
protect it* working-iien by preventing a 
reduction of tbe present wage scale. 

" Yon will alao agree with me that if 
tbe Btate expresses its approval of cheap 
labor and starvation wagee it is only to 
be expected that contractors, whether for 
public or private undertakings, will deem 
themselves perfectly Justified in following 
the example set by the Government, 
" We complain that In many of tha 

corporations, that contracts are accepted 
at such a price that they cannot be exe- 
cuted at a profit except by the employ- 
ment of cheap labor. ThiB we desire to 

" Day after day and year after year we 
eee men coming here from every country 
in Karope. They are glad to work for 
lower wages than oar anion standard 
rate, because, Bven then, they are better 
paid than at home. They remain here u 
few months; they buy nothing except 
food. They do not come here with the 
intention of acquiring citizenship and are 
utterly valueless to the republic. Thou- 
sands of men invade the United Btates 
under similar circumstances. 

" Weask that something be done to pre- 
vent the importation of cheap labor and 
to protect our own citisens, who pay the 
greater portion of our taxation and 
whose interests are bound up india- 
aolubly with this country, of which they 
are an integral and not unimportant 
part. This country is rapidly increaeing 
in population and in general prosperity. 
This increase necessitates tbe erection or 
larger and more commodious public 
buildings of all descriptions, as well as 
many other undertakings, which will 
give an immense amount of employ* 
m cut Truly it is not unwarrantable on 
onr part to ask that the State shall insist 
that in their works at least, the laborer 
shall receive such payment as will allow 
bim to live as a man and bring up a 
family respectably and well. 

' In England, the Government, in its 
dock-yards and all Government work, 
employ I union labor and has not found 
such a course of procedure detrimental 
or unwise. Tbe English House of Com- 
mons is at present busily engaged in fix- 
ing the hour* of labor. Are we of this 
great republic to be left behind by a 
country which is not nearly so advanced 
in everything tending to promote the 
welfare of tbe people as we *re? 

"Our Government does not deem it un- 
constitutional to fix the rate of wages 
paid its employees in all departments. 
Where would tbe unconstitutionality 
come in of fixing tbe rate of wages to be 
paid to the mechanics and laborers on 
all Government works 7 We tail to see. 
We consider a provision inserted in all 
Btate and municipal contractors' agree- 
ments would be eminently constitutional 
and dictated by all the elements of justice 
and fair play. 

"This is not a question of party politic*. 
It is a question of protection by the legis- 
lature of the working men and their In- 
terests. When protecting the manu- 
facturers of the country, surely the rights 
of those engaged in them and in all 
branches of trade and labor are not to be 
disposed of by inapt comparison or stud- 
ied neglect. Workingmen have arrived 
at a point when they will feci It their duty 
on all future occasion* to support the 
men who will support them. 

" Mr. Editor, there will be a bill intro- 
duced in tbe Senate and General Assem- 
bly, called An act to regulate tbe hours 
of labor of mechanic* and laborer* in the 
employment of tbe Btate or any muni- 
cipal corporation therein, and providing 
that citizen* of the Doited State*) of 
America shall be given preference In all 
public work*.' 

" Hoping the above will soon become a 
law of the Btate, and that oar represent* 
tive* will pats a measure of a similar 
nature, 1 remain your* respectfully," 

Jobkpu K. Man hi field, 
'i Broad street, Elisabeth, N. J 


Ilia an old, well -en In hi I ah e< I principle of th< 
United Brotherhuotl tit Carpenters for member* 
to buy Union I,. in el Gooob In preference to 
other articled. And why uotT If we aak fair 
wafres for our labor, why should we buy good* 
made at unfair wage* by other*. 

The Union Label In every Imtuatry la a guar- 
antee of fair wages, decent working condition* 
and union labor employed. 

We here give a facsimile of the Union 
•o our member* may know Union Label 
It a point to aak for them, 


Thin 1*1*1 la med on all 
guoda made by Union men 
I eon netted with Union* 
affiliated with tha A merl 
[ can Federation of Labor 
where auch unions bavr 
i no distinctive trade lahe' 
of their own. This la be 
la printed on white paper 


Thl* la the label of lb. 
M Journeymen Baker* and 
Confectioner*, under their 
inter national Union. II U 
printed on white paper In 

A black Ink and Is pasted on 
" each loaf of bread. Jt — 

to long hour* and Ion 


ThlalB the joint Label of the 
Bool and hhoe Work era' Inter- 
national Union and of tha 
Laatera' Protective Union anal 
all other union men in U>* 
Boot and 8 bo* trade. It U 
printed In blue Ink and 
on every boot and shoe 
It guarantees tha 

by Union men 
shoes are not convict or prison 

tratoa pbibtrrs' 

and of the German 
label Is used on all newspaper and 
It always heara the name and 
the printing work 1* dona, 

This Label U 
Issued u d A a f 

authority of thi 
Interna 11 on a 



Don't become disgruntled because 
■omeone In your union I* objectionable 
to you. Perhaps there is a member 
who is not pleased with you, bat that 

This label is printed in black ink on light blu* 
paper, and 1* pasted on the cigar-box. Don't 
mix It up with tbe U. 8. Revenue label on tba 
box as tbe latter la near iy of a similar color. Baa 
that tbe Cigar Makers' Blue Label appears on lbs 
bos from which you ate served. It Insure* you 

ccrroH TAtLOaa' label. 

All Trade* Unionist* are requested to aak foi 
of Lb* Journey men Tailors' Union, and 
on having It when they order any clothing 
» merchant tailor. It la to be found in the 
breast pocket of tha coat, on tha under 
side of tli a buckle strap of the vest, and on tha 
lining of the panb). It 1* printed la 
Ink on wul te linen, with tha words 11 Jour- 
on' Union of Amerloa" In red Ink 






= - 


This Label la about 
an inch and a hall 
i^Sx^X square and la printed 
on buff ool ored paper. 
It la placed on every 
union made hat be- 
fore It leavea the 
workman's hands. 
If a dealer take* a 
label from on* hat 
and places It l D 
another, or ha* say 
detached label n In his etore, do not buy from him 
a* hi* labels may be counterfeit, and bis bat* may 

This Label I* the only Boaitlv* guarantee thai 
iaady-mad* Clothing, Including overall* and 
Jackets, 1* not made under the dreaded, disease 
Infested tenement house and aweattug system. 

Too will Bud the linen label attached by soa 
•nine stitching to tha lurid* breast pocket of the 
' oalhalnstdaofth* 



Tbe above Label 1* issued by tha Iron t Ut tm t 
Onion of North America and can be found on all 
anion made stoves, rang** and Iron casBpga. Il 
I* printed in black Ink on white paper and pasted 
so all onion made stoves, ran gas and i 


The Tack Maker*' Union Is the oldest labor 

uriraulztitiiin la America. It vras founded In 
1834. Above Is the 1*1*1 placed by the Boctety 

Union i 


The label of the German printers will •*> i 
on pass IS, la oar German department. 

There are labels alao Co* than trade* I TV* 
Coopers, Journeymen, Barber*, Bora* OoOa* 
Makers, Etastl* Web Weaver*) International 

The Lester*' Protective Union of America lias 
copyrighted the above trade-mark, which wheu 
found on the sole or lining of a boot or *hos. 1* a 
guarantee that the name Is hand lasted by union 
man. On account of the Introduction of so-called 
lasting machine* and "aoab" workmen, the 
I as tern deemed It necessary to take this effective 
means to protect themselves sod purchaser* of 
footwear from unscrupulous manufacturers. 
The hand lasted ahoee and boots are sold ** 
cheap a* the inferior lasted article. 

"AamTBATioa " is a concession to in- 
justice in the Interest of temporary 
peace. " Compulsory arbitration" li- 
the arbitrament of force, might against 
right, a paradox— In brief, misgovern- 
under protest of the misgoverned. 



Btutl4<l B udjbrudtm Isktt 

tittle* Sabtl tttrb m 
sutn 3<ttungl* ant »«■ 
|f„ btrttt trudocbrtttn Mra 
tetnbtt, tDd(b« tn 

(For Our Or man Members.) 
Son Sofeefjul. 

fie tcticbe es ben 
meljr nlsb,un« 
Satnenteifl, roel4e 
to in ben ^et. 
. ©taatengitbhatobl 
gefatten, toenn cine* 
Itagef tin fcalbes Subenb SBoffe, roel««, im 
BefH »on eiu paar fcunbert fflttttionen 3)ot> 
[at* , ft4 hat flttnse »augef4aft im Sanbe 
angeeignet fiaben, plbilidj oepimmen roftr« 
btn, bafj feine Sitge unb !ein jammer me$r 
getfl,rt toetben foil, bis bee RongteB ein 
(Be(e(f etlaffen b,abe, na4 roelc^em auf »au. 
bolt obex itgenb toe(4' cmberes material 
ein b>,er ffiinfu&tjoH gelegt metbe? SBtttbe 
bat ni4t eine flute XnjabJ oon Garpentert 
rebeHtf4 mat^en unb roarben ni*t fefcr oiele 
won ifcnen roettetn unb flu$en ob bet Xpranp 
nil be! &albena>u v enb oon»offen, ioel4eie 
in bet §anb baben, iiber bunbetttaufenb 
Erbeitetfamilien gum $ungetn gu oerur. 
tQetlcn. 34 gtaube fogar, es rottrbe nou 
einigen §i T Iopfen oorgef4lagen toetben, 
man feUe jene Soffe, fobalb man i^tet bjib< 
(aft merbe, am na^ften, btften «aum auf. 
Inttpfen. 6old>c ©ebanfen unb sUorf41age 
radreii nicftt mefjr tote natiii lirf), btnn gegtn 
ben £>u«fl( r fliebt et rein SRittel, ali Brcb 
unb toem e« an Stub febjt unb an Witietn, 
baffelbe ju etlangen, ber forfeit ni$t lange, 
toenn et roei|, net ibtt batan oerbjnbert, auf 
f&tlia)e SHeife fei« fieben gu ftiften — Ijaben 
boa) (oflar bie Solbaten be* jttbif4en ftbnia* 
Dauib bie ©4aubrobe im Xempel cerjebrt, 
ale fie bungrig maten unb ni4tS Xnbete* ju 
etlangen mat, ob»ol,l ba* Beriiljten jenet 
„,eiltgen" »tobe won ben jllbif4en ^faffen 
tnit bem lobe beftraft gu toetben pfleflte ! 

^m 8augeroett ift bie Ronce juration be* 
Rapitat* aOetbina* no4 "«4t t° ^eit fott. 
aefdjtitten, al» in anberen Snbuftriejroeigen 
unb e* rcirb roobl aua> naa> einige *Jeit long 
bavern, bi* in biefem ©eioetf JJuftanbe 
,*«f4en, toie g. S. in ber 3uder.3nbufttir, 
abet baft ein aUgcmetmt ©au«Xtuft unmbg> 
tia) mare, nitb roob^l 91iemanb btb,aupten 
moBen, ebenfo nenifl n>ie bet alte $>oQetnbet 
^aotmeoet unb feine fjrau batan baa)ten, 
at* fie not ungef&bt M ^abrtn in einee f(ei> 
ntn, buntlcn @affe Uletp ;i)ot(* in einem 
!u»femenffiafd&feffelcubanif{b,en3udet ein. 
!oO>t<n, baft tf)te 9tad)fommen unb ein paar 
Staiamtbutget Xeut|a)e im 3ab,re bte 
»e feettf 4er bet gefammten 3utfet<3nbufttie 
»otb'Vmttita'l unb im Oefl|e con meb,te* 
Yin (unbett StiSioncn DoUatl fein routben. 
Sic 9ta4Iommen biefet etften ammfani< 
fa)en 3udcrflebe{ (aben nun getyan, na* 
ia) oben beguglia) be* Baugemet!* a(C bet. 
f inftige Wbglia)!eit angebeutet ftabe — fie 
|abcn 50,000 Slrbeitet oftne itgenb »elrf;e 
ffiatnung pU^Iicb enttafTen, urn bura) mx> 
fen.Slanoott unb poIittfKe S4<4^ge itjrr 
StiOtonen in ein paat VioQtn urn einen ge> 
" otigen &aufen mub.eloft gu oermeb.ren. Unb 
i nttb ef In a&ert anberen 3nbuftrie}roei. 
gen g«$en: ba* Rapital toitb fi4 foncenttt' 
«n, bii tl in ben fianbtn son einigen, ja, 
oieUeia>t eine* einilgen SRenf^en ift, bet 
bantt att* in bUfet 3nbufttie «tbeitenben 
a » DUSflofe eilaoen ftebeuftt unb au*. 

altet £»nbet, beoot eine fol^e aBgemeine 
Roncenttation mBglidj gemotben ift, fl4 oen 
einigen toetben, urn alle ^aifgqueBen bet 
Hatut unb bie Slu*beutung betfelben in tfjre 
ctgenett ipdnbe gu nefjmen, unb baft babel bie 
otganiftrten Eatpentet tt)r Xb,eil beitragen 
toetben, batan ift nic«t im @etingflen gu 


let etfte Sd^ritt gu einet aUgemeinen 
Roncentration unfeter Rtafte toitb tjoffent* 
lid) bemna^ft im 3ab)rc 18!ifi getb,an toetben, 
toie foeben son bet Xmetican ^eberatioit of 
Sabot 6efa)loffen, b. (. ee ift gu Ijoffen, baft 
in jenem 3a(te nia)t nut ein aBgemeirpr «n. 
(auf gut @infub,rung be* 8la)tftunoentage4 
Setban toetben roitb, fonbevn baft bie ameri' 
ratiif^en SStbeitet aud) auf bem politifd)en 
^elbeln gefa)(offcnet Steibe auftteten unb 
filr einen auten, bona tide Union. Matin, 
nominitt auf einet !oBelti»ifttfo)en ?lat> 
fotm,al* ^raflbentfdjaftfl'Eatibibaten ftim- 
men toetben, auf bteft SBeife betb,dtigenb, 
baft fie au* bet Secgangenb,eit gelernt unb 
eingefe$cn (aben, baft bet Rampf gegen ba* 
fapitaliftifebe <Eieb*gefinbel auf UmuwU 
fajem unb politifejem Boben glei^geitig 

34 glau4e abet ni4t, baft bet Roncett. 
ration*ptogeft in alien (Bcroettcn eine foI4e 
oBenbung erret4en nitb, mle g. ©. in bet 
[<3nbufltie unb bet «ettoleum.®e« 
innung, »et4e ebenfaB* unbef4tanUef 
gentium etnet gang Iteinen Vngab,! von 
acuten In Kmettta unb Sufttanb geroovben 
i% 34 glawbe oielmeb,t, baft bit Ktbeitet 

3Rtlt[etroei(e geb,t mit bem SiBigettoctben 
einet KngabJ oon SBaaten infolge bet neuen 
Xatifgefetgebung eine aBgemeine Stebultion 
bet 9tbeit*(5(ne auf ben meiften 0elbetn 
bet 3ttbufttie |>anb in §anb. SBent^alben 
flnb in bet ftletbetbrant&e bie iibbne gutlid. 
gegangen unb ebenfo merben in ben beiben 
$auptbran4en bet 9tob,mAtetial'3nbufttie, 
bet Robjengerc innung unb <Sifen>@rgeugung 
Sob,ntcbuftionen ootgenommen. IBe fibri* 
gen 3nbufttten pflegen biefen brei 8ran4en 
gu folgen. @* giebt bagegen feine Stittel — 
rocnigften* fnn SSittel im 9)a(men bet b,eu< 
tigen Dtganifation bet menf4U4en @efeB> 
f4aft, nel4e mit 3caf4inenunb Sb,emifalien 
probuctrt. X)te legten beiben Slemente ma 
4en aBe ffiaaten bvlliget unb btflden felbft» 
oerftdnbli4 aurfj alle £of}ne b,etab, auftet, 
toenn bie Vtobuftion*mitte( in benBefift bet 
^olfSmaffen, tefp. bet orgamfuten «tbeitet 
ubetger>en. Strife* unb Boycotts t/elfen 
gegen Sob^nrebufticnen nut in oeteingelten 
galleii, toie bier unb ba im Baugeioetl gegen 
tteine Soffe, bie oei tinge It bafte^en unb ge> 
gtoungenfinb, ifjre Jtonttafte al* Siefetanttn 
eingubalten. G« ift unlet biefen Umftdnben 
oon bet Hmetiean gebetation of Sabot f efjt 
oernUnftig geneftn, ben 3ttbeilem gu em* 
pfeQlen, nut in ben aBetbtingenbftcn Ballen, 
obet, toenn eine 9liebetlage bur4au* un> 
miigH4 ift, gum eirtfe ju f4teiten. Db bie 
Ro^lengtabet bie* bebetgigen toetben? 6ie 
benfen nft«li4 niebet einmal baton, einen 
gtoften Strife in Scene gu fe ten — obet 
ftedt bet Roblenttuft au4 btesmul niebet 
ban inter* Xie leffiere Hnnabme ift mob I 
nab,tf4etnli4«. al* itgenb etroaS Xnbete* I 

Z)ie Ravitatiften unb iljre SBetfgeuge finb 
Bbtigen*, tto| aQct i|tet fonftigtn S4Iau> 
b,eit, bttnb nie bie Waulmtttfe. Sonft nUt> 
ben fie nidjt fo blobflnnig fein, fottniab,tenb 
mit (Senalt , ®efdngntft unb (Balgen bte Set. 
ttetet bet Vtbcttetdaffc gu oetfofgen unb fie 
auf biefe SBeife urn fo f4neBet gut 9teooIu< 
Hon gu tteiben. <Si oetgeb,t fap fein 2ag ( 
an nel4em man ni4t b^orte, baft bjet obet 
ba otganiflttt Vtbcitct in* defangnift ge* 
notfen merben, ntit fie Scab! gcptUgctt, 
obet Stotb unb Xobtf 4lag angctt4tet f>abcn 
foBen unb in Suooblanb, Gatif ornien, ift f o< 
gat ein Cifenbab,natbeitet gum Xobe oet ur« 
tbeiu notbtn, raeii ct bie Sntgleifung einel 
3uge««etf4ulbet (aben foB, auf bem Solba. 
ten fu&ren, ne!4< auSgetUdt naten, um 
Strilet tobtguf4ieften. 3n Bennfoloanien, 
matolanb, 3Binoi*, 3nbiana, 0(>io unb 
anberen Staoten, flnb in ben (etjten paat 
JBo4en eine gange Utenge Rofjlengtikbef, 
Stfenatbeiter unb IQebet auf oielt 3af/te 
in* 3u4tb.au* gef 4id t noiben, me il fie ®e. 
toalttfjaten oetfibt f^aben fofien. Die Ra?i> 
tallfienflaffe muft fi4 abet ni4t einbllben, 
baft fl< b*e KtbeUet einfa)u4tetn 

35rud etgeugt ffiegenbtud unb ba* gubinben 
be* Si4etb,eit*oenlit* fann bie firplofion 
eine* JSampffeffel* ni4t »etf>inbern, toenn 
bet ^eiget fottfafjtt, auf bem tJeuetb,eetb 
^eigmatetial angufjdufen. 

Sugene S3. X>ebS, ben Setter be* gtoften 
(SifenbaEjnfltife*, unb bie ii&rigen SBeainten 
bet Smerican Staitnaa Union, %abtn fie fa 
je|t au4 auf btei bi* fed)* donate in* 
3u41bou* gef4idt unb bamit ftaben^ fie P4 
meb,t, ale un* gef4abet, benn bie gifenbafjn. 
atbeitet netben ft4 jefjt etft te4t otganifl. 
ten unb bet bet etften, beften ®elegenfjett 
3Ra4e an ifjren Betfolgetn unb @egnetn 
neljmen ; getabe fo, nie bie otgantfltten 
Ktbeitet Deutf4Ianb* c* ma4en netben, 
benen jenet albetne giimmel, bet beutf4e 
Raifet, jefet bur4 ein neue* aRaulforbgeftl 
bie Agitation burcb Siiort unb Sd)nft no4 
einmal unm5gli4 ma4tn mo4te ! 

3n Ken S«l f/at fl4 bief et Xage einet 
bet bettt4tigten ©cab'Btauetboffe tobtge. 

Set Rerl nuftte mit bem feitten atmen 
Krbeilern abgepteftten @elbe md)t3 9nbete* 
angufangen, at* Xog unb iWadjt gu faufen, 
unb fo bat et fl4 benn ba* 3>elitium Xte< 
men* an ben gal* gefoffen unb bei einem bet 
babei etfolgten Xobfu4t*anfiiBe febnitt et 
fi4 ben $al* ab. Det ffllann fjat 3tau unb 
Rinbet (intetlaffen, abet fie ctben au4 fein 
@elb unb netben ben ,,3Jet(uft" nob,l balb 
oetf4metgen unb fottfafjttn, ib,te Htbeitet 
auggubeuten, 35elitium X«men* obet ni4t 
— ba* (apita[iftif4eSpifebubengef4cift ge(|t 
feinen ©ang, ob bet S3oft ein ©entleman, ob 
er ein Sauf' obet Haufbolb ift, obet ob ba* 
<9tf4&ft oon JBittroen obet SBaifen bettieben 
nirb. Xer Stbeitet nitb neitet gef d)unben 
unb if^m toeitet ba* Slut abgegapft. 

SBie lei4t fonnte man biefen Stauetpto. 
ten ba* §anbmetf (egen, nenn nut aBe Mr* 
better ft a) bafjin einigen moBten, nut Stet 
au* Unionbtaueteien gu trinfen ! Unb baft 
bie* balb gef4cfje, batauf ein traftige* 
,.S»n Meujafjr" ! 

The Tics of Brotherhood. 


A lirottier'B a brother whatever his lot, 
Tliounh dweJHiiB in mniiiiun, palace, or cot, 
A brotberbuod'a tlM i ndurttig shall last, 
And flee not away like joys that are i 

They brighten the heart like sunlight above, 
And spring from the fount of Infinite love; 
They gladden alike the young and the old, 
A wonderful boou more precious than gold. 

No foe man can break those brotherly ties 
That reaen from the earth beyond ithe 

Where glory shall crown Hie brother!) 
United again In that beautiful land. 

Btnolved, That we an a body thoroughly Ap- 
prove of the obJeclH of the American Federation 
of Latior and pledge ourselves to give U our 
earnest and hearty support. 

Resolved, That roe tubers of this organization 
should make Ita rule, when purchasing good), 
lo call for those which bear the trade-marks of 
organized labor, and when any Individual, linn 
or corporation ehull strik e a blow at labor organi- 
sation, they are ear nun 11 y requested to gtva 
that individual, ilrui or corporation their careful 
•ousiderution. No good union mail can kiss she 
*od that whips him. 

When the trade unionist e learn to pat 
their trade mark on their ballots the pub- 
lic will discriminate more in favor of 
their labor in the purchase or gooda.— 

When the laborer works for himself 
then labor is capital. When he eel Is bis 
labor to some one eUe, then labor is a 
commodity. When labor is a commodity 
the laborer j* a slave.— The Workman. 


Resolved, That we Enoft emphatically 
courage carpenters and joiners from organ 
as carpenters under the Knights of La yit, as 
believe each trade should be organ 
own trade bead In a ' 
deliar ot 


Resolved, That it Is of the greatest Importance 
that members should vote Intelligently; hence, 
the members of this Brotherhood shall strive to 
secure legislation In favor of those who produce 
the wealth of the country, and all discussions a ad 

er at 

meeting, but party 


RfMtlted, That while we welcome to our shores 
all who oome with the honest Intention of be- 
coming lawful citizens, we at the same time con- 
demn the present eyxtem which allows the 
Importation of destitute lalxirers, and we urge 
organized labor everywhere to endeavor to ae- 
the enactment of more stringent :' 

Betnlred, That we bold It as a sacred principle 
that Trade Union men, above ail others, should 
set a good example as good and faithful work' 
their duties to lb 

to themselves and their orfMt 


We hold ft reduction of hours for a day's work 
Increases the Intelligence and happiness of the 
laborer, and also Increases the < 
and the price of a day's work. 


We recognize that the Interests of all < 
labor are Identical, regardless of o<x 
nationality, religion cr color, for a wrong < 
to one is a wrong done to all. 

We object to prison contract labor, because It 
puts the criminal in competition with I 
labor for the purpose of cutting 
and also I 

Br toiled, That we most earnestly 
ibs practice in vogue In many cities, but 
especially in the West, that of 
fictitious building booms, as It has a 
demoralize the trade In such localities. 

An Excellent Form of Iudeuttire for Carpenter Apprentices. 

Yrtt* SuAentttr*, Witneseeth that by and with the 

coup en t of hath pat himself, and by these presents doth 

voluntarily and of his own free will and accord, pot himself apprentice to 

to learn the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 

Joiner ; and after the manner of an apprentice, to serve the said , 

for and daring, and to the full end and term of, years next ensuing. 

Daring all of said term the apprentice doth covenant and promise that he will 

serve faithfully, that he will not play at tarda or dice or 

any other unlawful games whersby the laid may be injured. 

That he will not absent himrelf from work during the recognised hours of labor, 
without leave, nor frequent saloons, hotels or play bouses, hut in all things will 
behave himself as a faithful apprentice ought to during Saul term. 

And that the said on his part, doth covenant and promise 

that he will use the utmost of his endeavors to teach or cause to be taught or 
instructed the said apprentice in the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 
Joiner. Said apprentice shall not be required to work more than the recognised 
hours ot labor. The said further agrees to pay said apprentice 

And for the true performance ol all and singular the covenants and agreements 
aforesaid, the said parties bind themselves each onto the other firmly by these 

In Witnbbb Whbbuof, the said parties have interchangeably set their hands and 

seals hereunto. Dated this day ot in the year of onr Lord one 

thousand eight hundred and 

>•■ m oiiiiiiiiii ■ • a a 

Executed and delivered before 

■••i • •*•• • *•««» 



J. A. FAY & EGAN CO., 

188 to 208 West Front St., CINCINNATI, OHIO, U. S. A. 



End Visw of Ho, 2 Varletf Wood Worksr 


The Largest Line in the World of the Latest and Best Approved Designs- 

wht * «UUb££S] th^lo^kinoW worrit " GRAND PRIX " AT PARIS, '89. HIGHEST AWARDS WORLD'S FAIR, CHICAGO, '93. 

wil1 m * kB - Outfits or Single Maohines Supplied. Send for Catalogues. 

Eg.n Foot Ptwif Mortitw, 

The r 




in short, to work Wood in any manner, 
build, with the best obtainable facilities, ai 
extensive line of Machinery for the Wood- 
Worker who employs Foot and Ham] 1'ower. 

22 Water Street, 
Falls, N. K, U. S. A. 

All of our tools are thoroughly modern, era- 
bodying in their construction numerous im 
which are the outcome of 1c 
experience and coustant experiment 
think, our Catalogue A would 
repay your investigation 
Shall we mail it? 

You should see 



No. 93. 


I You tin im It it the 


or we wilt send it to 
any dealer you request, 
or we will send It to 
any address on receipt 
of II. Circulars free. 


86Chimben St., N.Y. 



It will pay vim to buy a law ill 

"iilH»TON''onl». Ilwtllbol4*.i 
est longer, and do mora work with* 
out Winn than other sews, iherakf 
saving In lutwir and coat of SlaL 
They are made of tha t~~ 
ot cruel hie i 

iSK FOB HO. 7. 

ad for Pamphlet, " THE SAW, 

For sale by all 
Mailed Free 


All latest designs and 
approved new models of 
the best manufacturers. 

Chos. E. Schou, 

270 Main Street, 



8TROUD9BURG, Monroe Co., Pa. 
NEW YORK, HI Washington Street. 
CINCINNATI, 1 West Pearl Street 

Bill'iCiimiitiitIIadi Kur Is 00 


Paid Book. Hodgson i oo 

Th« Btbkl Sqoa««, ikd How to Usb It . i oo 

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Hand Railiko Mum Raiy i oo 

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■1 I 

Regalia and Badges. 

Over 2000 Society Flans and Banners Manufac- 
tured. Over 6X0u 8octetle» furnished 
with Badges or Regalia. 

No. 84 Court St., Cincinnati. 


Bend for the Best and Cheapest Practical Book 
printed. Written for Carpenters by a Carpenter 


Or Balloon and Roof Framlrg, 
Maginnls, author of "Practical 
" How to Join Moulding*," etc., etc 

It Ua practical treatise on the latest and best 
method* of laying out, framing and raising tim- 
ber houaes on the balloon principle, together with 
a complete and easily understood system of Roof 
Framing, the whole making a handy and easily 
applied hook for carpenters, builders, foremen 
and journeymen. 

Past I.— Balloon Framing. 

Chapter I. Oeneral description of Balloon 
Pram ps, Framed Bills and their construction. 

Chapter II. First Floor Beams or Joists, rltory 
Sections, Beoond Floor Beams, Hluddlng. Fram- 
ing of Door and Window Openings, Wall Plates 
ai d Roiif Timbers. 

Chapter Hi. Laying out and working Balloon 
Frames, Girders, Hills Posts and Stud ding. 

Chapter IV. lading out First and Second 
Floor Jolsta or Beams, Celling JoUU and Wall 

Chapter V. Laying out and Framing the Roof. 
Chapter VI. Raising, 

Past II,— Difficult Roof Pramlsg, 
Chapter I. Simple Roofs 
Chapter II. flip and Valley Roofs. 
Chapter III. Roofs of Irregular Plan. 
Chapter IV. Pyramidal Roofs. 
Chapter V. Hezagoral Roofs. 
Chapter VI. Conical or Circular Roofs, etc., etc 
The work la Illustrated and explained by oyer 
M large engravings of houses, roofs, etc., and 
measures Sail Inches, 

PRICK, - - 11.00 
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Save $50 When you Build. 

Hicks' Builders' Guide 

ornprislng an easy and practical system of eat! 
nallug material and labor for Carpenter*, Oon 


37, Station A, Omaha, Neb. 

tractors and Builders. A comprehensive guide to 
those engaged In the various branches of the 
building trade. It save* time, money and mis- 
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Price, fl M 

The Building Budget and 
Everybody's Assistant 

contains tin- practical experience of over AO build- 
ers right to tliK point on all subjects relating to 
r« I dilations 011 materials, labor and proper con- 
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Hicks* Vest Pocket Guide, 

A memorandum, lime hook, price current, and 
handy refeience. It Tji ki.ks. Sent free for the 
asking. Ilnn'l tulw It. 

I. P. IHOKH, Hoi 37, Htallon A, Omaha, Neb. 
Send order at once. 






midc rMOM aisaoN, 




U9 m3Elm?S3?'88m m 


without a bard, smooth, keen, cutting edge 
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They are for ssleby dealers In high grade toots throughout the United States, 
keep them and refusal to order them, nod for our Illustrated catalogue, In 

MACK * CO., (bat of Piatt Street, ROCHKBTKR, ft. T. 

of tha most a*t»e.*Ws Una of Pin* Kdg* Tools In th* ITnluwl states 


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parrlenoe. We report whether patent 
secured or not, free of charge. Out fee 

secured, Trade-Mark*. Copyright* 

lowed.' 3'Xpage"^ook Free. 

.- be 
ioi due 

SB s9phches 

CUT8 for y .f>. valleyl 
principal. Jack and 
cripple rafters, and „ . 
Icngthsinft.andin8.il. A, 
Sets Instantly, Ask 
your Hardware IHDIANAPOLI*. 

d**!*'. - Indiana. 

Wm. McNiece k Son s 

616 CHERRY ST.. 


tfond, Panel-a. 
1 -a^and Rip 3ows, 


A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred InterwIra SS 

VOL. XV.-No. 3. 
Established 1881. 



f Fifty Cents per Y«sr< 
1 flingt* Copies, S Cta. 

In these distressing doll times 
svery city ud town under oar 
ioo has a earploe of carpenters. And it 
will not be much better, even when 
I mM Improve, unless the eight- boar day 
it nulvefuelly established to open np 
employment more generally to all hands. 

BtUl tome places here an abnormally 
targe share of Idle carpenters, through 
the false, fakey newspaper advertising of 
a peculators and real eatate boom era. The 
subjoined are a few of such placet : 

phi*, New York, Brooklyn, Boston, 
Atlanta, Oa.; Grand Kapide, Mich.; 
Montreal, Chicago, Palrmount, W. V*.; 
flan Francisco, and alt throogh Gall- 
on la and the Pact lie Ooaat; Springfield. 
III.; Wlnnepeg, 
dilate of Colorado 


Jam. A. Brhvai, Union 38, 

t ■ 

Jam. J. Lin in am of Union No. 1, haa 
been appointed Gfakf Janitor of the 
Chicago City Hall, oa the ttrength of the 
excellent work be did while he had 


A. M. Flam, 

It la Indeed an fortunate there haa been 
*< ch a family quarrel In the 
at Painter*. The faction represented by 
Q m. Bee. Elliott baa 111 headquarters at 
Baltimore and comprises folly 78 per 
oant. of the organ! tatlon. The other fac- 
♦loo baa J. W. McKinney, of Chic ago, 
fo • Gen. flee., and he has headquarters at 
1 m feyette, lad The whole quarrel arose as 

at the Buffalo convention lest August- 
T ' Dnally became neeesaary to hold a 
and convention In Cleveland, O , last 
f* esmber. There were more than twice 
lb t ■amber of isltgtfaa aad 
re, imsasited at Cleveland 
at Buffalo, aad the majority sentiment 
ef the Brotherhood was la fcvor of J. T 

P ■posed to dispense with conventions 
f< i the Altera aad to introduce the Initle- 
tW i aad refsreadom la the gesasj 
o die Brotherhood of Painters. 

•f labor Anneals 

™ ■ m^^»"W^P» MMm Mfrj^^^MmMMMW 


t a recent me et in g of the 
G sell of this body, it was voted to 
appeal lor aid on behalf of Eugene V. 
I tabs aad bis oo-laborera, bow under ttsv 
of Impriaonmsst, In an effort to 
trial. The importance of 
thtf matter eaanot be overestimated. II 
the eoerfa deckdoa Is allowed to 
Dm asms lnfernoo* amatruction of the 

for a place on the Labor Oonmieafoa in 
the PhlUlps House bill aboold pass 
He was endorsed by all the 
abor anions ia the State of 
y alas and by the Stale Branch of the A.F. 
of L. aad by a number of leading eitUene, 
Brother Ftegg hi aa untiring worker for 

any position. 


Tas Laarsurm Ota am i&toe ef the 
of Labor did excel- 
work in puebing the bill 
for relief of the eases eeamea frets la- 
la a period of six 

1840 io the i 
In 1867, he 

1801, he enter 

Bat i 

Barm in your rotes en the 
propositions. Vote clow 


Raw Constitutions, aa lately 
are now ready. Price, fire 
copy. Bead orders to G. B.-T. 


Don't forget to forward yonv 
mente without delay. Send by 
Thla Is the fust 

Tubas la a great 
by the Loeala for 

aad "Agitation Cards 

through bath 
the bill 

la the 


the Seamen of Ban Ftaactaeo aad Adolph 
of the agar Makers are a power- 



Doialo Mclwvcsn died la 
tea, D. 0., Feb. is, 1806, after a abort 
Last August ho dep o sited bto 
card la Union 190 •/ Washington. Ha 
leraberof Union 11 of 
O., aad was one of the original 
foundere of the U. B. He was a del agate 
from Cleveland to the Convention la 
IS, 1881, when the U. B. 
tad again was a dele- 
gate from Union U to the Detroit 
in 1188. He was a 
m. All honor to sat rs emery I 

prlaoa essay times strike la attempted, 
hoi M this alL Bvery one who sarttct- 
of aay violence or 
• ef any other person, eo that nasi 
aad toast caa m valve sa entire 

sotaoaat, Tsssaat ertteu Is required. 

s!U ,otrihoti^tothen»<!ejghjaad. 

I r ordb. yf F re C<joi«di, A 1 . 
r, ' Auu *" 'it, ftaeteUry, 
i>e Snki B »'< i'Sbyuaa, lad. 


died la Detroit last saoath fasss saralysia 
Born la 1830, bli name was steady la- 
tertwteed for a period < 
with all Ui* straggles of the 
meat in America, H« 
tor by trade and was PiiMIAal a uunahar 
of yaare of the Ship Caraeatavj aad 
Gaiters' Tnt«« Mi 'alo» an«l «aa at 
tho heat* o* 'In >»> « ' ,.•> , 
ahordy tt*tor the Aiei> n ; ■ a ... 

to the carar^af bade at which he was 
■her of yaare by the 
Railway la Bn gland. 
He same to America and arrived the 
vary day of the great fire hi Chicago 
His Intention was to settle In the Quean 
city of the Wees, bat be finally located 
la Indian* 

panto in 1874, ha weal to farming 
Ttdl a aa p nth l and retarned again to that 
etty ia 1888, 
then steadily 

Henry Gate was eteoted First General 
Visa Ttatideal of the U. B at the la- 
dianapolla Ooaveatioa last September. 
He la a rugged, sterling character, frank 
, plnla la vpeeeh aad a a*rd, 

of age be wss a member of 
the Wastof Fngland imalgematod Oar- 
on was vary active la 
laUway employes la 
the Wast of Enslaad, sad was one of 

In 1888, be joined the Knights of Labor 
>a 1888, he wss one of the charter 
■aaabaw of Carpenters' Union No. 448 of 
IndlanaaoBs. The (allowing year ha 
teak hie dearanee to Uaten 880 of that 
by a ontsraltaaatoa ef a 

• una/ w 

881, Heary Gala fa aow a 
of Untoa 881 of TadUae potts 
a carved la a number of 
la the local sateas m 
triet Ceaaoil aad readered eredrtable 
aa a iijii easatailre 
Labor Ualea. Be wnaa 
at the St. Loaia Ccmveattea of 
the D. B. la l*Oi aad at the 

}i ' ■ .• ..... 'f«;^ll(0"lf :Uf 

Ibi rid . « altera (u<«n«mbrr of yaare. 
i is wv«t t rremaa of the bridge aad ear 
tor * 

m TTWj 

wsUvHahoMad kind, 
agemeat *m hearing of litf ^iteeat- Such 
friendly testtmonlaia era a aeaffasnd aa 
inipiration to work oa fftlthfiflaj aad 

D. P. Bowxaxu, Secrete' r of the f>. <_. , 
of Ctselaaatt sad viefatty, has sex' ^at 
to a Urge number of lamia and Dlafy .' 
a circular ashing In/iraiatisa ef a fti 
Those who hare net 

daisy, aa It will be verr 

• e 

I, T. Bluott, 1814 fid. Fnli j 
Baltbnore, Md., Gtatral rkrr. nry-tmsa" 
arer of the Brotherhood t Jfmt 
aad Daeorators, dssiree the 
Daioas to sand him the name and 

IlltMtj. Do so by all means, For the 
Brotherhood of Painter,, la UA* o^ratr, 
atoatKaniae » «a»K/af. 

Oh Paob 8, last m< utt. 
the result of aaaaral tie on the a taerd- 
meats to the Oorath >tesi the rssWVj 
of rota aa Amandmi *. F» '% Is am,;. } 
By sysarsaphtsal gimr ii taads XW 
va8jjteaaatSrsasi> ,>re Itah^i 

ever, was daahsaai tosi as the. 
oxst was aotfir* aso»" 
adapt that 


aTAafasiBsa. Wh- *'* hash t 
a Boildiag Trades Oj ,oci! aa*. I 
sight hear bill to the eaiav- %i 


|T Fig. 1, the plan at 
the elliptic root, let 
b« its shape on th* 
outside lis* of the 
elliptic plate, cut oat 

la MM] 

Id the engraving. In otriking this plan 
any of the methods which I described in 
the article, " How to Frame an Elliptic 
Dome Roof," or by the sample and 
accurate method which I here U tartrate 
at Fig. 2. It consists of one 

ai denoted by ABO 
DEFOHIJE and let fall lines square 
to M K aa A M, Bl, 02, etc, and pro- 
duce these acroaa the plan below, to 
represent 10 boards bent scrota the 
rafters. To And the exact shape of thee* 
covering boards join the division point* 
on the carve A K, sad prod ace each till 
it cats the Use M K produced. The 
point* where these lines intersect will be 
the centres from which the curved 
boards, which are necessary tc 


(of land), ws seem to be afraid to look 
back to the means by which it wss 
acquired ss if fesrfal of some defect to 
the title. We think it enoagh that oar 
title is derived by the grant oi the former 
proprietor, try descent from oar ances- 
tors, or by the last will and testament of 
the dying owner, not earing to reflect 
that accurately and strictly speaking 
there is no foundation to nat ural law why 
s set of words on parch meat should con- 
the dominion of lend ; why the eon 
js right to exclude his fellow 
ism s determinate spot of 
***** had done ao 
«*» m rtmdii of a 

Fro. 3. 

straight edge A B, tacked on the floor 
on the 11ns of the major asis or long 
diameter of the ellipse, and s second 
straight edge O E, est on the minor axis 

represented in the engraving. A tram* 
axel rod or tracer is mads with the dis- 
tance from the, pencil to the farthest sail 
against the shorted ^ht equal to A O or 
half the long diameter, end the distance 
from the pencil totheoeerestnsileltdtog 
against the long i 
OD or half the 
elliptic corves assy by this method be 
accurately struck to the else 
In this dosss root 1 bav 
been to the centre to receive the top cute 
of the elliptic rafters, all of which 
radiate from the centre to the outside 
edge of the piste terminating st A B D, 
etc. The rafters which will stand over 
the pun, Fig. i, on si £ will be A D and 
B on Fig. t, which la the projection 
or view of elliptic rafters nailed to nasi. 

Sash est of two rafters ss Ai, BJ, 
OK, DL, Fig. 1, etc., most be struck out 
sosorstsly with the major axis or long 
rtlamtn- of each, being the plan length 
as AI, BJ, etc, with the minor as CD, 
rig, S, great ears and accuracy la neces- 
sary to striking 

V aery 

i at Fig. • when raised. 

i of the 


wsy represented to the engraving, Fig. 4. 
For the purpose of f ul ly proving the oor- 
ess of the above methods I would 
upon mschnales to make s scale 
i of^toroof, I 

proving th* S T S cts os J of 

set forth to the foregoing. 



il hi 1 si 1 

ii— ~ef es us — s m» an 
is — i* M u7 — *> so sss 
li— » os in — is so as* 
is — M isisa — su to sss 

has swung again. Politi- 
cians will change places ; hot the condi- 
tion of the workmen will remain the 
same, that is, growing worse. Unless he 
tries to help himself by means of union, 
socially and politically, even gods cannot 

ii 1 

i-|i7« erjist— tu *> sis — st cot ne — ss ss 

t* to 1ST 1 •%> 117 w OS MS- - ss at 

7 so WS 4 e» SIS— ss as us — aj. ss 

4 — st so we — s «• ii- — is ce us — s» ss 

I SS II MO— 11 M Sxl x ft) Sis S SS 

5 1 BO l«i S7 S0 Ktt s SS OBI if i 

• — so so i«s — s m m- — s ss *» — > ss 

1 — to ss is« — s ow na — it m ws — s« ss 

11 SWIM S 00 SST tl SS MM SS 

t — 7 ss set — t ss 
em M-al 
— is ss tau s so 
n — 4 ssin — t m an — is so tea — a ss 
is — 4 so m — use sas — is so sss — i 

- ■ M its — ss so ss* — t to sss is w 

-14 SS ITS Si 00 SSS— 4 7l> SSS— f ftS 

— tsssm — sss sss ess sss — ss* 
as—84 as nt— eo uo sss — t m too — i g 

2— s oc IS— * *' 

-u so m — i <*, _, 

-essiss — io ast — 4 «» too — s es 

SI 1 1* 1SS . SO MS 7 M *TS 11 SS 

IIS 70ift-- t Hi OH S M 074 I ft* 

00 ISS S SS Mi S f» SIS s 4S 

_ so iso — iwas—iwm — is ei 
i so (S« — s es sw — 14 io sss — s se 
1 ts ist — 7 so an — a ss sat — s ss 
— sss us — seosu — e wise — wm 
$ m m~ - iu eu ss* — s m ms stq 

i oo 1*0 — uso w — ism sss 4 CO 

S OS 400- - 11 M MS — a 00 OS* I ss 

- u 4Q mi — s so as> — a m mo — s ss 

e sss — i < 

-14 00 174 IS II 

S 00 MH^M £ SS— 1 
4 SS 114 • SO SOB 11 _ 

si — M so ais — u oo on— — u so 

i as an — « M 

-SS 407—47 )l 

ess— a «\ a sa i 5 
> so<oh — o» 

_ — iu 

417 — a 10 SSS M 3 

41S IS M SM I 4S 

4SS-— * 44 4M « SO 

; so m — ooo m — is 

* - 


I 1 

r — a m 

ill — is 

US «7I 


■ irw- hi. 
tti-n* —17 * 

aa.nn— ie m 

1 MllSH « 4t 


sm taa 

— i 

— a 1 

«t 47S t 

| TOO- — AI 




Tn ADornon of 

Fia. 4 


OolieotivM «r 

by the! 

the powerfcl 

VmiidH union, MjmmfmA 

Or » **srffc ' W^^" 1 


! ^asBi ^ 


^^^^^^^^^^^ M g^^ W M^^ ^M^fc^MB^ ^ anaaaaaa»g^^M* ^^™s*» 


Directory of Carpenters* Easiness 

l.-W. J. Shields, 7M 
, (Room a > 

tt. T.-R. Bawttr. O. Boa IB, 
W, or an Fulton 8tr»et.-J. J, 

lTt.li— A 

, O.— Vln«nt Hlnvlln. raaUeae*, 1M 
l MtMt i oflM, room 11, 1M Superior 

, It, T.~ John H<rimrieh, Ooiltf 
, Oo*». — F, C Wftls tt i»hl*7 
I, Kt. - JtinM Wwftwa. 


-B«J. B HmI, SSI Colombo* At*., 
ik ftobuIU, 4il K. Ninth Street. 

1,-JunM H*tld«n, P. O. 

k— V.B. 

A Model City 

| Lloyd, ft member of OftrpenUrs' 
58, Boston, Mass., writing 
rtland to the Bottom Labor 
luring his tow Of Eorope Uftt 

hftfl developed her municipal 

| a greater extent then probably 

In the world. Gee, electric 

' end tram dura ere ell owned 

by the city, end in add' 1 ** 11 

bought Urge tract' :D the 

_icts, demolish*- 1 *** houa *» 

baUt Tory co J1 ' orUbJe work " 
m. c y neve 1,258 tenements 

tidings ftt present They have 

municipal lodging-houses 

accommodate about 1,800 

At the present time they ere 

ag e fondly home for widows 

I with ft family of children, 

children will be eared for 

■ or mother ere ftt work. 

Whet Is Necessary I 

The labor movement most be divided 
into three separate end distinct parte 
before e greater degree of harmony can 
prevail In it. It most have its trades 
onions for the especial purpose of deal- 
ing with Questions of a technical trade 
character peculiar to each trade ; it mast 
have its educational societies that will 
be especially designed for investigation 
and stndy of social, economical, political 
and ethical subjects, where men and 
women of all shades of belief on these 
questions may coma and exchange views, 
and In this way fit themselves for right 
conduct In the various walks of life, and 
It most have other societies for political 
action. With a division of tbis kind the 
causes of inharmony and suspicion are 
reduced to a minimum, and the best re- 
sults possible will iollow,— Detroit Sun. 

re the largest bakery in the 
ad large warehouses. I went 
r, a suburb of Glasgow, to see 
f establishment of the 
Twenty-five hundred 
employed at cabinet, brush, 
It la a 


Allegheny. The Call 
, Murphy, owns an aw 
than the whole Stale of 
Senator Warren, of 
»«nrna a tract of 400,000 acre 
oogvptaiot own an area 
tie else of ftsaneylvasda 
who owe no aUe- 

y& ell their 
■ of 


I of treJeadL ttyk. 

EHflitMl ill stem? 

Pearl of Days. 

Lord Macaulay said : "Of course I do 
mean that a man will not produce 
in a week by working seven days 
than by working six days. But I very 
much doubt whether, at the end of a 
year, he will generally have produced 
more by working seven days a weT 
than by working six days a week ; and I 
firmly believe that at the end of twenty 
years be will have produced less by work- 
ing seven days a week than by working 
six days a week. Therefore it is that we 
are not poorer, but richer, because we 
have through many ages rested from oar. 
labors one day in seven. The day Is not 
lost. Man, the machine of machines— 
the machine compared with which ft" s 
contrivances of the We**- - nd Ark* 
wrighte are wo** v '—— » repairing and 
winding *¥i *° thAt be returns to his 
on the Monday with clearer intel- 
lect, with livelier spirits, with renewed 
bodily vigor." 

(Locah and member* are requested to tend 
five to ten line items of trade inter** for Mi 
department. Write piainfy in ink on one nd>' 
of the paper only ) 

Jacksontills, Fla,— Union 605 ad 
mitted sixteen new members in two 
meetings through the individual can 
ot a few hard working 

Nasbtillk, Tenn.— Charfes Staley, 
contractor, fought organised labor here 
for fonr yean, has skipped the town in 
dead-beat style. Any Information of his 
whereabouts can be sent Union 768 of 
this city. 

CieciSKATi, O — In January we had s 
fob on a building for the Armour Pack 
Ing Co., Kansas City, Mo. The car pen 
tor foreman showed hostility to onion 
men. District Secretary Rowland and 
General Secretary McGuire wrote the 
firm, after we could get no redress here 
The remit is the job was unionised. 

Solid Hard Sense. 

There is business enough tot all . Slash- 
ing prices, catting pro 
wages, does not in any sense increase 
Instead, it gives to those who 
t building don« the wrong Idea, In 
canting them to think they have bean 

are being o 
They are led by such oanrit 
to think that the builders' profits are too 
Men of sound seats are willing 
to pey what a thing la worth when they 
want it. The responsible man wants to 
deal with responsible men, and when 
yon teach men by year conduct to foal 
they have been overcharged, they doubt 
your reliability. There Is no money to 
be made by anyone and great ham 
done the business, by the grcc<. of 
to get more than a fair thai 
The greet disparity In the prises of bids 
to create an impression of 
A man may not be 
, bat he wants to deal with 

, he looks in his 
there what bethinks 
is fraud on yonr part. Get 

Grand Rapids, Mich.— 
pects for trade this coming season . Still the 
newspapers have brought too many men 
here. Bosses prefer a non-union stranger 
to a resident onion man. We will work 
on and prove our true worth. 

U Onsen, Wis.— Carpenters who left 
tlrfunlon are now working ten hours a 
for fifteen cento per hour. 

nine hours. 


Bkllows Palls, Vt— When we had a 

hss disbanded wages are 11.50 to $1.75 
for ten hours. We most 

1888 will see more money Invested in 
building than any year in the history of 
the country. The great some of 
hoarded will seek investment. The 
crave of capital for Interest is weU known. 
The men of money will avoid, for a few 
years, speculative investments and seek 
the safer elect of loans on improved 
p ro per ty . Money will not stay La hiding 
much longer. The ones who hate it are 
too greedy for mere 
Work for &ir pro*** and be content with 
itsr owe chare of the bnainsss to he 
Mas. There win be enough for aU at 

Vicxteuaa, Miss.— Trade doll. Span- 
glare mill hst started and he talks of 
piece work Inside and outside. He 
thirty cents per square for 

Niagara Falls, N. Y. -Union S78 to 
all alive ; had a fine hall Feb. 18, sndwill 
bold a series of public 

SctASTO*, Pa.— Entertainment given 
by Union 568, Jan. 24, brought oat a 
large audience , had nearly 600 people to 
Supper. T. V. Powdsrly gave us a 

> still < 

Lot AtoKLBS, Oal.— Union 883 

of 78 

la membership, though trade is fright, 
folly bad. And the prospects are favor- 
able to a still larger Inn rasas- AU this 

New Yon*.— Again another sympa- 
thetic strike has raffled the qolst of the 
building trades. This time It It In behalf 
of the electrical workers, K. of L. The 
latter are out to secure the eight-hour 
day, though a compromise was offered by 
both sides. The men want it April 1, the 
employers June 1. This strike affects 
the carpenters, though the U. B. It out 
of the Board of Walking Delegates, aa the 
latter did not give us the support they 
should during the strike we had against 
lumpers and piece work. 

Dbtroit, Mich.- The geneva! situation 
looks sombre. A cyclone of emotional 
fanaticism hss swept over the labor move- 
ment of this country, because of the dis- 
tressing bard times and suffering of the 
people. It has left darkness, doubt and 
destruction In its trail. If we can recover 
from this wave of cranky Idiocy, we will 
have soough tried members to rebuild on 
safe and solid trade union ground. The 
dreamers and fault finders must step 
aside. Men of action, practical, hard- 
fisted, hard-headed, . 

Montr sal, Canada.— Nine cents per 
boor on some jobs is the wages tor car- 
penters In this classic city I When will 
the poor, degraded fellows arouse 7 The 
lower they go the lees manhood they 
ssem to have. Last spring we had n 
thorough organisation, but a prematura 
strike killed us. Thlt city la overdone 
with carpenters. Still they flock here In 
droves, end lots of them have to remain 
idle. ( 

Atlanta, Ga.— The Cotton State* and < 
International Exposition, of this city, to 
s huge plutocratic swindle- 
doing the grading of the 
and eU appeals to the directors to hire 
honest labor are in vain. On the buildings 
skilled mechanics get 81.50 per May, and 
laborers 75 cents per day. The Atlanta 
Federation of Trades has placed a boy- 
cott on the Exposition. Newspaper "ads" 
are deluding men to search in vain for 
work in this city, 



ilM «poa tfc^ntoS ^ n h a In tee 
■ -Mrtaaaaiaahaaealai 

Union MS are upholding the anion flag 
against heavy odds— hard times, want of 
work and scarcity of money. Bat we 
know thM to surrender will make It aU 
the harder to start again. There to a 


thnnhtot for prompter** In sanding wife 
toerid benefit. He had it published in 
local dally paper. Wehsdarouemgouea 
laeeting feat mca£h and good local apeak- 
age. Xt bet) helped 1*1, 

i SOfaW * ~ isltlM tn- resad l la— Ai Staffs' BajTmaJ^ tm^*Jm W*^^^ 


From tba Onion* (Tu. Mo.) I 

Claims Approved tit Jxaaary, 1895 


Ju Troy, 
Returnee' in 


awi s. m. wilds , ... . 

3098 atra. M A. Pelrio 



I * 4 * ft 

4S1 M 
* 00 

A. T. 

(Aa par Roction IB). 

*ntn«ral Fund, lavan-tenlbi H,13S SO 

ProtooUra Fund, Iwo-Unlh* 1.IM 7V 

*OrganlElng Fund, ono-tattlb SM 3* 

Total «.«..*«.*•».».. M.SM SB 
'January */ >i*|. RIM • 

Mmm op hand Jan. 1. 11 ..... WSJ 


• w. a 


UN Mra.O. Part 
•US C 
S1OT Hn.8. 
SUM W. J. Manoon , . 
SIM Mra, A K. Btorer 
I no Hn. 0. Ruppart . 
■Ut O.A. Ohms. ... 
SUS Mrs. J. M. 

M,*» M 

I A N U AH T , 1 


" Ofloa.aio. 

"Organising . 

Bond of O 8-T 

" Tn* to A. F. of L., Dece rn bar . 

" Strating of O E. B 

" C«n vajuilng Board 

p Koe t,«B«ioa.llS .... 

rl.lM 1S17S 

S34 M 
» » 

900 00 
MS 11 

, 1805. 

» on auppllaa 
» roal for January . 

Quarterly P. O bo» rai.. 


f RuM»n 

Salary an* atortt blra. . . . 
Tai to A, P. of L., P apa in ber 

A. r.ofL., I 
F. J. Mcflulra, I 
Union II* 1 

IVfjWaU'al - 

Jvaitor, tJf*Qlo| ome* * * p 

C * ' • ' * 

* * p ft a ft 

■ e- • ■ st 
• • * # ' 11 

.... 11 

■ « ft P a a 

■ ft ft • ft ft 

• ••••» 

• • • ■ a * 
ft • ft a > a J 


a « • a a a a * J 

■ . sn 
. . .art 
. . .«« 
. . .HI 



Oct IS, D. 0. a/BL Loula . 
' SL Loaned OenaraJ ! 

Fattier, St; mas A Co. Browrbt to Terms. 

Pettier. Stymus A, Co., New York 
I » » -city, a leading firm in the line ot fin* 
Interior home finish bit a job in GaWea- 
ton, Tex. It Is a splendid piece of work 

started in Ji 
carpenters employed were non-onion And 
After two or three weeks persistent work, 
with the help ot the Building Trades 
Assembly, the Job was finally unionized 
and the men went into Union 626. That 
Building Trades Assembly would not 
allow other organized branches of the 
to work on the job, 
the carpenters Joined the onion 
jonld show the quarterly work 


Chips aa 

Tea General Union of Carpenters of 
-Great Britain has 211 lodges and 6,690 

fit was established in 1627 
organized a 
and Ireland 

in Wales 

Tea headquarters of the 

from Hew York. The new addrees is 
Da Soto Block, Indianapolis, Ind. Ad 
all communications tor the A. F. of 
L. to Aug. MeOralth, 

J. K. 

for aalaapproprlaJtoa of Union 
benefit* of a fallow room bar m 
fluty aa Financial aperulary. 

J. K. SoatMBoa, from Union S 
Fla., lor atealltts MS 
then lo a pawn ahoy. 

O. F. Gun. from Union 



Oao. Para l ranm from Union 77*, Karioo, O., 
for general bad oondoct add mtaa^pniprtation mt 
Union moneya. 

I and Job* OilOwauftM Uaiun 
US, Utio*. If. Y„ for action, unfitting Omm ffc^ 

■pan, froaa Union M, Caoaaam, OL, who 1 ' 
araaajo arm laaajflad for a aborts** in I - 
Si aa Financial Btiuia l a ry, baa aaaatof i 
stasMksrw* rraanbar ta good \ 

bar mem bar owl 

K w, Joese, I 
aaroraJ yoaat 
fall taasttatl 

Osxw Wsaaeuao, » former bmmWt of Union 
IS, Springfltfd, 1U„ 

What a pity that workingmen do not 
the energy wasted on both aide* 
of the political stamp ht securing strin- 
gent laws prohibiting •'Meck Uating,'' 
law* that can be 
ploy*r* sa 

forced against employee*. Whan the 
eeaaoB of political lestirities is at hand, 

nights, wielding leaky torches, 
shouting themselves hoarse In lauding 
and denouncing the protective tariff ; yet 
no flaring of flambeaux, no tramping of 
clubs, in the Interest of an Anti-black 
hating law, an acti-Plukarton Law or any 
other law that baa for it* purpose the 
helping of the wage earner. Who ever 
heard of a bank president or railroad 
official soiling a dram suit with karasan* 
oiltrama campaign torch? The wage- 
does all this gratuitous?, but 

Barrard took the affirmative side "that 
of employer* to ignore trad* 
ad daal with Individual work- 
men only, are prejudicial to the beat 
interests of both parties/' and the judge* 

oi the 



m ta A national bond I 
smo ss mui > Toman and 

Horace draelej Speaketk. 

Horace Oreeley, being dead, rat speak- 
cth Ha say* : "It Is the opportunity to 
^exhibit the daairabM quaUtia* and com- 
mand a just recompense that I plead for 
M tb* nAtural r%bt of all man and that 
this is not now secured to the oondemna 
tion of our existing eotaal orr1*A V< c, 
than, who stand for a eompr 't»*n*iT*anu 
all-pervading reform In the erjcial retm- 
of ratnk^T'*, intpaath th* preit at 
iy vic<o*»." 

CaVpantara shows 668 branches and 
43,820 member*— 8846 are drawing bav 
boneata. They have 89 
la the United State* with 1666 
and 9 branches with too mam- 
ben in Canada. This is ooesiderabl* de- 
crease In membership in the Unlsad 
State*. They have 4 branch** aad a 
barahlp of HO In Chicago ; • 
d 444 member* in New York ; 
8 in PhiladelphU with 178 members; > 
in Boston with 64 member* ; % la Brook- 
lyn with 68 member* ; and tin 
with 76 




I* * mortang* on every 
child In the nation. 
LAwyar*. banker* and profeeslon&I poll- 
tidans have Imued the** bond* illegally. 
The man who stole a ship load of slaves 
In AfrMB had m right to do so, and the 
man who bought them of him was an 
abettor to the 
right to them aa 
Tb* man who buys those mort g a ge * on 
win soma day wake 
hi e m a nci pation proo- 
iasusd, and the people 
wRl f:*l iTtder •«■*. e* 
to pay him for hie bond*. *a they did 
thirty year* *go to p\y one man tor 


up and 

The population of Ireland la lea* than 
Maw York, but New Yorker, pay their 
landlords many time* the tribute that 
Iriahmea pay. But this 1* a free country t 
England has mora pauper* In proportion 
to population than Ireland or Scotland, 
but ED^liahman are not oppressed I Fifty 
year* ago. Ireland, with the crudest of 

™i75 ; nisouiT P Today, throutii et*rrt> 
tton and other capitalistic BMthoda aha 
has only 4,706,448, and withaU 

support (?) 
it doe* support an Increased number of 

J^M?hZ* aeTber7 

^ltUmlng to own anotb r man, because j lord, lendlcrd sent m a ns poly 
ha pa*, for 


Mo Eight, uid You'll Tanqolsh ill 


4TT WAY with all trouble mad 

There's enough atlll on with to give joy. 
_£*J_And ne'er bid the devil good morrow 

Till be mum yon i eweet peace to destroy. 
If friends by the score should deceive you. 

And enemies 'round should throng , 
SUII ne'er let your proud spirit leave you, 

" Do rigut, and you'll vanquish all wrong." 


The road to success Is all covered 

With ardent hope*, wrecked on the war ; 
And hearts that too late had discovered . 
The friends who sought them tor prey. 
1 again let n 


If tor 
Than heed not 

From the 

and you'll vanquish alt 

at* Jul what you're after. 

I oan't help my 
Who's lashed by dread poverty's 

And I live byfhia oounsi 
'Do fight, and you'll v 

vanquish all - 


The footsteps of oowtn 
A vol 4 all that's vulgar and low ; 
men, like all bub 

I are crushed by the gentlest blow. 


of the throng, 
the base faction. 
'II vanquish all wrong." 

Tbos. C. Walsh. 

A YlllAfe ffhnrch. 

AT I. P. 


88,000 shingles 18.26 per m . , .§8100 


9,000 round batt shingles, $4 . 

8 00 

4,000 ft. 5-inch eidlng, $86 . . . 

100 00 

8, 6*9 28" " 

. . . 886 

850 << beaded ceiling, 990 . . 

26 60 

1,6x916" " 

. . . 64 

2,100 " 6-lnch flooring |8S . . . 

52 50 

18,8x618 « poet* 

. . . 648 

1,800 « 1 pin© finish, jambs, cor- 

78 00 

nice, etc , 940 per in . . 

8, 4x8 18 " for truMM . . 

. . . 884 

1,000 ft. 1} pine finish outside 

4, 4x8 16 " for braces . . 

... 168 

caring*, steps, etc., . . 

40 00 

lfiO, 3x6 18 " studding . . 

. . .8,880 

10 plinth block! lOe .... 

1 00 

24, 2x6 13 " gable studding 

. . . 888 

10 corner blocks. 8c ... . 


6 cellar sash 18x24, 3 light, 

SO, 3x6 16 " plates .... 

. . . 48o 

7 20 

6 there ii more or lees 

church plant suit- 
Able for the average 
country town*, we 
will now present such 
plan to the readers 
of Tbx Cabi'Mtib. 

The else of the 
plan la 80x66 feet. 

Height of 

Length of foundation wall 178 feet, 
SJ fett high, 16 -inch atone wail. 

Number plen for porch and under 
centre of floor Joists, 8 brick plen 19*12 

Length of main cornice, 212 feet 
Length of pwrch cornice, 88 feet. 
Length of tower cornice, 48 feet. 
Length of main rafters, Including pre . 
JtvLtea for cornice, 94 feet- 
Length of main rafter on tower, 90 

Number of window 

fsMi 14. t 

Vuaaber of frames In tower, 19, inolad- 
tfig the large triple frame In front. 
.Number of cellar frames, 6. 
Somber of door frames on floor plan, 
Oae cellar door frame. 

under front and, about 90x80 

i excavating, 80c . . . 9 98 00 
M p sj^iiutidatfonwAll,|8 00 106 00 
33 tine** font ebimney, 90c. . 94 90 
bottom of eellAr, 8,000 

httoka, 9x0 80 00 

Do . 600 

64 ft. Sff.in windowatool.18.60 

per h $ 1 99 

16 " 5-in oak thresholds, 94 

per h ......... 64 


Porch finish 

9828 65 
910 00 

~*T2£T? *» *S»"1 


. .9,480 
. .1,440 
. . 910 
. .9,160 

90, 2x10 18 ft. floor Joists 
90, 3x6 16 ft. ceiling Joiats . 
10, 9x8 16 " 
90, 9x6 34 « 
10, 4x6 19 - purlin plates , 

4,9x990 "spire 

6, 8x6 20 " M 

8,9x614" " 

18,866 ft. in frame 917 perm . . 
4,999 " sheeting outride wuUa, 

9L9 • • . *ijufi 91 09 

fl> iheetlne root |17 . . 



2 front doors, 8-8x7, oak, filO 
tusida doors, 9-8x7 oak, |9 
219 ft. 94a crown meld, 9940 

per h 

79 ft. 9Hn crown mold, 91.76 

P*Bf tl ft | s) a) * m aaa 

288 ft SMn bed mold, $1.60 

260 ft. } quarter toond, 60c P h 
690 " parting stops, 60C per h 
650 " 1-inch window stops, 91 


60 ft. Mm door ftopa, 91.90 

' h * * # * t *> a g « 


90 00 
18 00 

6 86 

1 1 

4 92 
1 I 
9 78 

5 90 

Panels on spire 

... 12 00 

IT windows, including aatl 

), cas- 

inge and makli 

ig of 

framee, 910 ... 

... no oo 

12 windows in spire, 94 . . 

... 48 00 

4 windows in spire, 93.50 

. . . 10 00 

36 side seats, 93 . . . . . 

... 108 00 

15 center seats, 96 , . « , 

. . 90 00 

... 15 00 

9468 00 

91 sqrs. framing And laying floors 

91.90 ... 

46 sqrs. framing, sheeting and 

siding 92 50 

28 sqrs. framing, •beeting and 
shingling roof 94.00 . . . 
20 sqrs. framing ceiling 91-00 . 
913 feet main cornice 15c. .... 

113/aet gutter 10c 

Work on porch 

Work on spire 

Outside baas, 178 ft. 4c 

Oaaiug and finishing windows 

Wainscoting . . . . 
Finishing pulpit and 

927 30 

112 50 

118 00 
20 00 
81 90 
11 20 
10 00 
86 00 
10 00 
7 12 
60 00 
10 00 
16 00 
26 00 
40 00 

9666 92 

130 lbs. 

60 11 ltd " 

900 " 104 " 

400 fid " 

190 • M - 

76 " 3d 
100 * 

100 " 9d « 

60 fid " 

6 " M " 

a • 

■ • 
• ■ 

■ • 
• * 

6 akelna aaah cord, 
1 4 sash locks 30c . 

6 pair butt* 8f sfi} 

• . • 
. • . 
i • * 

* • 

. • i 

• • ■ 
t ♦ • i 

• • • * 

• » • * 

• • • • 
Me. • 
i • • 

9 9 94 
1 27 
10 90 
9 70 
9 99 
9 34 
9 40 
1 90 

' i. 




1 bout door lock 

IS dot. wardrobe hooks, 16c. 
1U lineal feet gutter, 18c. . 
100 tin shingle* for spire 2c. 
24 tost valley tin for tplrs 6c 
1 10c t • • 

Excavating •n^ masonry . 

Lumber bill 

Mm work 

Carpenter work 

jff -'-ware 

Uu fitting 

WO yards 80c. 


OOSt $3,600 00 

We haw not stopped to think 
that government can only be eorrnpt 
when retting on wrong principles, and 
hence on oligarchic devices, and so on 
eepecUl privileges Inviting monopolistic 
schsmes, with which to evolve the greed 
of the few to rob ths rest ; fuet the oppo- 
site of what government by the people 
•hoold be. Yon Lay ask, bat how shall 
we agree about Auctions to be left to in- 
dividual!, and those failing to the action 
of organised society T The answer is 
extremely simple. It can be reduced to 
the following formula : 

"All Industrial functions become poo- 
He and should be controlled by the peo- 
ple, when they involve some monopoly 
interfering with free competition and 
equal rights, and necessitating some 
■pedal enactment for some men to do 
bat aU men cannot do." 
Shall we stop or fail to abide by that 
logical and correct process, because of 

newer for evil ant net 
good, power to transgr es s net 
and natural laws, and power to a! 
In favor of individuals, the moat < 

one with which i 


.8 the 

enjoyed any real, 

| above referred to? Well, government 

only become eorrnpt, or n 
I bv excess of power Infringing some in- 

We find the estimated cost of the 
church plan to be U.900, finished in a 
plain sad substantial manner. If the 
same plan was finished in a very fine 
and elaborate manner throughout, it 
would probably cost 18,000. 

There la no particular feature In the 
method of construction, but what any 
carpenter of ordinary ability can readily 
id understand. The roof 
elng rather large, make it 
to span ths building with four 

of the ceiling. . 
and roof la fully shown in the detail. 
The ceiling joists rest on the wall plates, 
the centre being framed into a double 
2*8 header which runs lengthwise the 

- This header is supported by four 
i which span the building at reg- 
The truss la formed with a 
pair of 4x8 rafters cut to about } pitch, 
with heavy rod bolt running vertically to 
the header supporting center of joists. 
A plate la placed on top of ceiling joists 

.■•- 4 v /H -"j *cw, i -j - "■«■■■ «■ rvww im ringing some in* 
Igenuine govern- dividual rights, or by deficiency in pow- 
' by the peo- er, allowing some to interfere with the 
rights of others. 

To these timid people or innocent souls 
in holy fear of dire calamities produced 
by increased government patronage, to 
my: Friends, govern 
can only be dangerous 
when men are forced to beg lor employ- 
- nt, becarse kicked out of God's patri- 
ny to all human beings, became 
of land monopoly, and the industrial 
1 that follow. Suppress that land 
its intimate connec- 
tion*, and the majority of man shall pre- 
fer to employ themselves rather than be 
employed by the government. Few 
shall care a fig for pubUc employment, 
;cept as a means to save money enough 
with which to more rapidly become tJ 
an men, handling their own canoes. 
What brings government corruption is 
that immoral power we grant tolegkls- 
tora of giving privileges and franchises 

shown. These braces are continued above 
the truss la the shape of short posts to 
the proper height for a purlin plate 
which will meet the rafter about mid- 
way, and thus support the roof. Ibis 
trues answers a double purpose, It 
porta both oeUtn-aad roof. 

A JidlelaJ Decision la Favor of Labor. 

The Court of Appeals decided the 
fcxooa Bingham ton clgarmakera' con- 
•piracy oaae in favor of the labor organ- 
iMttona, whose members ware originally 
indicted for conspiracy. The strike oc- 
curred in ths factory of Frank B. 
Reynold A Go.. In 18*0. The strikers 
were I n d i c te d for nouepiraey In combin- 
ing to Inj c the tttjrtnem of the en nn- 
facturera. The tr alter reso'ved ItMlfl 
Into a question of the tight of the defend- 
anta to quit Work and soti. e others not 
to take their places. The sovin decided 
that they wsss net g^'ty of conspiracy 
" r ths meaning o.* t.i tact 

panic of tl!?^. 

brew^c-lyaskelet^ ^" 

Irk of re-orgam,ii,g^^7 

P In 1877, and the as 4 M * 
■ ' co mial systems, 

overlooking the fact that they were per- 
meated by a certain form of white Slav 
cry, large numbers of people bound to 
service for a number of years, with al 
ways an abundance of them imv .rted 
from the old countries, ready to take the 
place of those, who became industrially 
free, after a fashion, to find all the beat 
in p o ss e s si on of somebody, and 
forced to sell their labor to such people 
Our modern proletariat or wage-sla 


colonial system, when at Ha best, was 
but a religious oligarchy of a very de- 



Then again, the courts or councils of I to groups of'sharperi* under fsJee~p*r7 
that time were mostly composed of mtn- tenses of public good. Just an if the 
irters controlling all land distribution, people, in their own corporate rapadtv 
and emitting it to nail groups of could not take batter care of theirow^ 
large property bidders, or land trustees, interests, than a few seh emers ■ with no 
as soon as a new section was opened for other object but the rapid accumulation 
regular settlement. The wilderness re- of wealth at the expense of the people ! 
mained, of coarse, at the disposal of I That Invites bribery, the purchase of the 
everybody, for a while, hut that meant officers or servants of the people, leeishv 
hardship, that few were willing to lace, tore, judges, governors, mayors/alder- 
for labor of the most ! men and the whole brood from top to 
bottom In the political fabric, either 
through actual purchase, or by combina- 
tion in the lame of stock, bonds, etc., 
resting on the future profits of the priv 
ileges granted, by which combinations 
rapid fortunes are made all around, in 
that double oligarchy of ours, political 
and industrial. There yon have. the key 
to _all governmental corruption 

t»» the p. 
each corruption would rapidly vanish, 
Just as a snow bank Hooded by ths solar 
rays in a semi tropical region. All be- 
of no class legislation. There 
would be no purchases to nuke, no bribes 
to oflar, under the law of equal rights 
excluding all privileges. What the in- 
dividual could not do, or groups of them 
In free association with each other ; that 
would be dona by the municipality, or a 
a umber of them, or by the nation as a 
whole, under tha eyes of the people, 
through officers who, elected by the 
people, would simply act aa mere clerks, 
to preside over fixed details. All that 
Involves a new political dkrpeti 
simple or. t to opposition to the 

iplexitiee of all ] 
governmental devices 
The whole coarse of human history 
ehibtw the snase »»sricacy that wesaem 
to lam e -Tried to-day to itm maximum 
to fpvejnanantteol 


natural rights and 
" eedom enough 
equally exercise bit own _ 
shaping the laws under which ha 
live. Is that the cave in our deyy 
more than ever before 7 Does It not 
pan now what has always taken 
that the few ale 
all legislation? 

To-day aa much as ever, and, 
"Peakinrmore then ever, the people 
victimised by 

Economic and 
Moat of 

born to lire la society, and mighty few 
have much taste for the life of anchorites. 

to group ourselves in large centres of 
population. We doubt If civilisations 
with very large cities shall eve 
of a sucBssa. So far they have _ 
decline In certain forma of healthy social 
growth. They have evolved 
that we have not yet solved. 

Vast accumulations of people in lim- 
ited areas are apt to develop new social 
because Involving the 
of increased governmental func- 
tione, la its turn that nsoessltatsa what 
we have not yet acquired, higher moral 
gar views of life, and 
>os of what we owe to 
humanity, for public good. And so wo are 
forced into collective functions of greater 
and greater importance. Hence greater 
temptations all around In abuse of power, 
or in shirking necessary duties connected 
with national honesty. 

That question of public or ooUectirs 
function* aa eomcuiog apart fr^ tag), 
vidoai ones, 1c at ths root of tha science 
of government, and hat never been 
understood, although simple — r~g*- hi 
itself. We have fallen Into the bafctt of 
«*au<:.:ug that trcreeaod pobtto 
shall bring tan eased 

vote for this or 
but, do we i 
that? A i 
votes i 
cal m< 
wealth la: 

of the few, and forever gliding off u 
tha hands of the many, although it «1 
latter, who produce all wealth. An? 
it has been in the past and is in 
present, so It shall be in the future, 
the people realise that they a 
the power to vote for specific «_ 

that of voting for specific 
We can never treat the few to make lai 
for tha many, 
always been a 

you aee that that is too much t< 
for any eat of men? Don't yon see 
they are bound to abuse their 
cause that power fat in itself __ 
anarchical ; because it appeals too 
to human selfishness and groed? 
Let us remember that greed and *ei-> 
ihness are evolved and nurtured *«■ > 
laws of monopoly, which are _ 
denial of the law of equal righto 
latter has not yet made its apnea 
any of our civilisations. Laws of 
opoly have so far prevailed in ell: 
heathen or Christian. The lew of . 
rights means solid joys for all seine 
wealth for all, and no wealth enough 
spoil anybody, to eorrnpt the 
anybody, or darken the i 
of men. That alone 

by the people. laws of nn a , u - 
oly give wealth to the few, povert. to . o* 
many, solid joys to no ens, to 
all. We have, then, oligarchy 
nent, what we have always had, j 
of the few, for the few, 

Tha process by which we can sn^, 
every form of oUgarchv and initiate 
government by the people- _ 

wee are extremely simple, and we sheet] 
try, in future articles, to he more t 
on the eubteet. What we do roast 
in oar labors for a fnadsrratffcif 

wgenlsatlon, la to step worihip f „ 
the fathers while trying to really worebj 
" 7hc folhcr and Bit Jaw* of «-JU-^ i 


Trade Union Te the r PtopegJ 

Those who urge the unions Into pel 
tical action, seems to me, do cot ta$ 
comprehend the process by wbi 
economics are reached, by which 
greatest results can be and 
with the least amount of efi 
satiation " conveys the idea< 
muat learn that the indtv 
» every sphere of add i 
- id by tic greatest ] 

have lesr^d *.^s* I 
abor, by 

bv having, 
which to d 

to do 
teg the principle *f 

0**' -3*' s \ t 



Brotherhood of Carpenters 
Joiners of America. 


MtmtMy *>■* 87i# 




Do yet 

cipls underlying th* eight-hoar move- 
nMOt? If 700 do, then reed t hi* intently 
And study it thoroughly. 

If not, then let It alone 
toil ten hoar* ft day or mo: 
period! go ft round chasing ft job, and 
find too mftny men for the amount of 


But if 70a want to 
yourftelve* from drudgery, how to get 
■tea dier employment end more manhood* 
liberty, more rest end leisure 
to whet 

1 nt member of the U. B., or any trade 
deiiring a copy of Governor 
¥« recent biennial 
jt ode by writing to Geo. A, Schilling, 
'. ureaa of Labor Statistics, Springfield, 
I til no!*. The meetftge is ft powerful ergo- 
* eat In behalf of the industrial interests 
i needs to be read to remove the preju- 
dice* of those who have been poisoned 
■ln*t Governor Altgeld by the croaking 

Thi Government Arbitration Board of 
few Booth Wales has been abolished, 
id the labor member* of the Provincial 
nent favored dispensing with it 
the ground that waa beirg used too 
t for the Interests of the capitalist*. 
1 good, wall mean big labor mea 
as favor compulsory arbltra- 
"Oompolaory A bit ration i* the ex- 
, of the "silk pane" of Liberty 
("flow's ear "of State 

fur charter trade anions? To get a 
ar from the State or National Gov- 
take* a onion amenable In its 
and by-la wa, more than ever, to the 
1 of the State or Federal Gonna 

charter can have it* fond* 
sp and enjoined by any mean bar at 
time, at by mpitsiists, in times of 
trouble*. Mote then that, any 
■•ponded or expelled for cause, 
the colon Into court under it* 
and seek re-instetemeat, despite 
of the member*. S.111 in 
by legWatlon In 

F JneV) anion* waa tacked on the bill 
thai wffl pises trade onion* more 

some article in a sporting paper or some 
novel, or some sensational story in the 
daily pre**. 

If ten men go to a shop or job where 
only eight are wanted { wages $3 00 per 
day), two are refused employment Men 
moat live. When oat of work they are 
often willing to work cheaper. The two 
msn oat of work accordingly visit the 
■hops and job* and offer to work for less 
than |3.00 per day. Each one of the 
employed, fearing he may be dla- 
* make place for the cheaper 
idle mea, drops his price to keep hi* 
place, say to $2.50. 

This is a plain 'illustration of the prin- 
ciple, that Competition regulate* wag 
by reducing them below the level they 
if there were no oompetitioi 
of the eight men lose 60 cents a 
day by the competition of two and still 
those two men ar* idle. And the com 
petition will continue until finally wage* 
come down to $1.60 or $8.00 par day, 
and the number idle are not diminished. 

The eight men working each tea hours 
a day would make eighty hoen a day for 
all. Suppose sow the eight ansa agree 
to each work only eight hoar* a day, 
which would be a loo* of two hoar* from 
of the eight men, or a total of six- 
boars less. What would the em- 
ployer do if he could not indue* the 
eight men to keep on at ten hour*, or get 
loor men to take their place* T 
He would then hire the two idle men to 

The Thoughts of a Capitalist, 

Labor is so submissive always, so pli- 
able, tractable and docile, what need we 
capitalists and corporation* care U at 
time* ft few rebel? They san be shot 
down or coerced ; they am be jailed or 
; they can b« 
into submission. 
When election day comes they will vote 
for the capitalists' choice anyway, and 
massive* into hostile political 
Political stomp speakers can 
" gall" them, promise* of political " pap" 
can tempt them. They don't care about 
trad* unions or paying due*. That la too 
trouble and too expensive. 

be taught It will not do te 
offend the boss** ysa, offend the borne* 
ia the shop and the political borne* too 
To 1st them organise and unite together 
won't do. It might bring worker* of all 
nationality* together, and that will 
do. The poor devil* must believe a for- 

Prlses Awarded* 

Toe competitive articles on architect- 
ural and bollding contraction published 
in Tan Carps trraa, the past year have 
proven very interacting and valuable. A 
prise of f 10 we* offered per orders of 
G. £. B. for the best article. The same 
has been awarded to D. L. Stoddard, of 
Onion 981, Indianapolis, Ind. 

The " Carpenter's Problem" brought 
In hundreds of solutions. The prise 
offered waa a copy of John Swintoo'* 
book, "Striking for Life." Prises 
awarded for three best solutions to 
J, R. Naee, Tacony, Pa.; K. J. 
German town. Fa , and J cut as H 
Jr., Mew York. 


can an Irishman 
along together, or 
German. They mi 
niaticoo account of 
religious hatred 
moat be stirred np 
All thi* will keei 

each work sight hours a day to 

Bat, 70a will 

ft day, instead of |2.60, thereby losing 
GO cents mote ft day, simply to oblige an 
employer to hire two extra men. Thi*, 
yon will contend, would be i loss of $8 00 
th man under the eight* 
nd that yon say la really 
why you don't beater* 
the eight-hoar aetata!*, 
Hare com— in ft 


la thai 

»!a l4»;easordlng to reliable 
1 peat seat, of the people own aa 
uea^aatheeeimtWpeiOftot. Ia 
ahem were i«,890,18S fismllie* la 
t?*M*t State*; and, according to 
1 In ih* tommiScimtce 

Just think of it— 

ewer! Ia she 
there *r* said to 

or yc* would not say so. 
3reated the men are reduced toffs 00 

titton obliged the ether* to take lower 

ey are aot c**V 


side to 

There is ae eojap * tit t o a now sssnaaj the 
tea, and they stick together. What » 
the ressuAT There beiag mo outaider* to 
bid for work aad muterbid the rest, thai* 
rcqeete for 

wa*^ toe* to 83.00, 
by a law a* 
tew of gem 
Th s r saj a *, redaetton to the hears of 
in the long r«a 9*4*0* 

work for 

organising tog* 
fit and ad 

est enlarged, and the coffer* of the cap- 
italists filled to overflowing. 

Tea, Whew Will They Do 8c! 

In the 

Via : Union 
No. 348, Otkalocea, Iowa; 848, Orange, 
N. J, ; 488, Montelalr, N. J. ; aad 438, 
South Orange, N. J. 

/Tble Is practical evidence of a revival 
of interest among the carpenter* in the 
work of organising more thoroughly. 
The hard times and general depression 
of the last two year* has taught these a 
pregnant and forceful lesson. Now more 
than ever ar* they awakened to the 
value ot maintaining a widespread com- 
pact onion of the craft. With the com- 
ing ot better time*, with work for the 
man aad money ia their hand*, their 
first thought will b* to join the V. B. 
We have an application for a charter 

era to ow rank*, f 
ranted Ontoo 878,1 
rainers) New York [i 

Oabinet Makerr* Union of New Turk city 
with several hundred membera. The 

Our banking schemers waat to retire! Union No. 7 of New York add* a early a 
the United Stats* Treeaury note*, apoaiiyBthouaand more membera to 
known as "greenbacks." There aw*JThe charter recently , 
8348,000,000 In circulation, aad they axel (formerly the Hoaas Fr 
non- interest bearing. The hanker* detireldty, has brought fully a thousand more Iff 
$340,000,000 of totarem-bearing fmember* to the U- B. In that dty. T 

Thus our Order la New York dty ha* 
strengthened thai winter by an addi- 
tion of folly two thousand more members 
and by the adheeloa of two of the 
old***, wealthiMt and beet dtecfpllaed 

bonds hi their place, and tax the people 
by the Increase and perpetuation of aa 
interest heeiing debt. 
Ia this way the** banker* will have a 

to the people again at high 
of latere**, aad added to it do a 

The* the 
on their bond* 
and alao on their 

don't bother their head* about q 

will the 

sad as* 

the brain* they sassisa to study this* 

ha the dredge* and slave* of a tew? 
Whan they da, then the moneyed ctem 

end the party hack., and 

Let a* Jtteada. 

had better stead fro 3 ander. The pete 
two year* gave asanas time art As* of 
-hard, toM, bitter 

Oaly Slave. 


t Macs iv, in an 
of Glacinnaii, says 1 * 
"Machinery should be the only slave 
of man to de bis bidding 
bardsmofhtesoll. It 
of organised *oetet7 to drafroy the < 

sal abould be • eentrlbotteu to the 
•a* th* whole, Instead of 


to his 

II is the 

of Ei*hta General Convention 
of the V. B„ held at Indian, 
apolia, Ind., are mm ready. 
Price, five cents. Send order* 
t» P. J. llcOUIWe. 

P. O, Box, 884. 

Phil*., Pa. 

appeals end Agitation 
reading for Hon* 


- . 

General Officers 


Office of the General Secretary, 
U4 H. Ninth St, Philadelphia, P« 


g*l. no w. 

I*. Pm. 



W. J. 



UU<m. H. Y. 


The noble fight nude by the 
man sod conductor! on the trolley road* 
of Brooklyn k another object lessen la 

strikes are failures," bat that there 
matt be first a thorough National 
iiation of trolley men end of eeeh 
nod branch of labor bafore mcb move- 
ments can win- And then them corporate 
interests, If they will not yield to just 
end fair demand* and measure* of con- 
ciliation, can be brought to tonne by the 
nntted political power of the working 

ite edu- 


Still, thie Brooklyn 
Beet. It 
to the thinking niri*sn* ol oar 
ooantry. It has proven how readily ail 
the militant forces of 
brought ta to coerce the 
police, eptee and detectives, the ecabe 
sad State militia at of old ere ell at the 
beheets of the moneyed Interests No 
tboagbt was given the enforcement of 
the State ten-hoar law at asked by the 
trolley men. The enbjogatloa of 
was of more Importance- 

Bat In thle strike one my of hopefal 
judicial fairness penetratee the gloom of 
defeat, and that ia the deauloa of Judge 
Gaynor. Hit arraignment of the 
ner and methods, nnder oarer of lew, by 
which Mrerel of the Brooklyn 

htm, and If he 
9 we hwaeted him more, and ett 
my life 1 here seen the fame feellag 

present In this country. It at wealth 
got by thie meani and by that, by trick 
and device , bat all the time according to 
law, which ie under the ban of the splaa- 

As Argument for Hlgker Does and a 

No trade onion, local or International, 
it to based on high does, liberal 
and a strict financial system 
hope to prosper or be enduring, 
of trade 
and abroad amply 

Daring the storm end street of indue 
trial severity the past two fears, 
trade unions which hers had low 
end no benefit* have •offered most. 
While those who were well- fixed 

Trade* exhibition #111 be held 

Thb Building Irodt Nevm to the title of 

eereral months by the Federation of 
BoQdlng Trades of London. It to a 

Take the 

Onion for example. That organisation 

dues, and when the panic ofl873-75 
over, there was only e ekeloton of It left. 
The work of re-o 

of astrtet 

j** r by 

And with what astonishing, marretoot 
results! The recently published 
report prove* that the 

TJnlon has more 
than it bad at the be- 
two years ago. -And 
In that time only Are etriket aga 
doettoot in wagei were lost. The 

that daring the year 1894 

stock-bolder* and seed nefarious prao- 
tket wee masterly end convincing, and 

" The transactions which I have tailed 
your attention to are net singular to 

Brooklyn. Their Ilka are to be found in 
nearly every locality ta the country. 
They have some to be the order of the 
day. U» place of being cheeked by Uwe 

ly law*. If this 
) woaitnae, what the and 
would bo ao one who 

with dear vision. The prime object of 
to to 

which does net do thto amy, la the 

Government, through the instrument- 
ality of the people, educated ia oar com- 
uoa schools, to not to fail In thto In the 
end, it not to be doubted, though it nay 
aoMtopefoatvedia the 

"There is ao jealousy capiat* wealth 
la thto country. On the contrary, those 
who accumulate wealth la any legitimate 


e, *44,W*.7«; tick, 8109,. 
788.88; death, 882,188 77; traveling, 
842,184.17 j oat-ot-work, 1174,417 25, 
making a total of benefits paid for the 
year . 8430,665.88; and a grand total of 
88,888,898.40 expended in bsaefite the 
past fifteen years. The reserve fond 
■bows a balance of 8840,788.98, or 812.84 
per bead. In addition to the 
the above feat amount in 
Union bee 

tte of wages daring one of 
the greatest indestrisJ 
ever visited thto or any 

will show that the actual 
on January 1, was 87,829. 
Thto does not 
the road, whit 

time of the year. However, despite the 
depression, thto 
of 1,040 membei 

•ay* President Perkins, to an 
Bfgemsat to the critic* of 
the trade* union movement and to food 
fee these who proton* to 
the movement to etltl problemat 
leal; It completely 

itoowa i 

and Joiner* on April 1st will aek sa ad- 
vance from 8dL to 81d. per hour, and that 
"Improver*' " wage* be one penny per 
than the standard rate of skilled 
rhereee at present they ere 


LoanoK.— It to generally feared that a 
aniveraal etrike of the building trades of 
thtoetty will take place May first thi* 
year. The employer* refuse to renew 

triks of 

mm tm mat* #*W.f 

»*•» Or. Lovm, Iaj~, Veb. *. 


MsaniaM, aid b*tti 

m m** **. That Vmlem let «— l*r **• 
fcmtW lb«Jr b«»rlfeU tpmittr, I 
of this nMlitlw W mptmm m tmt 
pabli*e«e tm Tas GaMrunew anS 

. O., Jm 


k»* w* M 

ikj to 


SWilii* ThM a man of tfeea* 
"-T-TfimllT nflUiin^i - 

ESfAsi* - ^■■ *#ye«w 

oneanot her la a very emphatic way. They 
ere: The 

with headquarters at Liverpool; aad the 

rater*. wHh haadquarte 
atGtoagow. Te make It mom lniereeUJ _ 
the employers have lately Incited the 
of a fourth society, called the 

General Executive 

to waking to the rally and 

•ubfMitsof emulation and honor. When ^ an« »o*»i.iet»»fi a* 
I was afcoy, If » farmer got along so that ' VT* x^^oTaTl 
be u;nld af ord to paint hto hcos*,wc »a < ntxttor. ■ 

have basn 
camber to 
people wlS nog 
children go into the mills, 

The ""cab." 

(■paetall r for tbtm cunmi.) 


« my theme. A dirty joh 
You think , Y at. If t It b« a rental crime 
To hold one up before the quiet mob 

Uk* mirror up to nature. Filthy grime, 
•Tie true, lo taint the moral*, or to rob 

Aa honeet men of purer thought* eubllme. 
Vol I'll eoinp*** bete, nor leave you blind, 
If! am "eruel. only to be kind," 

A "Soab" on men or b*Mt denote* diaeaae ; 

An ln«Tu»tatlou o'er infected wound. 
It meene e low end dirty fellow. Please . 

To note tfae 'semblance. Do not yet confound 
The one the other with. But lot us eel se 

The filthier of the two, end geotl y touod 
Hi* inner depth*. He'll teat our a; tea teat akill 
We'll treat like the doctor*— cure or kill. 

To you not poaled, might you aak bla fault 7 
One moat egregious to hia fairer fame — 

" Betrayed hla oomraBWrnr a drop of aalt"— 
HI* oath made falae- bl* resolution, same. 

H* baur ter'd honor for a cup of malt , 
And trued hi* folly with a wan toe '■ shame. 

Yet guilt ■teal* In and play* the hareo'a part. 

And, in hi* seeming triumph .ear* hi* heart, 

with a I 

villain play* ; nor oar* a flg 
with moat mallcloua tie*, 
or pure, to give or i 

, Ho pity oan he hope for. 'Tie the tree 
He plan ted for htm**lf ; and, If the law* 

So rale it, let him bleed. 'Tig plain to mm 
Ho oh o*r> It for the gain. . And now, because 

The fruit 1* bitter, ho would fain bo five 
Of acorn and oenawre felt in honor'* 1 
And aoek *oejjuion In a tomb of real. 





l ooward never on himself rellee."— 
' When ovo'd by expo** of a dirty creed— 
* B\»t to aa equal . for amiatnnee ft lea." 
And. so. II* faahion with thU scaly breed 


In garb of verdant youth -and aaek to cr*»* 
Your pardon of i 

The tool 

And, while the culprit utter* whining pule, 
Tb bonsai world looks on, nor 


i bo that alas* of crime which rots 
Upon Itself and author. Then 'U* mee 
The world bo prood and eouple. with it* 

Bnttatre jeer*— Um laugh of triumph. 
TftSe «on*ol*tloa bo* hoaanoab* aiog — 
• Atdire dlaeaier, downfall of * 
A » Urine lia. and mighty of the 
(deny him plaoa In ■ 
BAM. L. 

"if yon i hoard km a brood of pigeons 
©~ A field of wheat,'' says Dr 
of Oxford U*ivet->, "md it- 

for 1 j 

9 of «n 

tbaueatvet only 

that heap, the result of 
joct far on* of thorn, 

» eiroleat 




H E beet criterion of the des- 
perate bravery displayed 
in the battle of Peverell 
and the severity of the 
losses sustained by the 
royal army in that ■tub- 
born conflict la, that the 
- j. royal commander*, in- 
stead oi following with 
their cavalry the retreat of the insurgents 
and endeavoring to convert the heavily 
encumbered retreat' into a root, were 
constrained to rest on their armi and 
await reinforcements. Nor were inch re- 
inforcements long delayed. Number!* 
landholders bad, during the first days of 
the revolt, taken refuge on the shipping 
in the nearest harbors with the intention 
of fleeing from the country with what- 
ever valuables they had been enabled to 
secure. But the great majority of 
vessels had been detained at 
ohorage or had been driven back to port 
by contrary winds. Those panic-stricken 
refugees, upon hearing of the dispersion 
of the Insurgents, regained sufficient 
confidence to return to their estates. 
Here, in most cases, they proceeded to 
arm every available retainer, and then 
hastened to swell the forces rallying 
around the royal banner, or to 
trate in the fortified place, of 
several counties. 

Although the very meagre but 
loualy distorted details of this great 
popular uprising given by the mediaeval 
chroniclers *re mainly confined to the 
events occurring in or near London, and 
generally end with the assassination of 
the famous Kentish huder; yet the 
necessity of accounting for the death of 
several important personages has corn- 
mention of tfae struggle in 
more remote counties. Thus we are told 
that forty thousand Norfolk men who bad 
arisen in arms on the appointed tenth of 
bled la Norwich ; in that city 
which was then the centre of the textile 
industry, with a population only Inferior 
to that of London in 

to no other city in its 
fidelity to the principles of the Brother- 
Here the combined brotherhoods 
a journeyman dyer of the city 
John as 'heir "Jack Straw," or 
Norwich, like every 
city at that period, was 
protected or dominated by a royal castle, 
it was essential to the security of the 
bonies and families that this 
i should be secured before com- 
their march on the capital. 
John the Dyer hoped, however, to gain 
of the esstis by s lawful 
and also to severs foe the Norfolk 
men a leader of proved military capacity 
This hope was loaplrod by the knowl- 
edge that the governor of the castle, Sir 
John Belle, who was reported to he the 

He tuned a deaf ear to all appeals to his 
class sympathies, as he did also to 
repeated summonses to surrender the 
garrison. At length, on Corpus Christi 
Day, the order to storm the walls was 
reluctantly given. In never-ending 
streams rustics and artisan ■ swarmed up 
the ladders that were raised in every 
direction. In desperate hand to hand 
conflict the scanty garrison was hacked 
to pieces ; and the governor, resolved to 
capitulate only to death, killed twelve of 
his assailants outright before he sunk 
ander the axes of the surrounding 
throng. Bnt scarcely had the long de- 
fayed march of tfae Norfolk host began 
when the messenger arrived, bearing the 
king'* assurance that he had granted 
letters of emancipation and full pardon 
to the Essex men, and that similar letters 
would be immediately forwarded to the 
villages and towns of every other county 
Relying upon this assurance, the in 
surgent host disbanded and by groups 
forthwith returned to their homes. 

In the adjoining county of Soflolk fifty 
thousand insurgents, we are told, had 
assembled in the town of St. Edmund's 
Bury on the morning of the fifteenth of 
June. Here they arrested Sir John 
Cavendish, the Lord Chief Justice of 
England. Escorting their prisoner to 
the town market place, where a Jury 
soon impaneled, he who bad judged 
judged. Accused or pitiless sots of 

tyrsnry committed in the 


bis head was struck off 

The townsmen, it 
their day of triumph bad at length ar- 
rived, were not content to merely wreak 
unprofitable vengeance on their oppries- 
ors ; they were determined without 
danger of delay to gain possession of 
those charters which were the legal evi 
denees of their subjection to the lords of 
the toll . Blnce the very beginning of the 
century the townsmen had constantly 
been at strife with the abbots of 
but their every effort to obtain 
their grievances, whether by legal pro* 
cess or by force, bad proved futile. This 

townsmen certainly a 

, was the eon of a 
known to he In strong sympathy 
with the claac fro* 

, John the Dyer 
with the governor with avlew 
of Inducing bim to lead the 

I itself, devour 
faodrlgh. , 


art inapt 
icf tb* wfaajar, w**y 
6* fc imV pd! hie 


atiaa* fa 

art," he>e»id,"you area Iwight renowned 
for your valor and a man of 
In the country, yet yea are the eon of a 

thousands of thee* now 1b 
dam. Ton are on* of ourselves 
with as; and with 
sratitnds of the Oemaaowa, noes will he 
m all the 

SfrMMSaaS l**e 

lees which the townsmen la 
times had been compelled to perform had 
now been commuted Into money pay- 
meats ; bnt the abbot still claimed and 
received the fees and tolls collected in 
the town markets and fairs ; and, more- 
over, the abbot nominated and installed 
In office the town alderman. With the 
growth of the aspiration for self govern- 
ment these restrictions had become more 
galling, bnt a long and bitter conflict was 
to ensue before greater freedom was won. 

Some half century before the present 
uprising the townsmen of 

dragged the monks Into the chapter 
house, and had forced them with threat* 
of death to issue a charter of freedom to 
the town. The townsmen now paid 
neither rent, fine or toll to the abbey. 
But ere many months bad elapsed It 
became known that the abbot was in 
London soliciting military assistance 
against his rebellious tenants- Town and 
country immediately rose in arms. 
Thirty-two villagers, with the par it b 
priests thereof marching at the head of 
their male and female 
flocked toward Bury, for 
were convinced that if the townsmen did 
not succeed in boldlrg their chatter, an 
sttrmpt would be made to force the ratal 
tenants back into para serfdom. The 
anger of the people speedily found a 
vent, and all the vast and massive oot- 
buildUg of the abbey, that Is to aay, the 
hostelry, kitchen, granaries and 
were burned to the ground ; and 
the royal troops arrived they found little 
eave heaps of smoking mine. It <e 
recorded that several hundreds of horned 
cattle, hundreds of swine, one thousand 
horses and tea thousand sheep belonging 
to the abbey had disappeared during the 
tumult. Many hundreds of prisoners 
were taken, but aa little adequate evi- 
dence could he obtained, bo 
the thirty-two village 
twenty- four of the 
victed, of whom but twenty 
to death. 

however, declared outlaws. When 
troops were at length withdrawn, 


influence of 
monastic clergy had been steadily exerted 
in favor of the Industrial 
Bnt it Is niiiisssry tobearlnmlnd 
that the influence of the State over the 
constantly Increasing 
a time almost contemporaneous 
with the rise of the lawyer aad other 
cleaves. With this Increasing 
iflnence the previously high 
character of the superior clergy bad been 
steadily lowered ; and when wa observe 
the names of the military aria 
tocracy, the 8 
NevUles, etc., 

the clerical dignl 
thaw fact aa at 
it and tfae cause of 
The bishoprics 
which Lb the previoos oan 

the imiBif were now bestowed on the 


equitable In the 

Mi see later churchmen understood 
ass with the 


would be 

however, proved obdurate and discarded 
every proposition tending to a 
promise At length the outlaws 
advised to take the matter in their 
hands and endeavor to devise a means of 
bringing the abbot to terma. Awaiting a 
favorable opportunity, the outlaws finally 
1b secretly effenllug aa 
> into a mansion where the 
residing ; they then ssised, 
gsgged the prelate, carried 
him Into the woods, and soon found the 
of conveying their captive to 

cry made throughout the land aad the 
vigilant ssareh even 

the sees to Holland Thai' 7 
foil v aooomnUshed - and heeai ai t*a**#Jt 

»•»/ wwvi«l ■■■■■ ■ u , an* iM-www t mm wnnOi 

the abbot ■spend to compromise the 
whole affair; upoa which he was allowed 

were carried oat. The sea- 
of outlawry were reversed, el' 
implicated 1b the 
were released, aad the I 
poerd by the king's J 
On the other ban _ 
docs which bad boon exit 
sbbey five years before 
During the eventi 
this compromise ; during the first years 
of the eabveseiou of the 
the terrible retail! 
"Black Deuhj" the 



frm the labor 
required from them in the days 
or pure serfdom ; tod the organization 
Of toe brotherhood* to resist the en 
croacbmeots of the lords ; the relation/ 
between the abbots of Bory and their 
tenaate bid become more and more 
embittered. The abbacy was now tem- 
porarily vacant ; and the abbey had been 
for aome time in charge et a prior named 
John of Cambridge, a conning sod rest- 
less man, wboee chief ambition it was to 
use the utmost rigor of the law in enforc- 
ing the " rights " of the abbey against 
the claims of the tenants of Its fields and 
town for greater freedom. 

tt was then to the mansion of Prior 
John, outside of Bory. that the insur- 
gents directed their steps on the morn- 
ing of the fifteenth of June. The prior 
sought to save his life by flight, bat was 
delivered op by hie own servants- His 
head was eut off and borne to the pillory 
in the market-place, where it was placed 
side by side with that of Sir John Caven- 
dish. The Taet throng then swept on- 
ward to the abbey and demanded of the 
monks that they should forthwith bring 
all the charters of their house to the 
market-place, and there deliver them as 
a pledge that the future abbot should 
•ign the charter of the town's liberties. 
Having secured the abbey charters, the 
insurgents turned their faces toward 

London, but infoimation of the king's 
concessions at Mile End caused the Suf- 
folk men, as it had those of other 



of which is still in existence' at Walling- 
ham— and also a letter to the abbot of 
St Alban's, commanding him to deliver 
op to the townsmen the charters which 
bound the town In bondage to the abbey. 
The abbot immediately declared the 
king s letters to be of no legal effect, bat 
the townsmen burst Into the abbey and 
compelled him to deliver op the charters. 
The chief justice now informed Ortndoob 
that his life was forfeit by the terms of 
the king's late proclamation, but If he 
would persuade his fellow townsmen to 
restore the charters to the abbey, hie lite 
should be spared. Upon this Grindcob 
turned from the judge and addressed the 
assembled people: "Do to-day," he 
said, "as yon would have done, had I 
been killed yesterday. I shall die for the 
cause of the freedom we have won, 
counting myself happy to end my life by 
such a martyrdom." 

The amy then penetrated into the 
midland counties ; where, In Coventry, 
already celebrated for its textile Indus- 
tries and strong trade union organisa- 
tions, John Ball was taken a prisoner. 
It is said that great efforts were made by 
TreaUlan, and probably torture was fre- 
quently used as a means, to Induce this 
grand apostle of labor to confess that 
the great revolt was instigated for 

this tnvidoous 
insinuation so pertinaciously made, 
as steadily denied by the 

Id yet #USK^<£j£ 
pd faith, had arbitrarily arrested John 
L Dyer and other leaden of the late 

rgents. The men of the villages, was sufficiently strong to make the work 

_ mm - kat * ' —M «• * » » J _ . mmmt 


In took up arms, but their efforts to 
centrate In any formidable numbers 
■e bajtted by the landholders' forces 
ich hatr now taken possession of the 
strongholds. The royal army In 
again pot In motion, bat when 
in Colchester, tt band that 
men had marched up the 
sy of the Colne with the Intent to 
with the Suffolk men who were 
b mora assembling. The Essex men 
i, however, forced by the pressure 
enemy's cavalry to turn and give 
• in a disadvantageous position at 
pry in Suffolk ; and here, after a 


er this decisive advantage of the 
army the king visited the field of 
ell and established his court at 
ford in Essex. Ho here appointed 
inert TreaUlan Lord Chief Justice, 
of Sir John Cavendish executed 
Tresllien new folio wed In the 
t the army, and his first decision* 

on a gallows, which, In considera- 
tion of his clerical character, was built 
hat higher than the one need for 
his fellow-sufferers. 

In this way the royal army nod the 
king's judge, the one arresting and fight- 
ing, the other insult i □ g and assess! noting, 
traversed several of the judicial circuits 
of the land- In London, Kent and Es- 
sex permanent special commissions were 
I appointed for the detection and pnntah- 
jmeat of all who had taken part in the 
revolt. But we are justified In believing 
that the 

of obtaining ev 
That the work of the 
missions was not exhaustive we find evi- 
dence In the parliamentary roles, which 
contain a list of many leaders of the 
revolt who had escaped Indictment- One- 
hundred and seventy -four of these 
in Middlessex, of whom 
and flfty-oae were London 
. twenty-eight were men of 
Kent, of whom eight were of Canterbury ; 
twenty, among whom were four clergy - 


; eleven in Essex; eleven In 
eight In Winchester ; sight In 
; four in Cambridge, and four in 


November, 1381, a** the assemblage 

of the Parliament which was supposed to 
decide the question of serf emancipation 
Upon this subject the royal 
'* If yen desire to 
liberty the said serfs by 
it, ss the king bae 
of yon deeiri , *e «'!! tea* n ^ 
prayer." The answer adopted by 
tn reply to this part of the 
royal massage cert* a. v ba#. the merit of 
frankness. It declared that the king's 
letters of emancipation were noil and 
void. Their serfs were their rxxvV thrv 
said, "and the king eennui ink* i<« 
goods bat by onr own consent, th|e urn 
sent we have never given and never will 
give, were we all to die in one day." 

If, like moot of the nominal historians, 
we should regard this great revolt aa a 
tt national A to solve tna 
question of tL+t age by political 
■ xA-rr Vd be forced to edmii that 
not success, ul. Tnfcv* 
to admit twatns* the 

to withstand 
of disciplined soldier* in 
array; and because during the 
summer and fall of that year seven thou- 
sand men of the Brotherhood, as esti- 
mated, gave up their Uvea on the battle 
field or the gallows. But the uprising In 
England, characteristic of that conserva- 
tive bat determined people, wee not an 
attempt to abolish serfdom by royal fiat 
or legislative enactment; It was an appeal 
to the king, In his traditional capacity of 
supreme Judge, to enforce real though 
unwritten contracts between the land- 
holders and their tenants. And if the 
appeal was made with arms in hand It 
was because they believed that access to 
the source of justice would be denied by 
interested end corrupt counsellor* who 
held the king in thraldom. In the light 
of our present experience the attempt 
certainly seems chimerical; but we 
should judge men according to the light 
of their age, and It was then believed 
that "there le a divinity which doth 
hedge a king 

s recognised 

national in character, bat wen common 
to the countries of Western Europe where 
industry was moat developed. The 
struggle for emancipation from military 
control, which had been inaugurated by 
civic populations, may bo raid to have 
become general daring the latter half of 
the fourteenth century as witness the 
formidable insurrection of the Jacquerie, 
which broke forth in France, Hay, 1868. 
Frolsaart, the military chronicler, bears 
testimony to the universality of the 
uprising when writing of the events of 
June, 1881. " Row observe," he writes. 
" how fortunately matters turn out, for 
had they sox seeded in their intentions 
they would have destroyed the whole 
nobility of England ; after this success 
the people of other nations would have 
rebelled, taking ex»~ple from those of 
Ghent and Fin. o wore In actual 

rebellion against Jord, and, in the 
sams year, upward of twenty thousand 
Parisians acted In a similar manner." 

Serfdom, the secondary phase of the 
involuntary organisation of labor, had 
now, in the most advanced countries, 
served the social purpose for which It 
had bean Instituted. From the time 
w^eo^serfliom^ succeeded to slavery, it 

social right; It gave him that right 
which he did not enjoy ae a slave— the 
right to family life It had alao given 
him the right to accumulate some little 
wealth,, and thus he was enabled to pro 
need, though by extremely alow degrees, 
toward freedom. The landholders, suffer- 
ing from a sodden scarcity of labor 
by the ravages of the Black Death, 
tempted to reverse the natural 
. to independence, and the ter- 
rible Insurrection* of this period wore 
• Uaf/i Irrational, if 

without regard to Individual eondUtone] 
w»8 supplemented by equally irrational 

lug'slalton forWdj'tg j* ebilOron of 
eerf* entering the prtraiuood or being 
booed apprentice in towns. But despite 
the pamtonate derier iktlon gfti id holders 
and rabid legislation, emancipations, 
under pr essure of economic ooav' t' * 
proceeded with Increased rapi urn, 
entwally. the main >uj,uon- of 
udera Industry wen ^Wished. . r f- 
1<u " 7*« net uev.n.-l . .,(, violently 
or yhrow n . itgr. re*!.; gave place to 
wageoom. with a mo** or tees perfr.t 
hierarchy of land lor," v J; .; unary 
artisma, saedkat, teehuiael, 'uaenH* ', 

fine, ft 

doly «hoa>o ftxjn tlltottotltm tn I 
who ■halt. Wore beta* i 
totUsaicea* byttMj 
recording ■tentary oi Q>«ir SPSleij) 

have ske sssl of man? onion i 

a la ewe of i 
skafe lodge sMadied ahall 1 

>- 4. 


•Iteration of IriUiai, and fWiUWr ■** 

jama All InAwd Wboraoa 
la this eeaasU, wbaa eaebeoa 

rtstf* r * 

* l * «*eat social trans- 

Z*£U.VJ5$X ~ - a. 

aM a*3 


ot Union 

Twonlf (CbrOtoued/tcw. J*tfilM 

° f J*f*f. that the O. 8. write See. 
Of •8J rta>tn |f that union hi 
Jon Is filing °°P7 * f 

j rovernlng Ins retiring 0. 
I and adopted a* the - 
Lnl Board. 

tmnti DAV'a 
nunlion of audit of 
'General Office. 
T \ppror*d disability claim of John Dull tig, 
t W, Wilmington, Del . referred to O. B. B. 
" *ndl.n*polt* Convention. Upon thorough 

" »t»>Uo«> th. »• «■ »• ■ Mow ' tht * •*•*• " 
. toy in.tnict* U»» a " *° J** u - „ . „ 
* .ability olnlm »f Robert Etllond*. Union 76. 
* Orleans, I*. Owing to the u neat I .factory 
!f*,c» pre*ented,theQ K B refer, th<- 
■ for. 

Hew York D O. that It 
IbU office tb la balance of ftl7. . 

of Jaa.Dt.iuld. Jr.. afalnrt U nkm lit, 

wlwark N J for.lrik. pay due bint while on 
Newark, «. J., !«■■■"■ ■ r * „ _ H ,„ 

•trlkc In New York. .unfitted to Q. B. » ror 
deolrion O. K. B. decide that what, a member 
work!,., in New York, bulb*lo»*teg U . « ** 
.Ide Union, 1* called out on 

he trade rule* of the B*w York D. O.. 
doea not allow .Irlk* pay to outride 
Therefor*. Brother Duguid I. , not «, 
m* U».Wk. pay from tb. New York D.C. 
nor can Union lit be hold for in ^ 
only ju.l tbat where a member from «"«*"; 
dlatrict K oee Into a tort". 

of better condition-, ha .bould be willing to bear 
■»n>. of tb. burden, born* by tb. ™ 
lh. U. B. In th* rf-y, and b. *Bm H» l8fc 0«W 
rlak or being naltod out HI 
Thl* deelalon doe. not app" 
financially by th*Q. E. B. 


O. B, wa* t 
tha pr< 
IndUnapolU Conv 

January IA 
to print In droutor forsn 
adopted at the 

movement for an .trhlbour day . Bald droulnr 

to call attention of the I-ooala and m "™™ 

the desirability of .tertlng a tborougt! mp« 

all along the tine, and aJao Inform *na i«« 

rjn.on. Lai «o .option to^k.fc^ythn, 

but an elgbt-hour day will be oonalderw oy 

"ifooofcrmlty with **»*»?^22Z 
anolbr Convention In adopting faction t of th. 
commilleV. report on S, ft report, the O, B .B. 
have framed a art of D O. By-law. tor pnbllca- 
^ toour offiHal Journal. The adoption ^of 
aw. I. la no aenae obligatory | but It to 
that they b* followed a. elontly 

awhtl* lb. 

pprored death claim of O A. Ool., Union 
Mndlay O. After due investigation th. 
B, concur* In th. dootolon of tb. O. B tor 
_ explained by him in hto eommttn lent Ion 
th* F B of Union ISO. 

death claim or D. W. Walter., 
rtl.hurg, pa. O. E. B. on ejamlo- 
■d or deoeaaad Hud .raauro. ha*. 
Id. They therefor. Instruct lb. 0. 8. to 
Union W to forward Ite book, at one. to 
for examloaUon Should they b. 
correct then claim o»n be paid 




Union 1«, 

referee to 

log.-J.nuary 10. 
claim or John Bella*, 
i, Fa. Evidence) reviewed 
Cat term ull of O. It. B. aa 
roport back to tb. 

. of Barak K. Oreen , 
Brld.no. rerlewed 

•fa. b. 


Dteappwved death 
Union ltd, Lynn, Mm 
TJwjtaton of O. 8. and O 
ordered paid. 

Dtaapptovnd drath clalr 
tJalaw tSI, Chllllootb., O. 
fkaeWon of 0. B. and 0. T 

DteapproTad death elaim 
Vnto" W, Lewtaton. Me 1 
wad os now toatlniottr tb. 

41. T. wa. overruled aod olalm 

MauanMd death o'aJin of In Jane 
iitooTuolo. *» Chiotgo. til. BrM.no. re- 
IZwed. Cta. referred to Brother CaUe™ull 

"^■Ik^^^ O B" 

T^latof Beaton D O to 11*00 now In band, 
of TiHWia- of lapawd Union aU of Boston. 
O B.B. Bad. a*Jd anion waajooUy Indebted to 
D. 0. to tb. .mount now bald In the 
of Treasurer of late Union BM. Therefore 
# E. B lantruou the O. 8. to order thaw* 
jr-td* teroed ov« to tb. Bo*on D. 0. I. llM 
/ UlboappMlof H, 
York* en. I ha dwolaloi. - 

ten of 1*0 p. 0. of York, after oarofnl and 

afrtnjato and kwnedt. a. • naMntbnr of Union 
and U» abnU aotb* required te p*Mh.^fla* 

0.C. ula awldM*. It I* plain ton D,C. 

cf O. E 1- 

vmfl 1j-' aw.tbnr Thornton a new trial, a* 
_jj|jnd Tbn urlerAM* Oomoaftle. «t 
Jl J ■ ■ il * 1 •** *ba ml autre at the flurt trial, and 
T^l ll>W |nlltol»«llM» 

• now .Tld.nrr Tht. do*. 
*r of too O. B. B, of July tl, 
" \ *— ytete now hrteJ, bw 
Brother Thornton did not 

Union Itl, few 

Anneal or Jaa. McDonald, D. J. McDonald, 
HuabMcDonald and J. J. FtUpatrlek, Union 
mTyS Yo,k. «. lb. N.w York D. O -d 
TTT, . j-a The der.od.nl. w.r. found guilty of 
lumping, and ..polled under See, TOof our tow^ 
The G. E, B. bold th. notion Of ^ JfJJ? 
D O. and Union •» to lag»> 
eection, and wuteln th. vordlot of nal 

*tSi of Peter Morvh.U.lon 811, Brooblyn. 
H Y^agaln** dod-loo of tb. King, co-nly 
D. O., ropnynaont of hMt. » lc k 
over for further arld.no*. 

*VppoM of P. Mori a, Union «1. 
D. a of OhloAgo, In ntelm ' 
d.no. rurntabed, the O. 
or tb. Chicago D, O. 

Communloation from Soorel.ry of Union m. 
Ran Franataco, reqoertl n« de.ct.lon of (J B. B 
whether or notaenrponter wbon. wift^ | ***"* a * s ^ 
In th. *»1e of iutoiloar.laon.be ^ ll " k '°*»' 
h-rabla. The dedeton of O E. B. in thl. cm* la 

or any member of hi. boo-ehotd. » 
In th* tnl. of Intoileatlng liquor. 
Union l>0, 84. Looter*, dnolaton of the 
O. The evideLC* .bow. Union 1» 
mrgan agalnat llaion pT7 for viola lion 
- 1 tfmA% miM and than withdrew aald ebarge*. 

•Ending I. ov.r payment of coat* In 
c.ddged again** Union 970 by th. 81. 
Loul.D.0. Upon review of th. ^ d "~ 


Apooal, Union m, n.-»M dneteton of th* 84. 
Loui. ». O. Evid.no* .how. Unto" _ 
rerred obarget agnlnnt Union BW ror HBfHI !• 
depended m.mb». Upon trtoJof th. •» by 
the D. O . Union BW wa. orderwS H PWaan 
Bontb.' book dun. to Union fit, a* 
tb. cata*. The O. E. B. h err, by i 
elalon of th. M, LowJn D. O. In thl* 
it relate* to th* nto 
that pait •* to oantn. 

Oonotdoraiion of bill of Wine and MoJffnlty tor 
attorney fee* nf dedowj. Ui -All of Mrn B!» 

U. B. Bnfermd to th. G. 8 with 

B took up nod computed the audit of 
the book, and aooounl* of th. O. 8 . from wbl* 
th. following .umtnari*. nr. drawn >- 
oitniL n wt>. 
n band, July 1, UN fjJTtJM 


on h.nd Jan. 1, IBM , . 




July I, IW4 . . 
July. Aug., bept.. Oel 

i tho Iowdrdob in pndt 

compelled to pgrfonn httd 

lh „ M enUr [nU > any Ami lnt ° -*»-» W 

i^tmSmSrm, B b, *J> ob-Wmdd End 

, Jait-.nri final action' until tb* na»i i„ 
defer donnite an« _^ aa.. 

quarry moettng In April. 
0. 8. I* bnreby i 
and dlatrirt* directly 
written .tetomenU from I 
meeting of the O. B. B. 

wjASn UAT .t*«io».-J»n u * r » H 

. K alu*l * reduction In wag*.. La'- 
union *«nd« achedul* or ln<iullt.», i 

m Oonrtltullon. 

Appeal tor almllar *upport. Union mo, 
»„■„, n v Bam. action taken. 
P £mo*;Jic.t7on, Chart- Illgg-on. Tipton. 
Ind , .ubmltUng propoaltlon tor organ g. 
Placed on Die. , aa EM 

Appon) I». O. of Ohloago tor donation of" 
to *a>i.t In -trlk. on " 
O E- B. h.r*b) appr 

'"'kwlILi' ran cite* DC for *K» for or- 

I InTpurw** la tb* present .into of 
^Tano- ofU. B , the O B B. < fJBB« tb. 

r , u *W in toilet «f£££2l J. 8? 

n^n. D HelTrred b*ck to « BrT. «+t» 

in r*f^ro» 'o™ . |W Mt „f r**olu 

Union »T7, Bt. Loot*. «iDnu**v« ■■■ «" 
tion*. panaed on by that body, and .igoed by a 
committee, praying th. O E. U 
union, for rote a propoaltlon to i 
tion., and I a trod uo. lb* Inltlatlr. and 
dum lr»tend. O. B- B. are of opinion Ihny •** 
without Juriadlotlon to do ao, bwt will refer 
tatter to tb* n*st convention for notion. 
*PP*al D. C Brooklyn If. Y , tor atipport in 
nnatlng a reduction In wage*. Lnld over, and 
U B-T lo*lru*ted to proour. now dndnite to- 
rn aald D. C a* to amount of ansUtV 
_J. ate. O. B-T, to oommuntoite tb* 
Information to O. M. B, a* **fly *• 

ESd wr,.»d O B In-tructod to ooUfy naid 
U, an out aebndul* of inqulri*. and pro- 


ho»st sad tan tboosnjid obe*p bwloociog 
to the Bbbey h«d dlB.ppfl.red daring tb» 

Uulon to 811 out echedul. of luoulri.. mi I pt* to tha abbey h*d dlt*pp«*trfd dtlriDf th* 
ew*d H rwq».r^ by O.BJl-lMia, pm- « «- tomolt. Mm; haodredn ot prtoooert 
w __ o Mdl| M boob* of tb* O B , the I w«z« tsJUB, bfit 88 llttla ndflqOnU BTi- 
a eb and* it — mi T to torr thr** 88BBB I dene* coold b« obtained, BO EMTB ibJM 
o.ent. of U„ oant. *^h P*r oaplte , UllHyHwO fUkffB priflBt. B»d 

^'^JZ^J^ZZ^™ tWEty foOf Of th. UBB.EBMU, W.r. COO- 
SliUat^nned by a- inoreawnd dtonbUlty^d TUH*d^O< whom but tWflrity Wntw mm- 

by March U. IBM. A Loo 
payment *f tb**. 

, tb* Mtof tffil WU B 

1U of O n a t M ntion 

Uvlad undor 8*c- tt 

The O t w** 
Tre** Jam** Troy, tor 
fund, now to 4b. PVtellty 

By Jj.ii.tiT-* with tb* O. P.. It wafl 

twenty- foor of tha whunii wwi 
Tlctad, of whom but twonly wan ean 
demnod to danlh. Two 4 - 

TLtTwlll *ton. of lb* O. B. 8 covering • 
fo, tnanrtton to T "" 0»»PBB 
pnajatdU to tb* Ooo*4lt*U*n. 
ia par nrwvtou* arr*ngam*nt, 4b* O 
uwt a delegation, Mm*. Middle*** and 
Ua of How V***, i npr*.< . U«8tb. * i*> |8 

nf Cktipnattrr A long **wf***n*n 
*A*r preparing * few ~ 

Mt of Mow York 
to Onbio*4 M*k*r*' 
. Tb. ground* of pro* 
trt wa* not *nUttod to rote 
rwteof nntd union be 
rote* of U ni on* HI and 

Order. Q. M. B 
oarteln d*U forth* 
altion to admit fJnW.W 
Union* #Jt and M8 dU 
within tb* jmwltel 

B. do not fo*i tb*» **n do 

•f tb* t?*w Y*rk D. C. In to* war* of 
Unto* T Tb* O. E. B furtbnr 
iti* J * by tb* 

Ir-f-k'^g toward* a 
«r*wd Worfcon 
__ Union *ad tb* U. B., 
E. B by tbn ®. B. _ 

«,8 gf tb* t.9. m.v m **** 

^'^•JV^JVw'w*. nr. atw M/W. B^T. 

i U t, I. wend bnto l u nn it J il M— wMb 

ii^i tn« nwMnw. . — - 

U B bndnntered la toll tor** and *»fo*t on *«d 
any, Janunry U, MM 
Union ltt, Lyrin. M*** .for donant 
of tln»toa**tet In *rgnBlalng ootlylog Mtte. to 
,1 ^ M t p|Tii' for donntlnm 9t tOM from 

' tb*t PTgnnlntog la K.w Bng- 
b* doo* nade* to* direction 

Boctoty *f Cawpwntor*. A long ™ 1 ™" 
b*id nod *fter preparing » tow gnnnml p*W| < 
ttonn upon wbtob th* tw* bed tea ntlgbt ntta 
Eo*rd nt)nnra*d I P. M. 


t A 


ntenrd oon -- 
Brotb*r Bktebto^ 

T^agWn mM »• **»f*t*»*o. wW [8 
,p,*a*r>t*tfW. of tb* Am * lg**» ^* d Bwr _ 

nZurTmorntog waa 000**1*8 to dnlibn*. ' 

oTmutunl ptopeadtto*w. O. M , B. m4 O, id 

bid . tong *n*nwit4n4toi.. and *4 lJt P M^. . 

^ th* datogste* of tbn Ai.lgn*..tod »• 

1B " TT - ZZ ■ — u itnflad Kui M 4(1.1 

line t* 

_ ag' I—' *t. b 
Edward Onppieg** Of 

P. Oikritu of awlUnaor*. 

Puraltor* Work 

B. 0.8. Mad nil 4b* 
„ .teo tb* ngJAdnl. of tb* tore* 
th*l.F.W.C..tb*J bL W " 
U. B., reto B ng to n p m p— d aatntgn 

fXroanl mw«wl '» dn>B*d, but n* da-j 
aStonTn. tek*n. U w*. t^ «**w*W tb^ ' 

hL.t^^to* wlaTtflnntrw**! lh*0 BT**. 

tbTS^aaak*! oa*» *ii * ««rtod naor* for tnal 
ttoiof tbTolgbt bourdny. In olU«* wb*» 

% it B t b*ld**ontor.no* wtlb 4b* «. 8 

>nat*Ad Bnmty O m p nny of PMtowW* 



-D. D M«If*IU, i 

«.-R Ball, ?* I 

1M 8. 

H. B. Tt*TW, Wt 1 

U. GUrfc. Tl* Tli+T**. 
*T— A. T. ItotiB, P* *» •*- 

1 k VewU, UU Listen *». 
-J. B MHUf,tMPB»***» 


, F. OkwribvA, 1 


t. r.h* 

tm w.n. 





L illR 


*,♦ Mortal* «L 

| O iMAM&IlD *. 
kT.ilM.Bnm _ 

«, A.SwSS WtW Br-***, 
■tJtMlhMI Mi Lawful av*. 

^rt;^M^rft« K . 




>'Ap??V HBC— 


V. Smith, as A. el 
. C. Millar. Box MT 

iWtti,Bu •* 

r. & foooU IS HornctOWT 
— M. MelloT, SM N. Wash at 

W WHI-L r. Irwin, Ml r 

Tonm-Sfci. Ml ok 1*7. t» M.nan 

B. Dewier. SSJ 

L Dawley, MThMtMil 
, f» ■!«!■?■ T. J, L M <lh>ni, Box IS, Valley 

-P. Do] en, 32 Grand View si 


•W.J. P ewte r . Utt W. 11th av* 
L. Wiley, Box 1M. 
H. Millar. muM 

(tter.1 KMuri 8e!del. H. W. 
aTllissiien Mi 111 ii 1 1 H. Parker. 
BlIWitMi— A, Dennteon, 7t3 Walker a*. 
SaS ajrroano— O W. W. Smith, Kubloto 
Mora, Beak Quarry Road. 
" (Oar.) T. Jaaernl*. 1111. B. O 
- A. 8. WlatHsi, I » Centre av 


Pyhaa P. 0. Bra SBS, 
L. B. Walker. 


SMI aUM Lal 

IW. Mb, 


C. Haymar, Box 1 



IX B. 



; . jj^i^j^Wai^M^l^iMI^M 

John BMtoedorf, 7M 7th av, 
,1 Waa. Batata. 7« IStn at, 
i Joes Fteatendorf, TMTth 
|J. Waraar, IJaV U th ai. 

v^tjftylo* , lUlJRk at. 


41 Li 

TtfWt Mt 

N hit annual ad 


dent at the Dan- 

yN hit i 

^Kl drm 
S> dent 

Federation of 
t ^ Labor, Samuel 
Gompere took 
vet j dock! ad 
and eminently 

hidden there it one declaration which li 
not only controversial, bnt decidedly 
theoretical, and which even if founded 
upon economic truth, is not demon 
etrable, and bo remote aa to piece our- 
selves ud oar movements in an nnen 
▼table light before our fellow- workers, 
and which, If our organization is 
mitted to it. will unquestionably prevent 
many sterling national trade 
from joining oar ranks to do battle with 
as to attain first things first 

It is ridiculous to imagine that the 
wage worken can be slaves in employ 
ment and yet achieve control at the 
polls. There never yet existed co ind 
dent with each other autocracy in the 
shop and democracy in political life, la 
truth, we have not yet achieved the Ltd 
tial step to the control of public affairs 
by even a formal recognition of our 
anions. Nor does the preamble to the 
program outline the condition of the 
labor movement of Great Britain accur 
ately. In that country the organised 
wageworkers avail themselves of every 
logal and practical means to obtain the 
legislation they demand. They endeavor 
to defeat those who oppose, and elect 
those who support, legislation in the 
interest of labor, and whenever oppor 
sanity affords elect a bona fide union 
to Parliament and other public 
office*. The Parliamentary Oommitt » 
of the British Trade Union Congress is a 
ommittee to lobby for labor legis- 
lation. This course the organised workers 
of America may with advantage follow, 
since it is baaed upon experience and 
fraught with good results. 

He would indeed be shortsighted who 
would fail to advocate independent vot- 
(olitical action by union work- 
We should endeavor to do all we 
poealbly can to weaa our fellow-workers 
from their affiliation with the dominant 
political parties, as one of the first steps 
'to insure wage workers to vote 
in favor of wageworkers' 

workers as representatives. 

During the past year the trade onions 
In many localities plunged into the polit- 
ical arena by nominating their candidates 
for public offices, and sad ae it may bo to 
cord. It is nevertheless true, that in 
ch one of thaw localities politically 
•y were defeated and the trade union 
ovement more or leas divided sad die 

" What the results would be If such a 
ovement were inaugurated under the 
auspices of the American Federation of 
Labor, involving it and all our affiliated 
organisations, ii too portentous for con- 
templation. I need only refer you to the 
hvet that the National Labor Union, the 
predecessor of the American Federation 
of Labor, entered the so-called indepen- 
dent political arena in 1872 and nomi- 
nated its candidates' for the presidency 
of the United States. It is equally true 
that the Rational Labor Union never 
held a convention after that event The 
disorganised condition of labor, with Its 
tales ot misery , deprivation and demorali- 
sation, from that year until the reorgani- 
sation of the worken about 1880, meet 
be too vivid In the minds of those who 


Before we su hope se a general organ! 
cation to take the field by nossinatlng 
candidates for etnee, the worker* 
be more thoroughly organised and better 
ressMte aohatred by experiments locally 
Ammml labor aaovesiissit eaanot and 
vul not succeed epos the ruins of the 
trade aniona 
Tbie — i—Hon *" *a important one 
k - sery previously 
i saestlM a esssttweekaBslve ▼tew of the 

■s? a> wesjamvsvv <■» *SWnaW*jWW»a™sa"n»JaHBB»ew WP T"sbW»W va MOW 


It ta an old, well-established or In dpi a of th< 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters for member* 
to buy Ohio* Li an. Goo be In preference to 
outer article*. And why ootT If we aak fall 
wage* for our labor, why should we buy foods 
made at unfair wages by other*. 

The Union Label Id every Industry Is a roar 
eete* of lair wages, deoent working ooodlUooi 
and union labor employed. ■ 

We hare rive a toad tulle of the Union labeli 
•o our members may know Union Label 
He point to aak ft 

This Label la used on all 
foods made by Union man 
connected with Unions 
affiliated with the araerl 
saw Federation of Labor 
where Such union* bar* 
no distinctive trade Mho) 
of their own. This la be 
Is printed on white 

It la | 

union made hat be- 
fore It leaver ate 
workman** hands. 
If a dealer taker a 
label from one hat 
and pieces It In 
^CciSTXt*-" another, or has any 

detached labels In his store, do not buy from htm 

Union. Ills 
printed on white paper to 
black Ink end la pasted or 
each loaf of bread. It mean* 
dee Us to lonf hours and lo» 
In bakers' slave pans underfioand. 

union noon amd 

This Is the joint Label of tk. 

This ui a fai aJsatle at 
ths badf* were by all 
roam ben of the detail 
Clerks' National ; 
Iff tasnfialtlotl Of 
United Masse, 
all aalasmeu and ales, ha 

The Tack Makers' Union ts the oldest take* 
orfmnlantlon In America. II waa founded I* 
IBM. above lath* label placed by the 
Union made avaki 

The I aims' Protective Data* 
sod? rig-hied ike a h S T * 

m th* sate m lininf ef* 

t af Aan*tt**ha* 
irk, wblek wbeu 
a bo** or shoe, Is a erT 
itee the* ah* anm* to Isaatd tooted by anion f* 


if th* ^j fir * 

know*. fs> the 

of the priBfap-IL'!?? ** mumt * 
« beware of fee* their 


si»tf4ti a«nkTx«if«tt»tt 

•Dm fltthrogli Ml 
i hfrw DruOarMttR 
w***«, Ml#t ta 
j<*«» Union. 

(Far Our 

91 Art ft (#n filial 

b fsf% aBe Rtbtttet.Dtgantfa' 
ttonen bet £aube* fan oergangenen 
3ab> |utudgegangea ffnb, inbem 
f\c Xanfenba von SRttgliebern oet. 


We Srabttf*aft bet Carpenter! fUHf e gort' 
(*rttte. Die Kite roetlbooBe ficqutfftton, 
nxl*e aema*t natbo, iff bet Sfitrttt bat 
*ra f)or!et Cab tnctmahtl, batea feit mebt 
all 90 3ab«n t>efteb>nbe Union 91s. 7 nun 
<bmfaB* untft unfmm (S batter an tern 
gtofcen Cfatigunggroetfc mitatbettet «t gat 
|»ot etna* lance atbauett; abet, nut 
lange rofibrt, roirb ja belanntll* gut unb 
Kit {jfreuDen fH|m »ir bte neueu Brflbet 
nlfitommen in unferen Stttben. 6ie ftnk fan 

^"•"wwnn »w wv*^g*e** w »»ww 

Jtampfc erptobte fJtaanet unb mit ifam 
Batf* ntrb el bo ff en tit* gcltngtn, au* bie 
bUnHfttt StttfjiRtcffl von 9.*n ^otY, •§ l4$t 
ff* ae* bartn gefaflen, fleiuen 6onbet« 
Drgaulfattouen aniuaebflrtn, unlet unlet 
Bonnet |u f*aeten, {rale bie Brooflunet 
iwb Setfevet {{ranter* sts oeranlaffen, bem 
Beifptel tbtet Ren gorier godjgmeffta fo( 

aefogt, nt*ll *c|f lelfen, alt bte tifbet. 
uabme be* BabubetrieM bur* bte fftbtfa 
f*en BebBtben unb •« fate, na* roe(*en bie 
CnaeffaDten nut von bet Dtaonlfatton bet 
2.t% teren geltefett roetben btttfen. 

* a * 

Die Regfatung „ptt dnbatttbefelt" iff 
bat 9teuefte root auf bte amettfanifebca 
ftaptialiften fell bent gtofcen ttHfmba&nffrtfe 
in fi"»teago vetfa&ea ffnb. *u* in Btoot* 
Ion baben fie ff* unlet be« Borroanbe, bte 
Set. Btaateu Soft }u befbtbetn, ben ©$u» 
bet Stbbtben geltcfett. 3«be ib)tei ©cab 
Car* hug eta e*Ub nil bet *faitf*rif1 
U. S. Mail," au* roenn nt*t ein einjige* 
Saptcrf *ntbe[*en, bell rote ein Bttef au*. 
fab, batauf bef btbett routbe. „Dnlel Sam" 
toutbt auf blefc IMfc «» Mttel fflt tint 
Kubttbenibc in ben S)ienft gtftttt, roelt^e 
na4geotetenctiMtfH feit 3«b,«n bte be. 
ftebenbcit etaat«ge(e|c but* Ba^nfimiifl 




Det MdgcH, foroelt bte 8«b< bet Wit. 
|iw*i9>n pi o'™l* ■phwi *p *»u| »tiwn* 
bet* ft«f fat ben DtgcnttetiontR bet Ctfen 

^fti*wVf?tab«liaft be*t ecttemi »n 
18,000 auf 6,000 ttbucitt ; bie tjt abet i<t aft 
bet Xteiraneit b«t 180 8ofei«g«ifatl*nen 
■it webt all 4,000 SRltgltebetn teitotm, 
bU Bttktrf4«ft bet £otomstivftbtet unb 
bUtcntgt bet tetter ferine* ebenfaD* meb 
ttre Xaufenb Kitglleber unb bte Hutual 
lib Iff od«tt»n bet ©»it*inen iff g«N| unb 
gat son bet ffJilbfIAefr»nfa)vuabe«. 2>icfe 
Srfejetnung be* ROtfgemgt* iff imbeffen 
tti*t nut but* bte ItlettlloflgfeU |M tttlA* 
ten, foabtrn tbeilweife but* bte Setctn* 
f«*ung bet Bettteb*, bte fjetllngenutg bet 
ffXtbcttlwit Mb bte Siufilrune a on eUftrt- 

X^f'StlMuHven ^gctretcn ftnb. Unb 
nrlt btefet Xebuctruug b« ltrbelt#ftafte gift 
tUentbulbes eine Sen In gen ng bet Ctbeitl* 
IMjw «Mb in «tsb, (• be>| bet fcur*. 
f#MittJI*|» tel ■<«**« fi*nbe |e|t auf went, 
get •(• |1 ft! tag gefalen Iff, Mat ba 
tlaslt, ba| Miftf a«ff*«b ff*faa |m| 

ejotbt, iff l*tef twrtSffi »uf« 
faun ni*t* me|t belf**, ill Mr 
Umg bet farritaltfftf*en in bte 
k«f*afai*e Vtebuttlott*f»etfe 

lu* bit fftauunffe Drgatrifaticn tmm auf 
btetem Vtbtet «ta)tl meft ault^ten, «tU 
Mtt ba* ffaptta! betatt eentraliffrt unb 
ttgantfftt iff, baf man ibrn nut no* bmr* 
bte gefebjebenbe »a*t bag ganfeu SalM 
MtotrnkM ham, bie, warn fte ben arret* 
lam gtnffig tent foB, au* in bcnBrbettetn 
Ik ibte* CteM totUteHtti umbo* unb Mt* 
bet, feib ffr etffatibti*, in Ujnin etobert 
e>tben mu? «*» f*la«enba* fftetffiel |tet. 
/"Wp* jeeben bte ttoHepbabn-Hnaeftefl. 
to l»lt»« gallefttt, *Ml*a, ttovfl 
- 5R«n« in fftamwffet Setfa 
benno* ni*t lax C5tubt 
lottotebMat tefeantrlea 

il*i Hal IfiUe 
r liafba* an* fat8»* 

bcten fianket*. el in tmferem 3abrbunbett 
ta*t taben. 3« ftanftet* teffgnitte 
nt*t nut ba* JHntffetfamt unb bet |faftff« 
bent bet btepnblif, wH! fte bet etnet einfa. 
*en «ifenbab«*«onltaU. manipulation bie 
fltatoritlt bet Jtammee ni*t mebt auf tbtet 
6cite batten. Krct fat Saftfataton btteben 
fomobl bte Kiniffcr vie ibt Sr|, bet fetffe 
Ctmlanb, grma*U* auf tbten foffen, all 
ibte gefammte ginanj. unb SoOsolittl von 
u)ten eiflcnen Battetgenoffen mtt 6*impf 
unb e*anbe unb &obngell*tet abet ben 
^aufen gerootfen mttbe. 5Dte ameritant* 
f*en Bolttilet ffnb ebenfo f*atnlo« geroor. 
ben, bafi fte, fa lange man fie ni*t am *ta< 
gen nimtnt , urn fte mtt ^ufjtrtt ten an* bem 
Smte m roerfan, bleiben, mo fte ffnb, an* 

rote bunbett Bcrfonen getlbtci unb *ttf*te< 
bene bunbert anbetc auf £tbenl)ett }u fftflp. 
pe in gema*t |at. 

X»a| ain „}tete*" Soil ft* Setartlgd gf 
faSen I8|t, bflrfte bur*au* unoetftanblt* 
fetn, menu wir ni*t roufjttn, baft feit *Ja> 
|fam bet lapitaliffif *en lata bte ffteibeti 
nur na* auf bem Oairiet ffebt, unb bab fte 
nut no* fur bie 9let*en unb H8*tigen |u 
baben iff j fonff »«te el mtefli* ni*t m&g< 
It*, bat tin Kami rote Deb* roegeu angeb . 
(t*et Setletung eine* *iM>iltUtftt(l I* 6 
•efangnifj rcrurtbetlt rottben 

fjommenge au* ban fjinbe* let' t ftSf*et 
befreit m roerben. St* fett ' -*« bte rbn 
Ml*tigen Serfn*a bat Oenoffen Sugenc S 
Deb*', itm bte gntbett w ff*em, abet 
180,000 gefoftet, roe* nriebetum beroeiff, bat 
bte Sert*te in Smerita nur fat bte tti*en 
ffctttc tu baben ffnb, unb bat ame Xeuftt, 
bte bin 9* lb taw UppeHtten beffben, eni 
roeber ba* Haul balten unb ft* von ibtcn 
Soffen Sue* gefaHen laffen, abet Itnter 
S*[ot unb Riefel ,,btuotttten" mflffen, 
roann fte ban Sttfu* ma*en, ibr »enf*en. 
tt*t *u roefcten. 

Wtttletroetle roitb fat Dtte wiebet efatmal 
Doti ffnb nlmli* Xan 
fur*tbarer 9lotbf*ret erf*alt but* ba* 
3n etnem bet Snftafr, bte fte 
beifjt rl * ,,KJte ffnb naif t unb 
bungrif unb nl*t fan Stanbe ftt ffteibung 
unb Sabtung |» f«gen. Srttber, lelft un* ! 
ft rff Cure Sfft*t, |u rbun, roa* in Cam 
»a*t fftbt Stenn no* efat tropfen menf*. 
Ii*en Stutd in tartn Xbem tfatttt, fo met. 
bit 3bt Sure fjerten bffam unb un* In un* 
fern Bebrnngnll &tlft letffenl" Stbnli* 
gett t* Zaufenbon ton garmctn unb Sanb* 
or belt era in »ett*itbeuen Zbttum bet Son* 
Soaaberalbet bbrt 

(Cnlted Brotherhood o 
Join era) bat eeit das 
Bootohana 873 Strike* fa 
winn 761 arfolgrelch, 04 L 
and 88 warden dnreh OompremlaB 
galegt Salt 1. Hovemhar 
welcher Z*dt an die allr/n»ltu» 
tj oterrtQUuna eatiotlrt) wnrdan fite Swl 
1210,688 ana dor Allgemeinon Kaaao * 
8120,000 ana den Ixx*l- Kaawm dax 
doraebaft Taraargabt. Dar acbf 
dentag wordo In 54 Stldten, dai 
groasaran, eioge/uhrt and dor »e 
dentag in 426 Bt^ten Ebonooe 
die BoToocbrefaier eeit 1886 ta 686 1 
eine Erbohang der^Lfi^ie^ 

0tT aftfy^aa^iflrfW^ 

abet n?trtlt*e, tbatfeiftige «fl[fe roitb nt*t 
geleiffet, bean bte poor luauriata DoBatl, 
roe(*e mttUiblge Brenf*en betffeuetn, (in* 
nan foltbe* ftaffenelenb nt*t linbem unb 
bte fleute, vtle)* ffHtni* tmgtelftn unb an. 
beta 8ufftaba fttbatftptcn Ibtratea, bte St. 
febgebot aab ejefutiabeoatttn bat KepabtU, 
gotbtta attt ftaat unb taartn ret fapitsli- 
fftf*eu DUbtWaffe an, a>el*e era Sntettffa 
bataa bat, grate ■rbettotataflen Rott unb 
Cteab lotben *a Uffea, baatit bte 85bae fotfa 
rotbteab tiefer b/nabf obti A roetren Ibanen, 
Dte battf*eabtn Solltllet ffnb ubtioe** 
ai*t mtt nt*t mtttent, ttgonb efaoal fur bte 
Ctbattetfttffe an tban, fte ffnb fagot unf flbia, 

anf bteginantbeine 
tn trlfen; bam, a8a SetftUN rat tea. 

bertaffeaan, ffnb f«|Igtf*tag«a unb von von 

bat ff* nt*t nut uaf&bigt 3ammerburf *en, 
f onbeta fogat offenhmbtge Setbte*et ffnb. 

Ra* bem «3flben, na* bem f*bnen 6u> 
ban mb*t i* |ic|en, no bie Batmen roa*fen 
unb Drangea bEabca ! ©o ff ngen ie|t plb* < 
It* eine Acnge amerUaatf*er Capitaliffen. 
Urn bie Bolmen unb Otangen iff eg Ibnen 
bobci aOetbtngl ni*t bauptf&*Ii* |u tbun ; 
benn bia Ibanen fte ff* )a au* 6ier tm Ron 
ben tn ibwu pti*Hgen Cema**baufeni |ie» 

Mbat bci ibnen mil bte inn Dtana 
■nao) aw»a Baarairnrj raanni ww& pampi *b|v^^bbbibj 

bem Bfibcn gan| Ctroal anbetet anf 
ff*. Soft ffnb ntmlt* bte RtbettthftfU 
rial btdigct. «l giebt bort mebt Regct unb 
oetatmte Seiffe, ntet*e ftob ffnb, mean ffe 
fat 60 bib 80 Centl vet Sag unb, 
mbglt* ao*»caiger, aibeiten Ibnacn. *u* 
brou*t man bott fan fitnter bte ©b.opt nt*t 
in beiien unb bte mtbeitet Ibnnen mtt went* 
get fttetrctn unb btBtgcm Rabtung oat* 
tommen. trine gtote Weaoc ffopttaltften 
bat btet lanaff gerouftt, unb ffe baben baber 
un etben fabrtrcn atabitet, bie bebtuteab 
biBtaete fiaaren lief era, all btcjenigen tm 
nbtblilbcn ZbctI be* Soabtl. Die ©pefu» 
umten tat Rotbtn Ibanen alfo mtt benen tm 
etbca at*t nwbr tonturrtren. ^auptf&*. 
It* iff bie* oetUtuffg ta bet Ietttl«3nbafftie 
bet 9*0 unb lebtete roijb bobct batb *&n|. 
It* an* bam Rorbcn »erf*rotnoen. Die 
Dertilar better, roel*t unter ant leben, net* 
boa oetronngca fetn, anf efat tie fere* Rivcon 
knabinffetacn, ff* f*te*tetet Cffen unb 
f*le*tere iletbana aniugcrobbnen, b. |. 
ram Auffanb bet 2etb>@rtavrrci ntebatam 
am eine genatttge ettctte nftbet |u tfldca 
nab fo roitb tt, nana bte oraaniffttrn Rrbei . 
fat nt*t emfebtttten, mit afien Obrigen 3n* 
buffrten eraebea. timet bem )e|tgen 
ffem giebt el baaogea fetn SRittel aab 


»a Vutntf nab babct fat* t*, no 

„ bfafer Cegenffffltib tat e«a*a lommt, 
rote bat attt «ato, bem bte utefabt bat Ron. 
htrteni von lattbago mit Ram ft fiber tfai* 
gefa»*tetbattc, aUVen fibrtoaa eenototta 
be* alton Rom* : " Ce*tero cenooo, Copito- 
etoe delendum " - fatt mit bam 

Mmttmt. That w*t m • body U fc.rnj tjfJ 

prove of »• ob)«ctm of Lb* AncMa «• 
of labor *a4 pWp oauNtvaa *• OJW* 

miiimI and nwrtj itrpfrrt 

Th*U mtmbort of thte 
lift ruJe, when 
k>wU for Uxm which b«u 
otyuitsed tabor, and when oajr — 
or &>rpoi«Uon ■lull »trtke • Mows* l*oarj 

that tndi 

of Indenture 

...hath pat hfanaolf, and by tbaat 1 

of bte own free will and accord, put hfaanehr «rvr 

" mytiary of Oarpeavfnot 

Joinar ; and oftar the mannar of an appraotko, to aarro the raid. *|||ng 

rot and daring, asd to the roll end and term of yoart naat ■Bon 

Daring all of mid term the apprentice doth oovanant and proroioe thabfik at 

Mowa.,,. taithfally, fbat ba will not play at tardl adn|aa] 

any other on lawful gamav wLeraby the arid .may ba | 

That be will not abaent bbamalf from work during the recognised bom tStr 
witbont loara, nor fraqaant ooJoona, hotel* or play bouvea, bat fat all thiaatt* 
bahavn blmaalf aa a olthfol apprentice ought to during raid term. 

And thai the raid ...■on bte part, doth covenant and 

that ba will aaa tho ntmoot of bte andaavofa to taaob or oaaaa to ba t ; , . 
inatnieted the mid apprentice, in the art, trade and myvtory of Oarpe 
Joiner. Said apprentice ihall not ba reqalred to work mora than the n , _ 
hoori of labor. Tha ooid...?.. «... farther agrata to pay road r 

ma»,i,MMna«,Bt i»TTrni~ti * ~ ■••..•*•»■«•.• . c..*. 

And far the true performance of all and ringnlar tha ooranaata and ej 

the arid partiea bind tbamaalTaa each onto the other final Wg>*. 

la Wmram Wnanaov, tha raid parttea have In orohangoably art 

day af«- tot tb# year «- ( 

...» : 
,,, M ., ...... .»...•»••'«■• 


MS. Paw; 


Bid Vie* of Bo, S VarlatY Wood Worktr 

for SpwU] Wood Worker OaiaJoaue, 
will show ail lb* rmriovm kind, of work II 

J. A. FAY & EGAN CO., 

188 to 208 West Front St., CINCINNATI, OHIO, U. S. A. 




The Largest Line in the World */ the Latest and Best Approved Designs 



STL Da- 

U. Hn.1 


a* are turning out a line of Machinery I 
iJ» Mr constant improvement of u-huh I 
we focus Our entire energies. In con* 
ntxtiou with every mechanical rtsou ret I 
affiirdtd by a plant that it is our aim iol 
keep constantly "at the front," we\ 
hat* an extensive t\p*ru»ct. and a J 
determination that our enviable reputa- 
tion shall continue to trow, and mat 
shrivel under competition. 

Wood-Working Machinery 

You should see »"« » 



No. 93. 

Y«* cm m | at 

fat mm wit! Mad 
any drnjnt ton rm 
or wo will wnd 
nay addrae* on r* 

offl. (IrtuUitlr 


16 Ch»,W» St, X 

/<>*■ Foot 

Head Power use it omr 

specialty, and of this we snake a very I 
targe assortment 

Owr CoteJofwa "A" oi« demon- 
strate clearly what grounds we hat* for I 
Mr aAotv claims, and this we would he I 
pleased to maU you. Shall we do so f \ 

Seneca Falls M'f'c Co., 
Seneca Falls, N. Y., 

** Water Street. U. S. A. 


fates: designs and 
id new models of 


Main Street, 
ItHltllUEEraiE, i. T. 


JDUDU), Monroe Oo., Pa. 



) to Jots HwUdtntB," ate., ate. 

It tea prae&nJ trialMi on the late* aad beat 
■A^lirlHwl, (ratal laa ead ralain* Hat- 

O. St J. of America Sodaty QoodA 




. rt wUl p ay roo ta bar a eaw trdS 

■»H'tn#*f .and do 

w-m work * 
eu« film* ihu otber nr ibe) i w 
•evlng Ta labor ead oeat it .im. 
Tbej are mad* of Ibe Ml a* - . 
ef crudbie oaat BLaal aad era 


Malted Pre*. 

Hertrv DiSblan & Sons 



Save $50 When you Build. 


Regalia and Badges. 



Bo cltl]' Plage aod Tlaaiiaia Man 
i. Own mm BoelaUe* forntabad 

w iMfcHi „ a»a, 

j»«J**n lo y c^j 

licks' Builders' Guide 

J>d labor tar Oarpantara. Ohw- 
bM, A — aprahaejalTa raid* to 
ta oae eaaaced 1b ttw *««ia«a iraaMaa of V a 
awlM1n« trada. It earee Una, aaoaar and 
take* Mi pacta, 114 llluetralioaa, ekda. bt.-.t. 
Priam, tim 

The BalldlBir Bade** and 

eaalaJna tba praaUeal eaperlanae of 
era H(ht to (be point fro all wihj 
oaleulatlou. on aialiHala ' 

i. r. ■ICKB, 

t7 t 84atksjAa 

Hicks* Tent rocket Guide, 

A metaorandMai, lima book, prlaa eejrreal. ,< -\ 
fcMdx rafaraoea. It Tk «i,b« Oral free turn Ifea 
aahina. Don't Mtaa It. 

V P. HIOBJI, Boa W, SiMlan A, OmalM, Nrb 
rM ocdev tvl MMm. 


I AM r»0» KldBOIt, 

! «rrai a tiwnan. 

fUtSA) M>Ow« •WPMlloV 

WffTf rOt UTsLOMt, 




I'-fpAl, ^Mft MS t X 

tid' ^taatl*. a V 

t '.i^lpxl, 

916 CHERRY ST., 

raiLAOltf HI Ah, PA- 

Hand, Panel-*. 
1 j^ond Rip 3ow&, 

' *^9w TM Kilt OUT MIT (TO, 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 

VOL. XV. -No. 4. 
Established 1881. 



| nftyCtntepwrYMr. 

Single Copies, 5 Cta. 

Stand Upright. 

There »re thou* whu. bemllna iu]>|>U knee* , 
Live for M end MMfl to |.le*»e ; 

KiniriK to fame by mean de»reee, 
Hut oteep nut thou with thtM 

Thay h*ve llielr due reward | they lend 
Their 11 tm loan unworthy end— 

On empty nlmi iho loll uirwnd 
Which had eerured ■ friend. 

Rut be not thou »* Ihfitc, whim.' mtml 

In to • |>»i»inK hour v • ti II m il , 
l.el no Ignoble fstlWN Mud 

Thy wml M fri-e w wind. 

Sluud upright, *pe*k thy thought, declare 
The truth thou hunt, thai ell may oh en- . 

bold, proclaim It everywhere. 
They only live wh>. dure. 

Hrl .1 I'lrlkl' .1(1 •.,<!!' 

Secretary Chandler of the Amalgamated. 

Several branches of the Amalgamated 
carpenters in England have sent in pro- 
test* to the Ezecative Council ot that 
society against their General Secretary, 
F. Chandler, accepting the office of Poor 
Law Guardian and Justice of the Peace. 
The protests are on the grounds that to 
accept the office will commit the organi- 
zation to partisan politics and take tip 
the time of the Secretary which Bhoold 
be given to the society. The Executive 
Council in their reply raises these point* ; 

"Our G. fi., desirous of seeing oar 
society abreast of other important or 
ganizations, allowed himself to be elected 
as a guarJlen on one of the largest Poor 
Law Unions in this country about to ex- 
pend thousands of pounds in building 
operations, In the arrsn tement of which 
he will now have a voict In regard to the 
contractors conforming to trade union 
conditions of labor. We are thoronghly 
agreed that fesjntrodoce pnrty politics of 
any description into the afialrs of our 
society Is a proceeding calculated to re- 
tard our progress as a trade union, and 
should therefore be discountenanced. 

We contend that the political views of 
our O. B. have no more to do with us 
than hka religion, aud therefore in cum- 
in on fairness let ns concede to him equal 
rights to those claimed for ourselves, ss 
we are confident that whatever difference 
of opinlonVity exist as to the political 
saga ity of our U 8., his life-long career 
as a trade-unionist should he sufficient 
assurance to us that bis efforts and sym- 
patic will he on the side of labor and 
In trie interest of his class. The ques- 
tion ot time is raised in two of the reso 
lu lions, hot has it occurred to the 
supporters of same that our G. H. is not 
a clerk, whose hours can be regulated to 
a nicety, bat an official of our society 
with the fall responsibility of hi* posi- 
tion set forth In oar rules, sod that the 
t inly guarantee we have that he devotes 
tils time to our work is that notwith- 
standing oar branches and membership 
have increased during his term of offi e, 
together with the introduction of new 
features involving increased work, never 
within six years, has he been absent 
"Worn his post (holiday time or other- 
* jo), nor his there been darin 
period one solitary complaint to 

as from any branch that he has neglected 
a single duty ; and the reasonable infer- 
ence is, that he has not spared bis time 
when work was required to be done, nor 
strictly confined hie working hoars to 
even that of joiners in the Manchester 
district. We think, therefore, tbat hav- 
ing furnished such evidence of devotion 
to duty on behalf of our society in the 
past there need be no apprehension for 
the future, but rather ought we to rejoice 
that our efforts to secure the representa- 
tion of our class upon these public bodies 
have been so satisfactorily attained by 
one of our members, involving neither 
loss of wages nor employment, which we 
all know is oue of the greatest hin- 
drances to a more general application of 
the principle we advocate, because it too 
often relegates to private life working 
men ehle and willing to serve us in thest 
public capscUiee, but who find the sairi 
flee too great tor them to bear." 

Montreal Labor Organizations. 

Montreal is very well organized in all 
branches of labor except among the 
carpenters. The latter trade, however, 
last Mar had a District Council and five 
unions-one English and four French- 
ami a membership of 2,200 men, where 
in January previous there were only 360 
organized carpenters. 

The carpenters had organized very 
rapidly to inaugurate the nine-hour day, 
and entered into a precipitate strike May 
1, through the impetaousnese of a few 
iocs) leaders. The strike was In a fair way 
of success. Bat the great coal miners' 
strike tbat mouth, closed up the Grand 
Trunk railroad shops for want of coal. 
This threw hundreds of carpenters idle 
who went to work in place of the 
strikers. That finally resulted in the 
defest ol the men. 

The Building Trades' Council is a live 
body and is composed of 14 anions. The 
Local Trades and Labor Council has 38 
trades anions and K of L. Assemblies 
represented therein. There are In all 41 
trade unions in Montreal. The K. of L. 
has 15 Assemblies divided in 2 District 
Assemblies, D. A- U\ French and D. A. 
19, English. 

Montreal has a Mechanics' Lien law, 
which in the past few years has been so 
amended as to five the workman a 
priority of lien. The Trades and Labor 
Congress of Canada Is a powerful factor 
in influencing labor legislation and meets 
annually in September- nso ally at the 
Dominion capital in Ottsws. 

Geo. Droliogerfrom Union 779, Marion, 
0., for misappropriating funds. 

Ed, Drotst from Union 31, Chicago, 
for working piece work and obtaining 

Wtllhni J, Shields. 

William J. Shields was General Presi 
dent from 1684 to 1888. He was born st 
MUford, Mass., July 16, 1654. His first 
connection with any society dates back 
to May, 1682, when bs became a charter 
member of Union 83, of Boston, Mass. 
He was the first corresponding secretary 
of that Local. After serving two terms 
be was sleeted president. In this posi- 
tion hs served the Local three years. In 
the year 1885 he was again elected presi* 
dent, and held this position until after 
the memorable eight hour strike of 1686. 
In this strike, also in the eight-hoar 
strike of 1890, he was chairman of the 
strike committee. He was the first presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts District Coun- 
cil of Carpenters, and served two years 
in tbat position, and represented Union 
ltd in tbat Council since its formstion. 
He was treasurer ot the Central Labor 
Union far over three years, and a dele, 
gate for about seven years. He has 
represented Union 38 at the conventions 
of the United Brotherhood in Cincinnati 
in 1686, at which place he was chosen 
cond vice-president , at Buffalo, in 
1866, and at this convention he was ele- 
vated to the presidency of the Brother- 

He attended the Detroit convention In 
that capacity, and attended the Chicago 
convention as delegate and served on the 
committee on constitution, and has repre- 
sented the United Brotherhood ss dele- 
gate st various conventions of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor and served on 
the conference committee with the 
United Order of Carpenters to secure 
consolidation in 1666. Ho has also been 
one of the board of vice-presidents of the 
United Brotherhood, and has held vari- 
ous other positions in the labor 

As one of the delegates of the Mi 
cbusette Carpenters' Council, he attended 
the Indianapolis convention last Sep- 
tember and there acted as chairman of 
the committee on constitution, and was 
subsequently elected a member of the 
General Executive Board, of which ha Is 
now chairman. Last October ho was 
chosen business agent of Union 38, Bos- 
ton, Moss. 

W. J. Shields has been a 

An Art 

To regulate the boors ol tabor for me- 
chanics, workingmen and laborers 
in the employ of the state or Munici- 
pal corporations therein, 
in public 

SncTioH 1. On and after the 
of this Act, eight hoars oat ot the ti 
foar ot each day shall make and consti- 
tute a legal day's work for mechanics, 
workmen and laborers, while in the em- 
ploy of the State, or any Municipal Cor- 
poration therein, or otherwise engaged 
on Public Works, 

8sc. 2. This Act shall apply to all 
mechanics, workingmen and laborers, 
now, or hereafter employed by the State 
or said Corporation therein, through its 
agents or officers, or in the employ of 
persons contracting with thj State, or 
said Corporation for the performance of 
Public Work, and all mechanics, work- 
ingmen and laborers so employed, shall 
receive not less than the prevailing rate 
of wages in the respective trades or call- 
ings, in which such mechanics, working- 
men and laborers are employed in said 
locality, and in all such employment, 
none but citizens of the United States 
shall be employed bv the State or any 
Municipal Corporation therein, or by 
any person or persons contracting with 
the same, and every contract hereafter 
made for the performance of Public 
Work, most comply with the require- 
ments of this section. 

Bsc. S, . ny officer or officers or 
sgents ot the Bute or of any Municipal 
Corporation therein, who shall openly 
violate or otherwise evade the provisions 
of this Act, shall be deemed guilty of 
alefeasance in office, and liable to ins- 
pension or removal accordingly, by the 
Governor or head of the department to 
which said office is attached. 

Sac. 4. Any person or persons con- 
tracting with the State or any Municipal 
Corporation therein, who shall mil to 
comply with or attempt to evade the 
provisions of this Act, shall on conviction 
thereof, '.be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor and be punished by a fine of not 
lees than two hundred nor exceeding 
one thousand dollars, and in addition 
thereto, shall forfeit such contract, at 
the option of the State or said Municipal 
Corporation therein 
Sac. 6. AU Acts or parts of Acts 
consistent herewith, be, and the same 
are hereby repealed. 

AppaovsD sv ...... 

• ••>.-••• •>• >«••••• 


The above form was approved by Car- 
penters' District Council of FittsijBzgb, 
on March 16, 1696, and is respsatjfcBw 
submltted to the various Trade OfJsxvttV 
satlons of the Stats for < 
to be presented to the 



Craft problems. 

( 7 hit Department it for criticism and 
carretpomlmet from our reader* on mechani- 
cal tubjecU in Carpentry, and idea* at to 
crafi organization. 

Writ* on one tide of the paper only- All 
article* thould be tigned 

Matter for thi* Department mutt be in thit 
office by Hit tSth of the month.) 

Framing a Tower Roo', 

Chicago, February S. r i, lsOo. 
To thi Editob ok Thi Cabpintbr, 
Deab Sta:~ 

Could I have the assistance ot eome 
of the brothers in framing this tower ? 
There may be several waye to do the 
work, therefore I would ask some of our 
brothers to submit their methods to be 
published in Thk Car pent i r , so that we 
all be benefited thereby. 

The base of tower la 4x4 ft., the frame 
of roof is made up of 4 posts 8x6 placed 
1 on each comer, as shown on plan, in- 
clined so that they meet at top as 4 ordi- 
nary hips, It will be noticed that if they 
were placed like ordinary hips, se in Fig. 
2, there would be so much backing to come 
off that the poet would be weakened con- 
siderably, hence we place them ai in 
Fig. L 

<£- — 

in making the cuts. How to set the 
bevel and how to place it on the .stick, n 
the answer 1 would be glad to receive. 
Youra fraternally, 

J. D. Mi K. 

Engltwood, Chicago, III. 

— — • 

How to Find The Kadi us or a Desired 
Segment of Circle. 

Aiuu-BN. V Y , January 28, 18M, 
Ei.itob ok Tin Cari-bnter, 
Diar Sir :— 

In the December number of your 
valuable paper is given a method of find- 
ing the radius of a desired segment of a 
circle, ot which the height and length of 
chord are given. I will give a method 
which I much prefer. 

To the square of one-half the chord, 
add the square of the height, and divide 
by twice the height. 

Thus:— A, B being the chord and 0, 
D the height; the square of half the 
chord is 18; add to this the square of the 
height (9) and we have 25. Divide by 
twice the height (6), and we have 4 ft- 
8 in-, which is the radius of the desired 
segment. Yours respectfully, 

Union 4SS. It. Wihtb. 

Why Not Answer ({aeries la Tata 

Chicago, III., March 19, 106ft, 
Dkar Sib : — 

I believe that the articles on " Craft 
Problems" moat be very interesting to 
the readers— at least they are so to me. 

In the September issue last year, there 
appeared an article and a diagram on 
"Hoof Framing," from, " Philo," N. Y. 
After explaining his method of doing the 
work he asked the brothers who had 
published diagrams (or I presume any 
others,) what they thought of his method. 

So far I have not seen any reply to his 
request. Now I am sorry that this should 
be the case. I do not know who " Philo" 
is. It may be he is ao expert or he may 
be a seeker after knowledge. If one of 
the latter class, he must have felt dis- 
couraged to find that his communication 
treated with indiflerence by the 


ot complicated root framing given in 
February issue, 1S95, we may tind some 
little error that is very trivial within 
iteelf, yet may mislead some one. 

In comparing bay window in diagrams 
1 and 9 ot plan and projection, we tin! 
that base line and ridge line are of un- 
equal length, which would he altogether 
proper if the window was a trueoctanon, 
but as the plan, Fig. 1, shown a fault* 
angled polygon instead of an eight aDgle, 
the point ot centering is shifted so that 
the hips as shown are of unequal length, 
and I believe it would be proper to state 
that the point of centering the hips ot a 
hay window of any angle, may be found 
by placing one point of dividers on the 
ridge line so that the other point will 
pass through the points E, F, <i, II, in 
describing the circle of which the win- 
dow is a fractional part. 

I also believe it would be a very excel- 
lent practice, both in making diagram* 
of and referring to certain bevels, to 
designate what numbers to be used uii 
both tongue and blade of square to lay 
oS such bevel, as a great many readers 
would, in reading the art idee and study- 
ing the diagrams, memorize them and 
thus be able to use them often when cir- 
cum stances necessitated without the de- 
lay of draughting, and who never take 
the trouble to ascertain each things until 
it is compulsory, and still they may be 
great readers. 

In laying nut the roof under consider- 
ation (complicated roof), many foremen 
who boast of their ability as frame rs, 
never use but two seta of figures, twelve 
and twelve and twelve and seventeen, 
asserting that the lay of the square twelve 
and seventeen, will cnt not only the bee) 
of a hip or valley rafter, and the bevel 
of jack rafters, but the top bevel of hips 
and valleys ss well. 

I trust that Bro. Maginois will not take 
exceptions to the friendly criticism, re- 
membering that in tracbing the public 
we mnst not only make our lessons plain 
enough to bs understood by those who 
are apt and diligent in research, bet 
bring them within the conception of the 
novice as well. 

Anderton, lnd. G. N. W. 

Wow what I would like to know, is the 
best way to lay out those posts so that 
they will fit at top and on plate, when 
«ot. It will he noticed that pieced as 

A Criticism of Mr. JUglaaU* February 

Editor or Thk Caarairra 

All Union men, (and for that matter 
every craftsman whether union or non- 
union,) ought to be deeply Interested in 
all matter published in the columns of 
Taa Cabpshtsr, (and I believe all are,) 
especially that which pertains to draught- 
ing and laying out the work of roof con- 
struction, as efficiency in that line should 
be one of the requirements of every union 
nun admitted to foil membership. 

I have been reading with a great deal 
ot Interest the articles of Bro. Magiania 
on roof framing, and admire bis easy 
simple manner of putting such problems 
and don't wish to be considered a critic ; 
but as he is offering himself as a standard 
authority on such work, he should be 
vsry careful of diagram and explicit in 
detail, for by does ssretlny of 

A Word or Praise for the V. M. 

Muscin, I no. 

How can any one be otherwise than 
pleased with the U« B., which fulfills 
all promises and requites every obliga- 
tion. If such magnificent benefits, trade 
benefits, daring life and disability or 
death benefits, when activity or life is 
gone, could be understood by all car 
pentersas we see them, there would be 
no non-union carpenter, and no union 
carpenter would allow his duet to become 

The U. B. is so far superior to most 
benevolent associations, wherein the 
dues required are ss high and even 
higher that carpenters should prefer It 
above any other and stick to their union 
and union principles to the last. 

Fraternally, J. D. Ci arb. 

Out-of Work Benefit *. 

In a report of the German- American 
Typogrsphia ws find that in the latter 
half of 1808 that society paid ont $8,081 
for out-of-work benefits on a member- 
ship ot 1,841. At that rate the benefit 
would cost over 118 per year or over fl 
per month. This was due to the vast 
number of compositors thrown idle by 
typesetting machines. 

What Is understood to be the heaviest 
and the largest log of wood that has ever 
been shipped by sea was landed recently 
at Liverpool, England. It was brought 
from the West Coast of Africa, and 

Dayton, Kv„ February 2K, lK9fi 
i 1 , .1. McGviftS, 
Dsar Sir .— 

I herewith give an idea for the hang 
Ing nt outside blinds. It is a very speedy 
way and one that I have never seen used 
by any one but myeelf, although other* 
may have u«ed it. 



A.— Cut off for . lea r*m r on ll.r frame 
B Block «it'wnl on for rt(>|. lo book ovei 
toj.of Msd 
O.— HL»r|*nrd brad> for marking gtllt* 

In the first place I tit all the blinds 
throughout the entire bouse. I then 
select a rod ol proper length for a met k- 
ing stick, on the top of this I screw a 
small block to hook over the blind (sim- 
ilar to the enclosed sketch}. Then drive 
small brads and sharpen them to mark 
the hinge gains, by laying this on the 
blind and striking with the hand, the 
marks will be plainly seen, mark all the 
blinds in this manner. 

The neit move is to saw the rod oil at 
the block after allowing for the necesesry 
clearance, proceed through the house 
and by standing on the floor, mark all 
the hanging stllet by striking the rod 
lightly with a hammer or piece of wood, 
now we have no farther me for the rod 
sod proceed to bedding the binges on the 
blinds, After which we do the same with 
the hanging stiles, thus msking a sepa- 
rate business of each part and doing 
away with the knife In marking, 

I would like for some of the a 
to try the 
better one- 

ItayUm, Ay Cbas. Rots 

and report or find a 

The Value of Nails. 

The cost of wire nails is ao little that 
it does not pay a carpenter to pick one 
up when dropped. Assuming that it 
takes a carpenter 10 seconds to pick op a 
nail which bs has dropped, and that his 
time ia worth 80 cents an hour, the re- 
covery of the nail would cost 0.08-'} cent. 
There era 800 six penny nails in a pound, 
which it worth at 80 cents base and 65 
cent average per keg 1.56 cents per 
pound. This would make the money 
value of the individual nail 0.0077 cent. 
Or in other words It would not pay to 
pick np ten nails, if it took ten seconds 
of time worth 80 cents an hour In which 
to do it. Not more than four -fifths of 
the nails made are used, the other one- 
fifth being lost, allowed lo rust and dis- 

How to Frame a Conical Roof Intersected 
by a Pitched Roof. 


s this ib » roof which 
ocean in many 
cases, especially in 
railroad work it will 
be fonnd both inter* 
eating and usefu 1 by 
practical carpen- 

Let A E F B V be 
the plan or wall 
plate of the conical dome, and A D B, 
the diameter, alao D 0, the riae or pitch. 
Join A C, to obtain tbe lengths of the 
common raften which will radiate from 
the centre 0, round tbe circular plate 
A E F B V, with the top and bottom 
bevels ae represented at C and A. 

Fio 2. 

Fio. l.-Uvoor ok Roor. 

While the grindstone eti 11 remains, and 
possibly ■ 1 ways will remain a popular 
and useful tool in the manufacture of iron 
and steel goods, the mechanical public 
were quick to eee the value of an artificial 
wheel whose emery grains were harder 
and sharper than thoee of natural and 
sometimes rounded sand. Hence the 
solid emery wheel soon made its way into 
public favor. It seems strange that a 
similar material and process was not at 
the same time successfully applied to the 
production of boneetonee, oilstones and 
whetstones. Early attempts were made 
to Introduce such articles, but, for vari- 
ous reasons, failed. The peculiar pro- 
perties of Tanite, which fit it tor a base 
in emery wheel manufacture, have been 
applied by The Tanite Co., of 8troo.de- 
burg, Pa., U. B. A. to the production of 
Solid Emery Whetstones. The result 
has been a great practical success, 
though the prejudice of tbe trade and the 
novelty of tbe article have conspired to 
make the demand irregular and scatter- 
ing. That this state of the trade is not 
due to the quality of the artificial whet- 
stone is evidenced by the fact that in 
rhere it baa once been intro- 
the demand is regular. 
Tbe Tanite Whetstone is adapted to 
ill pick, the carpenter's and stone 
cutter's chisel, tbe bit of the moulding 
mill and the axe of the woodman. 

During tit* month ending February 28, 

< m ev e* 

1-14*1 SO US fl 25 804 Sit St 


S 7 60 149 4 M SM 40 

4—140 00 UV1 2G 114 4 


On account of tbe pitched roof C H F, 
tbe gable end of which U GIB, with 
pitch J I, equal in height to D C ; inter- 
secting or catting Into tbe conical dome i 
there will be a valley rafter. Tbe seat 
of this valley will be D F, because J X, 
being eqnal to CD, the ridge J E, will 
be tbe same height as tbe conical apex 
or peak D. 

To obtain tbe length of tbe valley 
rafter, square up from D, and with D, as 
and D C, as radius, cat off tbe 
D K, equal to D 0. Join F K. 
F K, will be the length of valley, and as 
D B, is equal to D F, and the pitches D C, 
and D K, are equal, therefore tbe valley 
will be 

To find the lengths of jack rafters, pro* 
ceed to Fig- 1, and lay oat the ridge and 
valley rafter at before. With Fas centre, 
F K, as radios, describe the curve 
K Z, cutting tbe ridge at Z. Join F £ The 
lengths of the jacks will be aa shown on 
the left tide of the ridge. 
The final process is to determine tbe 
of tbe covering or root boards 
which are laid horizontally. To do this 
take C, Fig. 1, at center, and with equal 
spaces up the common ratter as P Q R S, 
strike the parallel curves P T, Q U, R V, 
and 8 W. Tbe exact length of the 
boards is found by dividing FB Into five 
eqnal parts and setting them off on B X. 
Join X, to determine tbe length of til 
the apex. A very successful 

Many of the finest woods in existence 
are yet unknown, or only slightly 
known, to the manufacturers of wood in 
the civilised world. The woods of Cen- 
tral and South America are, perhaps, the 
most remarkable as well ae the least 
known- In the yet untouched forest ot 
this continent are many woods far finer 
than any of those now in use. These 
woods range from pure white to jet black 
in color, and many ot them are most 
beautifully marked and veined. Some 
of them are so hard that they tarn the 
edges of axel, chisels and other tools, 
while the band saw cute thsm only llow- 
)y. In the Columbian Exposition there 
were many display! of little known 
woods, and tbe finest of them were thoee 
from the Argentine Republic, Brasil and 
other South American countries. Some 
of these southern woods yielded to tbe 
teeth of tbe band saw, not tbe ordinary 
sawdust, but tine powder; fine as the 
tinest floor, so hard were tbe woods. 
Home of them burnt but slowly. Others 
possess qualities that keep them free 
from insects. Some of them seem to be 
practically indestructible by air and 
water. All along tbe eastern slopes of 
the Andes, op to the snow line on thoee 
great elevations, throughout all tbe great 
river valleys, and in some of tbe wide 
areas of level country, in Sooth America, 
are great forests ot fine woods that are 
fit for the ll nest cabinet and 
furniture work, and alto for shipbuilding, 
carpentry and othsr industrial arts in 
which wood It the "raw material." 
These great forests are now an unknown 
quantity in the commercial world, but 
tbey wul come rapidly Into the knowl 
ledge of men and into Industrial n« 
when on re tbe railroad has reached 
them. Before many years, it is safe to 
predict, tbe South American ai 
American republics wiU be threaded by 
railroads, and then 

34 40 US S 00 

t — i so is* — a to 

7 ■ 40 IBS 35 3ft 

S IS BO 147— 1 SO 

9 16 SO US t 65 

ISO 14 10 

161 100 

14 1 90 1S4 a 00 

U 16 lo Its 10 60 

15 61 50 166 6 et 

It 14 70 167 It * 

10 16 95 1*8 12 90 

i\ — it »o lea — n to 

91 45 40 I TO — a 20 m 

tS— 41 40171 11 If- 
St, 8 00 17S 7 SO StS ]) 40 

It 91 10 175 M 80 .841 7 H 

95 6 90 176 SO 10 844 9 SO 

17- - T 4« 177 6 60 1 546 4 

IS- -114 40 11 — » 01 1 sat — t 4* 

29 68 DO 1«- -3» SO ,848 10 60 

ti — s 40 ist — 16 00 349 — ■ 00 

9 60 
t) SO 

191 14 50 

197 14 80 

1« — 7«| 

1 49 SSI 

8 t» sat- -is IS B74 — u m 

1 en 104 6 40 .376 -J01 gn 

it 00 107 — H »o ww — 7 m 

. 4 *) **-- II tojSTT 1 go 

91 go 90S 19 » 178 6 

111-- W 00 **• 5 90 

tit — is 00 aw — 91 90 
us — f so 


4 90 118 — a SI 

4 W 515 M 40 

- 4 40 511 1> os 

3 SO 519 S SS 

Ml II 80 


%A 3* AO 

St S 40 

at — 8 00.-. 
11 — si «o m — H co 


74 — • en 

78 4 70 

78 t on 

ao — s 10 
as 6 «« 

SS 19 00 

S4 10 Ml 

87 — 18 no 

BP «8 70 

69 20 7" 

90 47 *• 

91 7 AS 

98 4 no 

94 18 7* 

97 S SO 

98 t AO 

in- - ts no 

101 18 OP 

108- - 9 4* 

104 11 40 

VTI 8 45 

lit 17 AO 

111 M 

111 — 98 an 

— 4 50 ;8S4 7 00 

- e to 40a 

9*1 1 80 «W J 

I J 00 4IW- -141 

1 80 '07- -m 40 

9t4 10 » '401 I 45 

4 80 41 
• 60|41 

16 no '411 B 00 ST* fl 

14 40, 

14 9J)l4ST. 

MO 14 AO 

•49 10 00 

94s — n so 

444 I 98 

8 10 

MT — 76 96 

ita 1 m 

— * 70 


- 194 

—19 SO 

917 SB 10 


9*1- - 1 49 

9 W 

- 14 50 

- S 71 
4St 9 95 

■ 40 
4 80 
4JW f » 

«*s — • 00 

44ft 10 10 

441 B 40 

- I SO 
-10 so 

- 9 49 

- 1 at 
«n — 1* 40 

111 4 AO MIT S AO 

114 19 AO SSI 1 80 

111 7 44!fS t IB 

*•* It SO 

«•» 14 AO 

475)- — 4 40 
m 90 

— c 

47* 8 95 

«T» B 90 

4*1 — ts m 
<«* — si m 
•at — a no 
«M 17 00 

.497 — t 40 

ten S3 Sft i «*o — »» an 

m» 1 no , tea- - 14 *» 
w— 1 as \ •««_ .is 

*>1 IS 70 4*7 —ft as 

•A4 I 40 | «•» 7 10 

sob— t 00 tao- it* 

Tol*l rooetvod, 

Total I 

. , sales m 


. . . » ■ * * 

those wonderful 

woods will be drawn upon to supply the 
demand for new and fine woods in aH the 
civilised countries— 2he Lumber World. 

board modal can be made of this roof. 

Tan mistake of the best men through 
generation after generation has been the 
great one of thinking to help the poor by 
almsgiving, and by preaching of patience, 
or of hope, and by every other 
emollient or consolatory e 

through which God 

cept th 


Plenty of Wealth far all. 

Eminent economists have estimated 
that the capacity of mechanical and other 
scientific Instrumentalities even now ex- 
isting is sufficient, If thoroughly utilised, 
to supply all mankind not only with the 
necessities ot life, but alao with reason- 
able luxuries It may well be asked : Why, 
than, la thla not done when all tbe facil - 
ities exist for doing it? The answer to: 
Because the instruments of pijedwatba 
are chiefly monopolized by those wboaa 
primary aim ia not the te«ffc*«l 
kind, bat their own tatf^/' 
nod who operate tbenf " 
tbey And It profitable to 




Directory or Carpenters' Business 
or Walking Delegates 

O.— Vlaoent HUvlln, residence, 191 
U, 1M Superior 

, N. Y.- John Helmrleli, College 
Point, Lone Island. N. T. 

, Ooim.-r. O. WeJs, 8S Ashley Street. 

Ifdiahap-olm, Ijtd.— J. W. Prnitt. 

, Win.— J. Bettendorf. 
r YoBK.-Benj. B. Hnrl, 881 Ootumbut Ave., 
1 Soholta, 141 K. Ninth Street 
1,-JiunM Hftdden, P. O. Box HI 
t. Fi.-B, P. Budd. 
. Loun, Mo — V. & Umb, MIS 
, O.-P. M Pool* 

Facts and Figures about 
log In 1894. 


A Fearless Clergyman. 

The Rev. Myron Reed, of Denver, is a 
man of stalwart principles and item con 
rletions, and Is out-and-out in tine with 
Organised Labor. For the expression of 
bis honest sentiments he has lost more 
than one pulpit, still be never winces or 
murmurs. In Indianapolis he had charge 
of a leading church and commanded a 
high salary, but was ousted for proclaim- 
ing himself on the side of the oppressed 
workers. Again, last year, in Denver he 
went through the same ordeal ; but it Is 
now being arranged that be is to preach 
Sunday evenings in the leading theatre 
of that city. Men of the metal and stamp 
oi Myron Reed can not be crushed or 
brow-beaten into silence. 

At the Convention of the American 
ot Labor, last December, in 
his address was a masterpiece, 
and this part of it, in particular, will be 
a treat to cur readers : 

"The question of poverty waa a novel 
one until I was seventeen. I never heard 
of a tramp or a millionaire until I was 
nineteen year* old. Horace Greeley 
would not say to-day : * Go Weet, young 
nan. ' The fact Is there is no West ; oar 
friends of to-day most either go op or go 
down- Thomas Oarlyle says the saddest 
sight It to see a man who wants work and 
can't get it. The genuine tramp Is a rare 
bird, ha has been developed by this 
country. It only takes nine days for a 
man to starve to death, and he can't 
learn a new trade in that time. Bach 
make men tramps. I wsnt 

to see a nation hare upon which George 
Washington, asleep by the Potomac, can 
gaae and amy: 'I am satisfied.' No 
bus who has suffered for the nation can 
yet say he la satisfied- If George Wash- 
ington la permitted to gaze upon the 
and children who are suf- 
nd shelter in 
the United States, he moat think that he 
Is once more at the head of a ragged, 
. iaif starved and half-fad army at Valley 
while an army of plutocrats, more 
i than the British army, is after him. 
plutocratic robbers are satisfied, 
i the Union was at stake, they rob- 
Government and the soldiers ; 
the Union was saved, they began 

and are still doing 


is stated on the authority 
ot the AViii Enttiltr Record 
and Builder*' Guide, for 
November, 1894, that the 
number of 2-story houses 
that were built in Phila- 
delphia for the 1st ten 
montha of 1894, was 3,452, 
or about 815 per mouth, at 
a cost of $6,it04,00O, and the number of 
8-story houses 1,849, or about 185 per 
month, or a total cost of $13,940,000 tor 
both a and 8 stories, exclusive of the 
value of the laud. As-mmine this then 
to be the cost of building them only, 
the value of each 2 story house is about 
$3,000, and the 8-stories, $3,800, taking the 
two together the average cost about |f,900 
each, and the total number built, 5,301 in 
ten months. My object on the present 
occasion is to show approximately what 
I consider to be the value of the carpen- 
ters' work (labor only) under the ex- 
isting system of piece work, and the 
execution of the same work on the basis 
of the standard wage with the same 
amount of labor. 

I think it may be regarded as a con- 
servative estimate when I say it would 
take t wo men 4 weeks to do all the labor 
in one of these houses from start to finish, 
this on a standard wage oi $16 50 per 
week would be $132.00 per house. 

Now if we take the aame house with 
the same men, at the price now offered 
and eagerly accepted, the labor can be 
and ii done for about $72.00 or even less. 
This makes a difference of $60 00, or say 
$30 00 each man in 4 weeks. There are 
5,801 houses of both kinds, and the loss 
on the whole number would be $318,060, 
or in other words the men would place 
at the disposal of the bonus builders this 
enormous sum, because ot their folly in 
doing this on a piece work basis when 
it ought to be theire oy right on a stand- 
ard wage. This is a startling statement 
to produce bat is true both in calculation 
and results. It ia not the province of 
the writer to enquire who gets this 
money, the answer is too obvious. The 
men who earned it don't get it, and I 
feel justified in saying that whoever 
does, gets it only by the medium of a 
system based on chicanery and fraud. 
When we look at these facts, think of 
them, reduce them to actual experience 
in connection with onr homes, oar living, 
oar apparel, our pleasures and our enjoy- 
ments, we acquire a knowledge of what 
we are deprived of, we become conscious 
that we are the victims of a system that 
is to all intents and purposes nothing 
□aa robbery. A system that will 
deprive as of each a sum as 1818.060 in 
10 months, would, if it could he abolished, 
bring that money into a proper channel 
and bestow untold benefits on the poorly 
paid mechanic who ia now robbed of 
Every nail he has driven, every 
door, sash, blind or shatter he has hong, 
every foot of finish he has pat ap, every 
piece of hardware he has applied, every 
board, every Joist, and all the labor ex 
ponded on them would, if they could be 
imbued with the power of speech, pro- 
claim in trumpet tongued tones : This 
money is yours I Yon are entitled to all 
the benefits accruing from its possession, 
it's yours by right, yours by a legitimate 
and fixed principle of justice and no 
earthly power ooght to deprive you of it. 
Public opinion would endorse that view 
If It was made known as widely as other 
evils are, but so long as he acquiesces and 
tacitly remains silent under its tyrannical 
and oppressive Influence, the public 
labors under the impression be la ae well 
paid as others. 
It la no disparagement to him who uses 
him who ooats the walla 
not the painter, nor the 

artisan in the building trade, to say, any 
carpenter needs tools of a superior kind, 
and skill of a superlatively higher order, 
and as a logical sequence ought to he as 
well remunerated. It is a clear and well 
defined idea both in morals and ethics, 
that superiority takes precedence over 
either crudenese or mediocrity. The in- 
telligent, liberal and broad platform of 
public opinion, recognises this as being 
essential to progress and advancement in 
all that pertains to civilisation If this 
were not so we should have been liv ing 
in a primitive state of barbarism still. 
At any rate we should not be living under 
existing conditions; of course 1 do not 
claim that any one department of in- 
dustry or skill has accomplished this, but 
the united a.-tion of all. Without wading 
through what has been done by superior 
methods, improved systems, scientific 
research and discovery, innumerable in- 
ventions, and Bocial, moral and industrial 
reforms, it suffices to say these ars the 
agencies that have emanated from super- 
iority in every walk of life, and all who 
have accepted their teachings have been 
improved thereby. Kvery decade organ- 
isation, federation and onionism have 
discovered something that was needed 
in this onward progressive industrial 
movement. It has been by their untir- 
ing efiorts, inflexible purposes, that men 
have been educated and fitted for the 
work, until at last it requires astute 
statesmanship, almost, to administer 
their affairs. I am aware the necessi- 
ties of men affords opportunities for 
aggression and attack, and that the want 
of unity is a patent factor in these mat 
tera, and also that organization is not 
intended to be offensive but defensive, 
and its primary object to weld together 
all who embrace its princip'es into one 
common body to resist tyranny and op- 
pression and except under extraordinary 
circumstances, this is its objective point 
I am not one of those who believe that 
capital is the only opponent of organiza- 
tion, but I am one of those who would 
labor to make capital respect organised 
bodies of men and concede them rights 
and privileges they are justly entitled to. 
I am not arguing for such an Utopian 
idea as an equal distribution of weaitb, 
or communism bnt for the brotherhood 
of man. I am one ot those who believe 
that if every man had an equal ahare of 
this world's wealth, to-morrow some one 
would be wanting a loan from friend or 
collateral from usurer before the week 
ended, and that it would take quite a large 
corpe of men to keep distributing the 
same. I am not vain enough to think 
even that I could advance any theory that 
would tend to create better conditions, 
bat I bold the doctrine of nnlty will en- 
able us to live and let live and that man 
to bis fellow man should ever be kind is 
one of its fundamental principles. 

Now I want to convey the idea if I 
can tbat if the men who willingly sub- 
mitted to *ub*crxbe this $818,060 for those 
bonne builders ever even reflected that 
unanimity of thought and action would 
have given it to those who did the 
work, and if any of them who may read 
this article who were amongst that num- 
ber do not think they acted very much 
against their own interests, when by be- 
coming members of a strong union they 
would have been prevented from becom- 
ing the victims of such rapacity and 
greed. It strikes the mind very forcibly 
that he who works nnder such an 
abominable system is trying to gather 
figs from thistles, or grapes from thorns, 
or to pursue the simile a little farther, 
he is content with the crumbs that fall 
from the master's table, when by recog- 
nising and embracing the principle that 
onion is strength, they would find sup- 
plies on their own. But there ere other 
ideas in connection with this cheap labor 
eyetem that are worth a thought, it la 

quite as important to the mechanic that 
he should possess more than he needs 
for present wants as it is that the capi- 
talist should keep adding to his harking 
account. This is the acquisition of 
something in both instances, but where 
very cheap labor is found the one 
flourishes at the expense of the other 
and makes it impossible. It is just here 
that united influence does what indi- 
vidual effort tails to accomplish. Indi- 
vidual eflort manifests its wcakneta to 
palpably as to convince the most scepti- 
cal that it is utterly incapable of defend- 
ing its position. United influence, on 
the contrary, inspires, strengthens, in- 
vigorates, aids and assists in creating, 
maintaining and exercising a power 
which commands respec t . If we analyse 
this thought we find that each and every 
one of the united become participators 
through its agency ; it sheds its light, It re- 
flects iis power on each, on all, but it is 
the on all idea that preponderates. One 
man may complain, remonstrate against a 
wrong and no notice be taken of it ; 
| twenty may cause some attention, but 
when a great organisation speaks 
authoritatively, the public mind is at- 
tracted, it listens, it judges, it sympa- 
thises, because of its representative 
character, its vitality, its scope, its force 
and its combined power to subject the 
grievance or wrong to a test. 

I may on some future occasion dilate 
more on this, but at this time I wish to 
quote again from the authority 1 named 
at the beginning the Ural FMntt ffrcard 
and Builder'* f/tiieV for November 7, 
1894, The grand total of expendi- 
ture for buildings, operations, altera- 
tions and additions In Philadelphia was 
$24,517,800 for ten months. This sum 
suggests the idea that hooee building, 
bonus building, has been in the ascend- 
ancy, that there has been more than 
one-halt cheap labor employed com- 
pared with labor at the wages of the 
unions, which indicates that it is making 
rapid strides in opposition ; these figures 
pre-euppose a condition that is by no 
means satisfactory to properly paid labor, 
they are the exponents of the fact tbat 
to throw op houses and buildings by 
means of cheap labor will never advance 
the cause of unionism, but undermine it 
to a great extent, because one of the 
cardinal points of unionism ia to secure 
the best results for the greatest number, 
while In the instance before us it bse 
been In inverse ratio. Doubtless much 
of this may be attributed to a want of 
employment of highly paid or skilled 
labor, bat even on this assumption it still 
ia conspicuous as a formidable com- 

The writer of this is not positive 
whether there is any organization 
amongst bonus builders, but concludes 
there is to torn* extent ; their idess, their 
prices and their methods are so uniform 
ae to warrant tbat conclusion, and I also 
think I have teen the title of it in the 
press, and the name of a very extensive 
bonus builder as its president. Anyhow 
these men assume to be respectable, 
doubtless some are religions, attend 

men of recti tude and honor and yet 
their men starvation prices. Of them 

divine aervlce, pass before the public as 
de am" ' 

might very appropriately be said i 
" Ye hypocrites are these your pranks, 
To murder men and then give thanks? 
Forbear with this, proceed no further 
For God delights in no inch murder," 
Yours respectfully, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Jdbtitia. 

Says the Pittsburgh Knntan ■ "The 
banks are great, the syndicates are great, 
the corporations are great, the army with 

lt ?.£ B S." Wi .!i? d *P m f ■**•*, Congress 
with its millionaire lobby ia great : the 
President with the defiant capitalism of 
the world behind him, all the other 
powers enumerated and nnenumerated 
are great; bat greater than any one, 
greater than all banded together is the 
wrath of an aroused peopled 




From the Unloni (Tax, etc.) IB.Olo 95 

- AdveHlsrrs 63 76 

" Clllsena Trust Co . ( bal . return ed) 21 00 

" Subscribers and Clearances ... * » 

Union 14t, Debs Fund * 00 

" R eM t 20 00 

M Union 36. (strike money) .... 11 88 

" » 1M, " " .... <N 

Total ».»1 »» 

(A»per Hcollnn M) 

*Oenera>l Fund, aeven-tanlha W.ftStti »• 

Protective Fund, two- tent hi 1,021 16 

Organising Fund, one- tenth ill IS 

Total H\MI » 


•February Percent Ufa IJ.MW N 

•Organising Fund 51* 13 

•Uneifal Assessments, Ism page 3 thi. 

Uiue under head ot moneys ree'd.) 1.644 70 
Cub Mutant* Feb. 1, UM 121 7ft 

Total fit.771tt 

• ■»>■■» 

For Printing 

" Offloe.eto. Ml 07 

" Organising S3 SI 

" Kipr. tnnier and Clasp Envelope* . . 19 00 

"TMloAF.of L, . MM 

•• BeneflteNoe 8,mtol,H7 SJT 8 00 

> 1. I8W Til 09 


I . ■ • * 

. 16,77ft 88 

I Mailed Expend— February, 1805. 

Printing 780 eilra copies Feb. Journal IS U 

Uomp on new Count uml Rleclrutyping 66 38 

Printing 1.600 letter head! with chance 7 78 

1,080 note heads . IJ 80 

" 8,000 membership cards . . . 13 80 

800 postal receipt* 1 80 

" HI) HMMtmtnl and eight-hour 

elrc Mars ........... la 78 

• volhur allpa ... 1 00 

180 00 

17,330 copies March Journal 334 » 

i on March Journal 1 00 

»on March Journal It M 

Special writers Tor Match Journal .... 17*0 

Engraving* for March Journal IS M 

Postage on *upplte*. etc 33 S3 

IOOpo*l*lsati«l 600 one cent stamps ... 10 Ou 

Seven telegrams I 3 06 

Expreaasge on supplies 37 SO 

Office rent for February 38 00 

Salary and clerk hire 401 OS 

Tax to A. F. of L., (January) . 60 00 

D. I.. Sluddurd, prise In competitive 

drawing* 10 00 

3000 claap envelopes 21 St 

A. K. Wyatt, organising Orange, N. J. . SS 81 

Goal ■ S St 

Rubber stamps, seals, etc 11 00 

Twine and type-writer ribbon IN 

Benefit* No*. Ill* to 1117 S7T6 00 

* » . . §8,068 46 

Report of Protective Fund. 

iTiTMwt or 

1. ltOt.TO 
i.WBtt. . . 

i.ooi n 

1, 181)6, total 
General Fund .... 

Total Protective Fuud 

na,7« n 

Fsoh 1702 to 1898, the silver dollar, 
containing 371 1 grains of floe silver, wu 
the only lawful "unit of value" In the 
United States- Bat, daring the whole 
of that long period, gold and silver had 
asset equal rights at the mints, enjoying 
together practically free coinage; sad 
both, therefore, occupied the position of 
standard money, measuring and 
the values of all other things. 

Claims Approved In February, 1895. 

31 11 





NiM*. duo*. 
Mrs. M. Dunnett ...... 1 

Mrs. F. Phlllpp* .... 1 

W. O. Long ... 7 

Mrs. C. Purser 11 

Mr*- A. Braunschwelger . . 31 

Mrs. J. Bailey 2* 

O. Larson .62 

Mrs. M Oonnell .... 84 

Michael Connell 84 

Mrs. S. E. Green 108 

Mr* B R. Warner 100 

Mrs. M. A Lennox 138 

Mrs. D. Robert ....... 1^4 

J. T. Faugh nan 187 

Mrs C. Downle 177 

O. A. Cole 188 

Mr*. J. Nfumeyer 188 

R. E. Newlll 307 




Mrs. 1. 
H J. Bailey . ... 

D. W. Walter* 

M. Stanley 

Mrs. M. E. Hutchinson 

E. Crlbbln 

Mrs. M. Karbeek . . . 

Mrs. C. rink 

Jos. Metsger 

F Schmidt ... 
Mrs M. Mebon . . 
Aug Seller ..... 

H, Hendfleld 

Mrs. H. I.amtte .... 

. 461 

. 501 

. 118 


. T07 
. 739 

Rob't. KINonde 76 

I M 00 
60 00 

200 00 
B0 00 
80 SO 
80 00 

SCO 00 
80 00 

300 00 
2f 00 
60 00 
80 00 
60 00 

200 00 
60 00 
90 00 

80 00 
300 00 
300 00 
200 00 
66 00 
00 00 
60 00 
SO 00 
200 00 
200 00 
80 OS 
300 00 
209 Of 
CO 00 
4C0 00 

14,176 00 

Something New In 

Much has been written on the subject 
•of root framing and numerous works 
have been published from time to time 
each claiming superiority over all other 
bo called easy systems. As s rale they 
resort to diagrams drawn to a scale from 
which they obtain their lengths and 
bevels. Many of them are accompanied 
by long and tedious descriptions refer- 
ring to the various parts by letters and 


n Great Britain. 

Last summer the Socialists in England 
were enchanted with the progress they 
were making. They boasted that they 
had shunted half the trade unions of tba 
country on to Collectivist lines, and it 
wae confidently asserted, says Ifte Spec- 
tator, that it wae almost impossible to 
find s workingman ol light and leading 
who was not a Socialist. At any rate it 
was difficult to find one who did not talk 
Socialism and light hearted ly splash shoot 
in l be jargon rt the new economical phil- 
osophers. At the Trade Union Congress 
in Norwich, Socialism carried all before 
it. The Individualists could hardly g«t 
a word in edgeways, and the Congress, 
when it was asked to commit itself to the 
nationalisation of the lands and minee, 
replied with the utmost eagerneee, " Not 
only land and minerals, but all the 
meant of production and transit." They 
adopted, in fact, the Socialists' creed in 
its entirety and without any reservation. 
"The working classes, through their 
accredited representatives, have gone 
over to us bag and baggage," cried the 
Socialists, and began to appoint sub com- 
mit' eee for the immediate and peremptory 
introduction of the labor millennium. Yet 
the tremendous cbsngs in public op. a ion 
indicated by the resolution 
somehow or other, to have little 
Something or other stayed the wheels of 
the chariot of liberty. Alas I that com- 
pletely delusive person, the British work- 
man, had not been eo quickly converted 
as at first appeared. He had allowed • 
good deal of shouting ; but be had had 
no intention of acting on that shouting, 
and the gates of hit heart were found to 
be at fast that against Collectivism as 
ever. The Socialists, when they come to 
look round on their achievement of the 
summer, find that the net result of their 
so-called successes has. been the maim- 
ing, it not the destruction of the Trade 
Union Congress— a body which, in the 
past, has been of infinite service to the 
cause of labor, and which might have 
continued that service in the future if it 
hsd not been warped from its 

<Jeo. II. Chaudlve. H. C. Chandler 

JpV Trmde-Mwik*, Caveats, JJro 


tisstrieel and Msohanloel Experts. 
York, Fa. WiaftlAgton, D. 0. 

given in plain figures, with all 
bevels and the figuies on the square to 
obtain the same. It is to the framer 
what the interest table is to the banker. 
No matter as to hie ability to find cor- 
rect results— he has in this work a 
ready reckoner together with much 
other invaluable information. In short 
it it a complete key to the wonderful 
mathematical capabilities of the steal 

It Is an ingenious piece of work and 
has required much 
work In its prepara- 
tion ; to be appreciated 
It most be seen. The 
illustrations here pre- 
sented represent a roof 
with a 7-12 pitch or a 
14 Inch rise to the foot 
and an octagon roof 
with a 1 pitch or a 84 
inch rise to the 
The lengths 
given per the 

figures, to much so that the average 
mechanic finds himself in the midst of a 
problem that he has neitbsr time or 
patience to solve and gives up the job in 

While in the main their theories ad- 
vanced are correct they leave the student 
to ferret it oat and say nothing of bis 
ability as a practical draughtsman, of 
which he mutt underttand the princi- 

The latest work on the subject that 

has proceeded o 
principle that a 
with its run and 
constitute a right angle 
triangle, the length of 
the rafter being the 
square root of the ran 
and rise, hence its 

The square root has 
been extracted for each 
foot in runs up to IS 
feet tor each pitch and 
placed at Its respective 
ran. These figures also 
answer for inches 
when tba run ends in 
the fraction of a foot. 
No computation is nec- 
essary except in 
tions or when tha i 
exceeds 13 feet, which requires the addi- 
tion of two numbers. To the casual ob- 
server at first glance the chart seems 
complicated, as it contains many figures, 
but anyone that knows the meaning of 
the terms run and rise, can instantly 
find the lengths with all their bevels, 
degrees, etc. 

A little pamphiet fully illustrates the 
terms need in roofs, with much other 
valuable instruction is given with each 
chart. We have made arrangements 
for their sale in oar 
association. 8ee adver- 
on page 14 of 

Dahiblsok villi, 
Comm., April 15.— The 
Qulnnebaug Com* 
pany to-day posted no- 
tices in their mills of 
an advance in wsgee, to 
take effect on the 83d. 
Notices w«re else 
posted is the Daniel- 
sonvills and Wllllams- 
ville mills. Two 
thousand hands are 

has our attention is in the form of a chart 
18x28 in siie. mounted on rollers, carry* 
ing a diagram of the full sized carpen- 
ter's square, called "The Square Root 
Delineator in the Art of framing," by Prof. 
A. W. Woods, formerly of the Halsh 
Mechanical Institute, tnd is, in our 
opinion as simple as it is possible to be. 
With it in the pot session of the mechanic, 
all draughting Is swspt away and the 
lengths of braces, common rafters, Jacks 
sad corresponding hips ant 


Thb Act of February 12, 1973, threw 
down the silver dollar as the 
"unit of vdne," and, for the first 
in American history, mads the 
dollar the lawful unit. While that , 
continued to gold its old privilege of free 
coinage, it denied to silver the right to 
be coined upon any terms or fa 
quantity. Ibis was revolutionary ; 
overthrowing the u*lfc 
completely reverting the 





■■ I 



The Cry of the Unemployed, 

Do you hear the walling and weeping. 

And the motni of the weak and unfed T 
Do you see the pale lip* of the children 

That cry for a morse) of broad ? 
And the babe as It nurses " a starveling 

And yet In the cradle of life ! 
Do you note the thin cheek of the mother 
'the wife? 

« 'Tis the home of the Idler," you mutter, 

And the bitterness tinges your voice. 
Ah. yea, 'tis the home of the Idler, 

But not or the Idler through choice. 
You shudder once more at the moani ng, 

And you look on the squalor again ; 
And you turn as you listen to curse me 
I Of] 

May, nil not In language so bitter ; 

Tho" the children are hungry and weak, 
And worn la the mother and haggard. 

With the flush of disease on her cheek — 
Mora bitter my anguish and famine, 

For they sap and they gnaw at my life ; 
'71a the hunger of father and husband 

For the comfort of children and wife. 

This hand— 'tis the hand of the toiler. 
And willing; aa aught 'nealh the sun, 

And skillful and strong are Its elnewi— 
But It tolls not, for toll there Is none. 

I have sought and I seek through the city 
But a chanoe for this 1 

1 1 seek and I Journey tn vain. 

Ay, air, there Is cold 

E'en down to the child at the 
And the cries that you hear, and the moaning, 

At* the cries of the weak and oppressed 
But this hand -It Is willing and skillful, 

And If toll, honest toll, you bestow, 
There shall echo the anthems of gladness 

Where now sound the walling* of woe. 
— Qtorgt Hat rim* Cearsrd, in tht Big A I H ut 


UK plan for this month 
will be that of • Iwo- 
a'.ory five-room cot- 
tage with Urge balls, 
pantry, bay windows, 
cloaeti, etc 
Size of floor plan is 

The cellar is esti- 
mated under tbe front hall, sitting-room 
and parlor, and to finish 7 feet in the 

Foundation and cellar walls to be an 
ft- inch brick wall. 

Length of cellar wall, 110 feet. 

Length of foundation wall 47 feet. 

Height of first story, 9 feet. 

Height of second story, 8 (eet 6 inches. 

Main cornice, 120 feet. 

Porch, bay-window and back cornices, 
80 feet 

Number of window frames, 17. 
Kuaber of door frames, 15. 
Finish to be bard pine. 


111 yards excavating, 80c . . I 86 40 

18,000 brick laid in 

foundation wall, |8.60 
84 lineal feet chimneys, 80c 


4, 6x8 20 ft. lU 

2, 6*6 14 " " 

1,6x8 18" '« 

1,6x616" » 
If, 2x8 16 ft. floor joist* 
86,1x8 24 " 
^-i0. 6x6 60 " 
40,8x4 16" 
86, 8x4 14 " 
16,8x4 16" 
fit, 6x418 

16, 8x4 IS " 
14, 1x0 16 " 

p * i 

6189 10 


24, 2*6 12 ft rafters 8 268 

10, 2x6 12 " " ....... 120 

6, 2x6 12 " porch joists 60 

3,2x8 14" '< " 42 

12,214 16" " ceilingB and 

rafterB 133 


6,1)08 ft. in frame, 816.60 per m $113 66 
4,400 " sheeting walls and roof, 

$18 per m . 7l» 20 

2,700 " 5-inch siding, $26 per m., 67 50 
000 Shingles $3.60 perm ... 3160 
2,000 ft. 6-inch flooring $25 per tn. 60 00 
6O0 " beaded ceiling, $30 . . . 18 00 
HOO " I finish, cornice, etc., $40 82 00 
600 " 1} finish, casings, steps 
and outside finish, $40 

. 1,182 
. 270 
. 440 


side and 

w * 
a t 


• # • *> 



U hard pine finish, $3(1 

J>£T 111 - •■ ate**4s 

j hard pine finish, 669 


8- inch base, $2 per h . . 
S inch casing, $1.50 per h 

50 plinth blocks, 8c 

82 corner blocks, 5c 

350 " 

800 " 

20 00 

3 00 

10 50 
7 00 
12 00 

4 00 
4 10 

Mill work on porch and bays . $ 18 02 
Front stairs 20 00 

$607 00 


21 sqrs. framing and laying 
floors $1.30 

27 sqrs. framing, sheeting and 
siding $2 50 

12 sqrs. framing ceilings 50c. . . 

sqrs. framing, sheeting and 

shingling roofs $6 00 . . . 
120 ft. lineal main cornice 15c. . 

02 lineal feet gutter tic 

350 " » of base 4c . . . 

14 door frames complete $2.50 . 

1 slidlog door and frame com- 


17 window frames complete 

$2 50. 

3 cellar frames $1.25 

Wainscoting kitchen 

Finishing sink . 

Finishing bath room 

Finishing 8 closet* f 1.85 . . . . 

Front stairs 

Cellar stairs 

$2( i 00 

Work on front porch 

.$ 15 


Work on back porch ..... 



. 5 



Outside corner casings .... 



Outside base 110 lineal feet Ic 





(17 50 

8 00 


60 lbs. 20d nails 

OV B Wi aswa iim>n * - a a 

$ 1 Till 

27 00 

20 " 12d " 

. . . 55 

18 00 

150 " lOd " 

5 52 

200 " 8d " . . . . 

... 5 |0 

14 00 

35 00 

40 " 3d coarse 

... 1 32 

18 00 

80 " 8d " 

... 1 80 

20 " 6d " . . . . 

■ a * 

42 50 

3 Sd 

... 12 

3 75 

400 lbs. sash weights, l|c. 

... 5 00 

3 50 

4 skeins sash cord, 60c. . 

... 2 40 

2 00 

68 sash pulleys 4c ... . 

... 2 72 

H 00 

8 75 

13 pair butts SJx31 35c. • 

... 4 55 

14 00 

1 set double sliding 


2 50 


... 3 TiO 



3 windows, 20x82, 2 It., $1 80 
2 " 16i32, 2 It., $1.60 

5 " 24x32, 2 It, $2 00 
8 " 20x30, 2 It-, $1.70 
8 " 24x80, 8 It., $1.80 
1 " 84x38, marginal 

light for bath room , , . . 
1 transom, 12.34, lit. ... 
8 cellar sash, 12x26, 1 It., $1. 

1 frontdoor, 8x7, 1 1 .... 

2 sliding doors, 2 6x7 8, 1|,$6 

6 doors 9-8x7, 1|,$8.60 . 

8 " 2 6x7, IMS 26 . . . 
8 " 2-6x8 6, 1|. 62 . . . 
2 " 2*8 6, 1|, $1.80 . . , 
130 ft. 3J Inch crown mold, $1.75 

per h 

60 " 3-inch crown mold, $1.50 

per h 

220" 2-inch bed mold, $1.60 


000" I quarter round, 60c per h 
800 " parting stops, 50c par h . 
800 " 1-lnch window stops, 60c 

par b 

270 " 2 inch door stops, 9128 


86" Wainscoting cap, $1.50 
pest" h ii»i*i • * 
60"8,-lnch water-table, 62 


41" 5 inch oak thresholds, $4 
perh , 


1 sliding door lock and 




1 front door lock and 




IS mortise locks and trim- 

mings $1.00 .... 



6 dosen wardrobe bonks 

Mto 1 * $ $ i 6 t i 


12 door st pt2J> .... 


92 lineal feet of gutter 1<V 


75 " " of conductor 

10c , * < » 



4R0reettinroofing8c' . . . 



»2 " valley Un 10c . . . 



Flashing, chimneys and 

tins for window raj* 






Excavating and masonry 1 



Lumber and mill work . 



Carpenter work .... 



Hardware and tin work , 






PUsUring 640 yards 25c . 



Qxa fitting 






$1602 00 


Every room is this house has 
carefully studied and ar- 


of which crd be entered from the hall 
in either story. The deaigu is sym- 
metrical and presents a neat and at- 
tractive appearance. The parlor and 
sitting room are connected with elid- 
ing doors and these two rooms can 
be made as one when desired. All 
rooms are large, well lighted and sup- 
plied with large and convenient closets. 
The stairway in the front hall is large 
and straight, a very desirable feature for 
any house. Winding stairs and stairs 
with middle landings while pleasing to 
the eye in the appearance of a plan, pos- 
sess no real merits in the way of con- 
venience and comfort in the way of 
ascending to the Door above. The esti- 
mated cost or the above design is about 


£0 9 BOWERY 

Practical Hints to Carpenters. 


Having recently received an inquiry from a practical mechanic, asking if I 
would illustrate the constructive; parts of a balloon frame, I herein publish a 
■ketch, Fig. 1, which will convey to him all be desires to know. 



It illustrates the frame of a small framed cottage of one story with the 
ceiling beams and rafters raised, and one side partly sheeted or rough 
Upper headers are doubled in windows. 

Save $50 When you Build. 

Things to be 

Tfikkk month* Id arrears subject* a member tc 


Htkai>v attendance at the 
and Interest to the Uulou. 

MKMBKBK going off to 
provided wllliacli 

given life 

earn rice card. 


A I.!, local treasurer* should be under bonds and 
the bonds filed with the president of the L. IX. 

Trusties' r sports should be prepared semi- 
annually and forwarded to tbeO. 8. " 
furnished free for that I 

Oharlerol, Pa, 
Charleston, W. Va, 
Obarleetowu, W. Va 

Orui*', : 

Oorone , N. T. 
Covington, Ky. 
Columbus, Oa. 
Ool union*. Ind. 
Camden. N. J. 

Columbia. 9 O. 
Colllnsvllle, 111. 
Oohoea, N. T. 
Gorslcana, Tex. 
Col una bus, Ohio. 
Cambridge, Mam, 
lestown, Ms 

A UTt changes In Secretaries should be promptly 
reported U, the O. 8,, and^ m 

Oiioisi/.it the Carpenters In the unorganised 
towna In your vicinity, or wherever yon may got 
Hold public meetings or social festivals at stated 
occasions ; I hey will add to the strength of "out 

Lrrrxna for the General Office should be 
writ ten on ofltcel note paper and bear the seal 
nf the Ix>cal Union, Don't write letters to the 
O H. on monthly report blanks, as such commu- 
nications are not In proper shape 

All Honrs received by tbeO. ft one month 
are published In the next month's Journal. 
Moneys received can ncs^be published la this 

takes some time to make up the report and put 
It Into type. 

Thi only safe way to send money Is by Post 
Office Money Order or by Blank Check or Draft 
an required by the Constitution. The <i H. is 
not reponslble for money sent tn any other way. 
Don't send loose cash or postage slam pa in pay 
osut of tax or for any bill due the Q. 8 

Below Is a list of the d ties 
serpenters make it a 
hour* a day : 


Alameda, Cal. 
Ashland , Wis. 
Austin .111. 
Berkeley, Cal. 

Brlghtoo'park. ni. 
Brooklyn, N V. 
Oerondelet, Mo. 
Chicago Dl. 
Cbloago Heights. III. 

Murphysboro, III. 
New York. N. Y. 
Oakland, CaJ 
Oak Hark, 111. 


_ tat." Louts. HL 
Kngle wood. III. 
Kvanston, 111. 
Fremon t, Ool. 
Grand Crossing, III. 
Highland Park, III. 
Hyde Park, III. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Kensington. III. 
Las Angeles, Cal. 
tfaaor Station, Pa. 
day wood, III. 
4ilweokee, Wis. 


Rogers Park, D.L 
St. Louts, Ho. 
Sacramento, Cel. 
Ban la Barbara, Cat. 
Han Fra^ctsoo, Cal. 
Haui Jose, Cal. 
■an Rafael, Cal. 
Hbebovgan. Wis. 
South Cbloago, III. 
South Denver, Ool 
South Bvenston. 111. 
Stockton, OaJ. 
Town of Lake, DX 
Verona, Pa. 
Venice, III. 
Washington. D. 0L 

ooga, Tenn. 
Coraopolta, Pa. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Colorado City, Ool. 
Colorado Springe, Col 
Dora wall, ft. Y 
Corryrtlle, C 
Dayton, Ey 
Dea Moines, 
Davenport, I 
Dover, N. H. 
Decatur, 111. 
Detroit, Mich. 


Duquesne, Pa. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
Dallas, Tex. 
Bl Paso, Tn. 
Bast Liverpool, Ohio. 
Bast Saginaw, Mioh. 
Bast Orange, N J, 
Portland, Oreg. 


El wood, Pa, 

Bngiewood. N. J. 
Bvansvllle, Ind. 
gyrota, Msss 
Exeter. N. H. 

Eureka, Oal. 

Pair Haven. Wash. 
Fall River Mass. 
Plndlay, Ohio. 
Fltohbutf , Mass. 
Fresno. Oal. 
Fraokford. Pa. 
Franklin, Pa. 
Port Worth, Tei. 
Port Wayne, Ind. 
Fostori*, Ohio 
Franklin, Mass. 
Galeabarg. HI. 
Galveston, Tex. 
((rand Rapids, Mich. 
Or*** rails, Mont. 

Qreenabarg, Pa. 

Ureenflels , Ind. 

Gloucester, M a g s 

Gresnvllle, Pa. 

Sermantown, Pa. 

Greenwich, Conn. 

Orove Olty. Pa. 

Qlen Core. N,Y. 

Hot Springs. Ark. 

Homestead. Pa. 

Hamilton Oan. 

Hartford. Con n. 

Halifax, M. S. 

Hampton, Va. 

Han ford, Oal. 

Haverhill. Mass. 

Haekenaaok. N. J. 

Hani man , Tenn. 

Heirtaburg, Pa. 

Henderson. Ey. 

ills, N. Y. 

Below la a list of the 
LrpenUrs make It • i 
boon a day. 

A I nine, Oreg. 


a. Conn. 

Amaabury Mass Mobile Ala. 

Atlantic City ;KJ. Munde^iid 

Arlington, Mass. MoondsvUla W. Va. 

Arrenete Harbor, Tag. Muskegon. Mich. 

Anaoortee, Wash. McEeesporl Pa. 

Asbury Park , M. J. 
Astoria, Oreg. 
Aahev1lle.fr O 
Auburn, H. Y, 
Auburn. Me. 
Akron, O. 
Altoone, Pa. 
Apollo, Pa. 
And arson, Ind. 
Allegheny Olty, Pa. 
Albany. N. Y. 
Austin, Tek. 
Hakerefleld, Gal, 

Mt Pleasant, Pa. 
Maw Britain, Conn. 
Nelson vtlle, O. 
North Beaton. Mass. 
Haw Kensington, Pa. 
Norfolk, Va. 
New Orleans, La 
New pott. R. L 

Newport News Va< 

Newbury por 

rr, H. Y. 

Hooslok Palli 
Hyd ssgrk.l. 
Hoboltea, N. J. 
Hotyoks, Mss- 
■awsSsa sfsteMSk 1 
Bingham, Mass 
Irvlngton, N. Y, 
Ithaca, H. Y 
Jacksonville, 111, 

ilia. in. 
Ilia, Ha. 

, Neb. 

lympta, Wash. 
Pawtuoket, K. I. 
Port Chester, N. Y. 
Punxsulawney, Pa. 
Pensaoola, Pla. 
Peterborough, Can. 
Portland, Oreg. 
Pasaalo, N. J. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Pomeroy, O. 
Portland, Me. 
Port Angeles, Wash. 
Portsmouth, H. H. 
Portsmouth, Va. 
Portsmouth, O. 
Pooatello, Idaho. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 


Pittsburgh Pa. 
Plane, 8. Dakota. 
Parkersburgb, W. Va. 
Parts, Texas, 

Portarrille, Oal. 


aulnor. Mfsw. 
Racine, Wis. 
Roch aster, Fa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Richmond, Ky. 
Richmond, Ind. 
Book Island, III. 
Readout, N, Y, 
Boxbary, Mass 
Booh jater, N. Y. 

Bed Bank, N. J. 
Badlands, Cal. 
Rock ford. ill. 
Rutherford, N. J. 
B. Pramlngham, Mai 
Springfield, Msaa. 
Si Augustine. Pla. 


Somarvllle, 1 
Bomerville, N. J, 
Sal tabu rg, Pa- 
Salt Lake Oily. 
Ban AngelO, Tex, 
Senduaky, Ohio. 
Hhrevopert, La, 
Stamford, Con t. 
Sea CHUT, B. Y. 
Springfield, Til. 
Springfield, Me. 

" Ohio. 
_ o. Oal. 
■rule, Ohio, 
, Anna, Oal. 
Hanta Rose, Oal. 
BaaRla, Wash. 
St. John's, N. Bl 
Sex on vl lie, . . 

r, N. Y, 


B. Abingdon. '. 
St, Oatherina, Out. 
Bass Antonio. Tn. 
Ban Bernardino, Cal. 
Soma ton. Pa. 
SharpovtUe, Pa. 

SglstssTMbtlTV ( Psssa 

St. Paul. Iflnn. 


Sloe* City, Iowa. 

Ss/ymosrr, Tex. 
Bjsyaaoor, jaj> 


Olty,N. J. 
Kearney, neb. 
Knoxville. Tepn. 

Kingston, If. Y. 
I juislngburg, N. T. 
Lawrenoa, Msss. 
LaOioaae, Wis. 
La Junta, Ool. 
Ivoiansport, Ind. 
Lowell, Mass. 
Lynn, Mass. 
Leech b org, T 
I nominator, 
lAfayeite, 1 

Lioeoln, Neb. 
London, { 

Taunton, _ 
Ta was Olty, Mtoh. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Terra Haute. Ind. 
The Dalles, Oreg. 
Tiffin, Ohio. 
Torouso, Ohio. 
Toronto . Out., 10 hra 
Trenton, N. J. 
Trinidad, Ool. 
Troy, N. Y. 
Tarantum, Pa. 
Turtle Creek. Pa. 
Union Hill, N. J. 
Cuoa. N. Y. 
Colon town. Pa. 
Vanoouver, B.O. 
Victoria, B, C. 
Vlnesnnsa, Ind. 
Vtsalla, Gal. 
Waxahatohie, Tex, 
Wellaburg, W. Va. 
West Hobokan L P. J, 
WestDulutb, T 

... Me. 
Baltimore, Md 
Bella Vernon, Pa. 
Bath Beaoh.N Y. 
Buffalo, N. V 
Bry n Mawr, Pa. 
BuUer, Pa. 
Bayonne, N 
Boise Olty, I 
Brtdgwtoo, N. J 


Blalna, Waab. 

Bridgeport, ~ 
radio rd 1 

Srunswiok. Me. 
Brad dock. Pa. 






United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 



Si*, Phll&»f 

*t the Poet-Offlce at Philmd«]phU, 
m second-claw niAtter. 

tUMCBirnoW PmiCI :— Fifty cents m fwr, tn 
I, postpaid. 

reM all letters Mud money to 

P. J. MoGuiBJL, 


I That Will Win. 
" The money of the Constitution shall 
be gold and silver." To disregard that 
fundamental provision is high treason to 
so says the Philadelphia 
To trample upon it, at the 
_> behest of the foreign enemies 
of the Republic is a criminal betrayal of 
national interests. To listen to the selfish 
sophistries of unscrupulous money- 
changers, who seek to still farther 
plunder the people, is a shameless con- 
fession of political mendacity. To re- 
fuse to manfally declare for the prompt 
and complete restoration of a true Ameri- 
can policy is to invite open repudiation 
and condemnation on the part of every 
enlightened and patriotic American citi- 
nn, and which will as sorely be visited 
upon these taise leaders as the night fol- 
lows the day. 

Wanted —leadership in this crnsade for 
an honest end just financial and indus- 
trial policy in the United States which 
shall be inspiring, commanding and 
triumphant. It can only be based upon 
immovable conviction, recognized ability, 
unquestioned Integrity and the loftiest 
fidelity to the people. It can only secure 
recognition and successful following 
through unselfishly grappling with the 
enemy now, before his lines are again 
formed and hie plans matured for the 
coming contest It cannot hope to win 
anises it appeals to the minds and hearts 
of the people and relies with confidence 
their support, and not upon the 
of their would-be task- 
The standard may be placed 
in experienced hands end it may be 
given to one fresh from the people them- 
selves—one who is in full sympathy with 
them, who understands their wrongs, 
who has felt the burden and borne his 
•bare and whose spirit is in touch with 
theirs. Hs may again come up from the 
soil, like the mighty leader who broke 
the shackles of the bondmen and saved 
the Union and free government thirty 
or more years ega. The one thing cer- 
tain la, that In 1096 the spirit of 1776, 
1*1* and 1M1 wiU wrest the control of 
the Federal Government from the hands 
Of the enemies of the American people- 
i it of far-reaching lm- 
In all essential respects more 
dangerous than any which 
nted this great nation. It 
must and will be met tn the moat cour- 
ageous way, and ail who fall to do their 
doty as opportunity offers will be east 
•side as faithless to the highest trust of 
American eitiserihip. 

contractors take city jobs cheap and 
bring in union men at low wages to do 
the work. The decision of the Execu- 
tive Council on this point is not satis- 
factory to the large cities, and is con- 
sidered favorable to the small towns. 

Consolidation of branches in the 
American and Australian districts is 
urged to retrench expenditures. 

A Belfast branch write* In regard to 
Social ism in the trade union congress at 
Norwich, and these views are shared by 
a number of others : 

" That we suggest to the E. C, the 
desirability of taking the votes of onr 
members in regard to severing our con- 
nection with the trades union congress, 
ss we believe, Instead of furthering the 
interests of trades anion ism, it has be- 
come a school for disseminating Social- 
ism by a few leading spirits who, by 
their fluency of speech, are earning a 
good living out of the working men. If, 
instead of going about agitating the 
mind of the workman, setting class 
against class, and capital against labor, 
they would try and bring about more 
friendly relations between employers and 
employed, they would earn the lasting 
gratitude and esteem of all honest work- 
men. . . . We consider it a nee Hess 
waste of money to support the congress 
as at present constituted. 

report of the 
published In Manchester, Eng- 
,' deals with, many 

fin question of members going from 
low paid towns Into high wage cities to 

London and a 

The Industrial 

All throngh the present industrial de 
preesion and before, for that matter, 
some said, "settle the tariff question, " 
others said, "settle the financial qnes 
tion"— and prosperity will return on 
the wings of the wind. Congress settled 
the tariff. They repealed the parches 
Ing clause of the Sherman act; they 
struggled with the money question and 
kept at it, but the promised land is 
not with as as yet, although all signs 
indicate that it or better conditions are in 
sight. We find the same old story in 
free trade and protective tariff countries, 
in the single gold standard and the 
doable standard, or the free silver coin 
age countries, of the unemp'oycd, the 
want, privation and oppression of the 
masses. This state of affairs will con 
tlnue here, elsewhere and everywhere, 
until the masses organize into trades 
unions, there learn to control their 
economic condition, and through it 
finally completely master the science of 
self-government. To evolve any state of 
society that would be a success and in 
which the contentment and bapplnesa of 
the mass of the people will be perma- 
nent and lasting in its nature, requires 
thought, study snd the enlightened 
united co operation of a majority of the 
people. The surest way to reach that 
stage to to unite <n the trades union 
movement, make it first, foremost, and 
above ell other issues. Out of a perfect 
economic movement man's condition will 
change for the better and an ideal state 

will surely evolve. -Cigar. 

Who Form the Nation I 

HE historians of the 
may now and then derive 
considerable amusement 
from a certain discussion 
that took place toward 
the middle of March, of 
the present year, 1698, before our 
Supreme Court of Justice. It was a 
•paries or battle of giants, fought, as it 
among pigmies In moral percep- 
tions, and giants in Intellectual brass, or 
self-conceit. Braes to always a mixture 
of Impudence and low morality. The 
men In question could hardly be anything 
but lawyers on the plnnaetoa of wealth 

and influence, and so considering them- 
selves vastly above the rabble, the work- 
ing masses, even if patting their backs 
now and then, while keeping them as low 
as possible In hidden forms and under- 
hand processes. 

The object of that gigantic intellectual 
battle wee in regard to the constitution- 
ality or not, of that Income tax recently 
enacted Into law. Before we enter the 
task of analyzing that discussion, perhaps 
it is due to our readers that we should 
give our own opinion about any kind of 
income tax. We repudiate the idea of 
God having granted any intellectual In- 
fallibility to any set of judges. We claim 
the natural right of being able to read 
and understand plain English, besides 
other languages, and hence that of under- 
standing oar Constitation, particularly 
where it happens to be as explicit as any 
human language can be formulated. Be- 
sides, we like to have an eye on what is 
constitutional according to God's laws. 
After a careful and long study on the ques- 
tion of taxation, our conclusion is that all 
taxes are wrong which rest on production 
and commerce. An income tax on large 
incomes is of course lees unjust than those 
specifically legalised by our Constitution 
Yet, it presents the following dilemma ; 
Either such incomes are the produet o ' 
honest labor, or they are not. If the 
former, why to Ux them ? If the latter, 
why not suppress the laws that make 
such dishonest incomes possible ? 

What was most amusing, in that die 
cussion among our wealthy lawyers, was 
the stress laid by some upon the fact 
that if our income tax was declared to be 
constitutional, by onr Supreme Court, 
that then the life of the nation would be 
in great peril, and our institutions could 
easily go to pieces at any moment. As 
if such calamities were not dreadful 
enough to contemplate, it was also em 
piratically asserted that our civilisation 
resting, like all others, on the righto of 
private proptrty, chaos was apt to replace 
order, it each rights were at all infringed 
through an income tax. Such lawyers 
did not seem to care a rap about our 
Constitution. They were simply pre 
occupied about the rights of private prop- 
erty. The righto of men, by God granted 
to men, the lawyers in question had 
nothing to do with them. They seemed 
to be just aa indifferent to the Constitu- 
tion of God as to oar own, although their 
was simply to argue pro or con, 
about the constitutionality of a certain 
law. So much for the logic of judges. 
The rights of private property and not 
toes of manhood was what kept our 
precious chaps, the above specified law- 
yers, in hot water all the time. They 
so excited, the poor old fellows, 
that they even called our Income tax 
clou Itffulotion, and so, pregnant with 
to onr national existence. 
Link that with the fact, by them 
accepted, that such tax would mostly fall 
on but 2 per cent, of the nation, and the 
very ones possessing 80 per cent, of onr 
wealth. Just as if any powerful social 
compact bad ever existed that did not 
rest on class legislation- Just as If the 
xlsteuoe of 2 per cent, in our 
young nation, with the bagatelle of 
80 per cent, of our wealth, jost as if 
alone did not prove that onr 
class legislation had already been of 
the most criminal kind I Because, in the 
order of God, or that of nature, if you 
prefer, wealth to only promised to the 
workers, in proportion to their honest 
labor. Is it possible that we have only 
had about 2 per cent, of workers, in this 
nation of ours, since moat of our wealth 
has been piled up with them, leaving 26 
per cent, in absolute or relative poverty ? 

Apparently that income tax of ours la 
about the only class legislation ever 
established by onr Innocent legislators 

w&s colotsal, because that income tax 
attempts to draw from the wealthy, from 
2 per cent, of the nation, in the neigh- 
borhood of 10 per cent, of onr national 
taxes, the 90 per cent, coming yet from 
indirect taxation, which Tails exclusively 
on the poor. Can that be disproved? 
Let. ne see how tbat works. 

The poor are poor, as a grand totality, 
totally or partially poor, bet ante more 
or less under tribute to the few lor 
the privilege of living and working 
on earth. 

The wealthy are wealthy, also as a 
grand totality, because directly or in- 
directly they collect tribute from the 
bulk of the workers, because they pea- 
sees most of the land aud land values, or 
bold a mortgage on them through pri- 
vate, corporate or public securities. 

Now please remember that we don't 
blame any specific individual for tbat. 
Each one of ne must try to float, if he 
does not prefer to sink. We simply 
attack a social system that forces all men 
to float at the expense of somebody else, 
instead of seeing tbat we all float, as 
God means we all should, as we would [f 
laws of equal justice took the place of 
monopolistic ones. 

It stands to reason that all taxes shall 
rest on the poor, on the working messes, 
under any industrial status that piles the 
wealth, most of it, in the bands of the 
few, by giving to the latter opportunities 
that are denied to the rest, the power to 
tax the rest, and thence that of shifting 
all public taxes on the many. !t cannot 
be any other way. It lies in the logic 
and essence of thing*. Do you want us 
to more radically prove tbat? We shall 
resort to mathematics, the exact science, 
It is called, eveo if all sciences are 

Kill to morrow everybody on earth 
except those yon may consider lite meet 
wealthy and smartest chaps, each with 
ten millions or over, to make cure, end 
what becomes of them? Well, they 
may be able to make a good living 
through bard, honest work. We even 
doubt that, because wealth has spoiled 
them ; but that old wealth of theirs, 
which enabled them to live like Persian 
satraps, tbat wealth shall all have melted 
away, because— because the workers 
have left for parts unknown -gone to 
mansions in the skies, we hope. 

nd those are the fellows who form 
the nation, it seems to us, not the 2 per 
cent, to whom our Income tax may 
apply, and thus destroy our institutions 
and that dear people of oars, according 
to our precious lawyers of high degree I 

Jost Gnos. 

[IE confused and perplex- 
ing situation of ou r money 
matters, and the uncer- 
tainty as to whether onr 
standard of measure of 
values shall be finally 
one exclusively of gold, 
or whether silver is to be 
co-equal with gold as to 
legal tender function In 
the settlement ot debts, is a matter of 
vital importance, aud concerns all classes 
of citizens, and the welfare and prosper 
ty of the country depends on its satis- 
factory solution. Workingmeo In their 
endeavors to Improve their condition 
would gain much by a thorough investi- 
gation of this subject, yet bow much It 
is to be regretted that there are so many 
ntelligent people in the 1 ndust rial walks, 
not having the privilege of handling any 
more money than their daily or monthly 
wages, that to only sufficient to furnish 
•canty provender to support life end pay 
" rent, who give but little attention 



General Officers 

or rum 

Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Jolnera of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 W, Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gene ml Prea1de.nl.— Chaa E. Owena, Westches- 
ter, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

rtenoral Secretary-Treasurer- P. J. UcOciu, 
>oz 881, Philadelphia, Pa. 

GlHBUL VlCra-PenSIDaBTfl. 

Vice- President— Henry Gale, 330 W. V er- 
st , Indianapolis, Ind. 

Vice President— Louis E. Tower, 801 



mailed to the Ueueral Secretary.) 
^W. J. Shield., 10 Cheshire at., 

8. J. Kent, NM8, St., Lincoln, Neb, 
J. Williams, 31 Spring St., UUoa. N Y. 
A. Cettermull, 8911 H. HalMead st. , Chicago? III. 
Jos. 0. Cornet, 161 Foot Ave , Belle vue, Ky. 


to the management of public pecuniary 
concerns, and all they think about the 
value of money ia ao it p*ya the grocery 
bill and the landlord for the use of his 
tenement, that ie sufficient. 

The aatoniehing and stupendously large 
tranaactiona of this day, involving Bums 
of money of immense amounts, entirely 
precludes t!ie idea of employing gold and 
silver coins as the medium of exchange. 
The age of tranaactiona of the commer- 
cial class, when prices can be paid in 
cash, has gone into the past, and a paper 
or credit money has been substituted. 
Indeed both gold and silver have been 
almost entirely abolished from circula- 
tion, eave the minor coins, and the small 
amount that is coined is hoarded in the 
vaults of banks and the national treasury 
for iutc national usee, or as a reserve for 
emergencies such as war furnishes. 

The late internecine war involved our 
country in a stupendous debt, that was 
created in a period of inflation, and 
made parable in the standard currency 
of the country, that was in use when the 
bonds became due. This debt is held, 
in a large extent, hy foreign capitalists, 
In interest bearing bonds, far which they 
paid as low aa thirty-five cents on a 
dollar. Our government in its unbounded 
liberality to its foreign creditors has 
changed the terms of the agreement 
and made the bonds payable in standard 
coin. And now since the debt has been 
paid ih rice over, they claim that the 
balance of principle mast be paid in gold, 
according to the atandard of European 
countries. Our administration la more 
disposed, and some Congressmen, too, 
to be more generous with foreign credi- 
tors, and the moneyed classes at home, 
than just to our own industrial in- 
habitants, many of whom are striving to 
extricate themselves from debt for their 
little homes. 

To 1 nsu re the repayment of these boDds 
to foreign creditors and enhance the 
credit, as alleged, or this country, the 
Secretary of the Treasury, by direction 
of the President, has caused four per 
cent, bonds in the sum of $100,000,000 
to be disposed of, and increased our In- 
terest bearing debt in time of profound 
peace, and imposed a bnrden of interest 
on the weaker classes, for all these bonds 
are exempt from taxation. The money 
reallaed on the sale of these bonds has 
not paid one dollar of our debt, but has 
been used In redsmption of treasury 
notes, Issued for silver bullion, bat was 
non interest-bearing, and supplied apart 
of oar earrency. 

This increasing of oar debt to foreign 
capitalists may go on till the money 
brokers ol Europe will control the 
finances of this country, and we will be- 
come dependent upon the aristocracy of 
Europe for the regulation of oar trade 

creatures at their mercy and subject to 
their extortions. The Rothschild of 
Europe will eventually control the elec 
tions and policy of this country, and we 
become his servile creatures,and pay him 
usury for the money we use in our com 
mercial transactions. 

The innovation that is attempted in 
our money standard is inexpedient, as It 
remedies no evil. It has provoked a war 
between the money giants, where the 
masses have to suffer all the casualties 
The accumulators of money want a gold 
standard, it would make the quantity of 
mooey smaller, and appreciate their 
wealth and power. The stockholders In 
mines want a market for their products, 
one famished by the government, that 
they may be able to exchange their 
bulky and less transportable metal for 
the finer one of more intrinsic value. 
The ordinary people, who own no stocks 
and carry on no foreign commerce, are 
willing to move along, paying no regard 
to the parity ot gold and silver, and 
would be content with good greenbacks 
for currency, without the aid of even 
national bank notes. 

The financial legislation of the country, 
especially since 1873, when the resump- 
tion act was passed, has been vicious and 
detrimental to the moral and material 
prosperity of the country. It haa not 
been with an honest intention to main- 
tain the parity between gold and silver, 
or to give us a currency with a fixed and 
stable purchasing power, and to promote 
the general welfare of the people, but 
rather to augment our debt, and furnish 
opportunitiee for good-paying invest- 
ments far the advantage of the very rich. 

Wo hear a great deal and read about 
debasing oar currency ; it is all clap-trap, 
a device to incite the prejudice of the 
simple minded. The question of wild- 
cat banking on a paper fiat basis is a 
thing of the past, buried with the debris 
of old indiscretions. The question now 
is that of restoring silver to its former 
status as money, which for righty years 
has been in absolute use in the United 
States, during a period of its greatest 
material prosperity, and dating this 
time we never had any serious trouble in 
arranging the matter of foreign ex- 
change. It Is always to be kept in mind 
that gold is the rarer and more valuable 
of the two metals, and will be the one 
preferred in payment of large earns, bat 
there is too little of the precious metals to 
destroy one for a trifling Inconvenience. 
But it is not a question now as to debased 
currency, for gold is not now used in 
ordinary transactions, it is whethsr or 
no, the gold standard shall be continued 
indefinitely by the United States to the 
exclusion of silver from absolute money 
functions. The fact is, there is not 
enough gold to pay the interest on 
national indebttdnets of the world for 
one year. Then it Is better and more 
creditable to legislate to serve the Inter- 
est of oar own people than try to con- 
ciliate oar foreign creditors. 

The single gold standard advocates 
assume that gold somehow possesses an 
flouts, unchanging value quality ; that 
quantity of gold, say the amount 
of a gold dollar, 25.8 grains, is like a 
yard -stick, containing always without 
deviation or change a fixed number of 
inches or a certain total content, which 
makes it absolutely fair aa the measure 
of value of other products. No more 
incorrect and fallacious idea could pos- 
sibly be conceived, Then look at the 
direful consequences of this pernicious 
notion, together with that of the intro- 
duction of machinery and the employ- 
ment of females and children. But for 
the correcting influences of trade anions 
the disaster might have been greater. 
Wsges have fallen. In some trades aa 
the matter standi the number of em 

of thousands of wage earners have been 
reduced to a subsistence rate at email 
jobs; the wags rate of some kept em- 
ployed, in consequence of aptitude and 
skiU have barely been maintained. 

Since the demonetisation of silver haa 
been going on, culminating in its most 
direful effects with the destruction of 
silver in this country, market prices for 
every kind of product, as measured by 
the gold dollar the values have all been 
steadily falling, or in what is the same 
thing differently stated, the price of the 
gold dollar has been steadily increasing 
as measured by the price of other prod- 
ucte. It is impossible for it to be other- 
wise, the quantity of gold annually pro- 
duced, or that may possibly be produced, 
being small, oat of all proportion to the 
increasing demands of trade. The as- 
sumption that gold haa a fixed, absolute, 
unchanging value is absurd, for it is well 
understood by every business msn, every 
house owner, every producer from the 
soil, and many workers at days' wages, 
that for a given quantity of gold or paper 
currency redeemable In gold, which is 
practically gold, he most give anywhere 
from twenty-five to fifty per cent, more 
product or labor than he woald have 
been asked to give twenty or two years 
ago for the same quantity of gold or its 
ipresentstive. All prices for things, 
unless it be interest and rents, which 
maintain their high standards to-day. 
And so they most continue to fall until 
the downward movement Is stopped hy 
bringing into the money equation some 
factor that shall prevent gold from con- 
tinuing its rise. 

There Is no demand in morals or in 
common sense why a nation should pay 
its debts thrice over, or oftener, which is 
what the United States ie doing in the 
matter of its foreign liabilities. The 
mortgaged farmer and other debtor 
asses are not able to endure much 
longer in the way of double payment of 
debts, and the reactionary effects will 
prove most disastrous to labor, as it haa 
been doing for the past two years. 

Not regarding, however, the baneful 
influences and effects already attendant 
upon the suspension of silver coinage, 
this administration has asserted its Arm 
determination, in the face of the declara- 
tions of the platform upon which it was 
placed in power, the maintenance of both 
gold and silver as the standard mooey 
r the country, to pay the national debt 
in gold, though it waa agreed and made 
payable in the legal currency of the 
country. It is now polishing op tbs old 
plates to issue interest bearing hoods, 
piling np the national debt In time of 
profound peace, to maintain the reserve 
in the treasury and strengthen the credit 
of the country, bat it Is only treasuring 
up money to accommodate money specu- 
lators. However, foreign capita lists are 
discovering that the constant roc on the 
treasury will soon force as Into bank- 
ruptcy or a silver atandard exclusively, 
and endanger their funds, and they are 
becoming lesa 'disposed to make heavy 

Jams E. Maun. 

Syracuse, New York, 

All Trad as Unionists are requested to ask roc 
the label of the Journeymen Tailors' Onion, and 
Insist on bavin* It when they order *ny cloth log 
from a merchant tailor. It U to be found in the 

Mill Rands Onion Ho. 8X7, 1 
OtnciiiaA.il, March 37, U99.J 

la Mfkokmm 
ot the dealh of our Financial Secretary, _ 
Geo T. UiuiiiL, wt o died on iue Stb Inst, 

WHaaxAS, no men or class of men can deplor* 
with a greater sense of regard than thoss who 
bare In time pan associated with one now gone 
to that home where the weary toller finds rest, 

WHaaaua, Lota! Onion 8«, O. A J. of A„ 
through. death has lost a most active member, a 
devote* and efficient officer, therefore be 11 

Rtsolved, that In the de.th of Bro. O. T. Haa 
•bill the en iue of human justice has lost an 
ardent worker, and wbtl.-t we do not murmur at 
the divine decree, yet we deplor* the loss. 

Bvolvtd, that we extend to the bereaved widow 
and family of the deceased our heartfelt sjm. 
pathy In this the hour or affliction. 

Besolvtd, that a copy of these resolutions be 
sent to the widow of the deceased brother, also 
spread upon the minutes of this organization 
and s copy be * ent to headquarters to be pub- 
"ahed In our c Bit la] Journsl, Tag I 
Respectfully submitted 
W«. J. Qotax, 
Wat, Wi 
Micasat, 1 

S, 0. DtmuB. See See'y. 



lt Pat- Weekly payments are the 
mt for members or this Brother! 
■ practicable shoul 

We will not use any mill o> 
' In a penal institution, 

t'a Holiday. — We Savor the adoption mt 
the first Monday in September mm Labor's Holi- 
day, and we recommend that oar L. O.'s shall 
endeavor to observe the same. 

Eight Borraa— Our L» U.'s shall do all in the.tr 
power to make the Eight hour rule universal, 
and to sustain those unions that f"~" 
ttahed the Eight I 

AaKUUsu TJ « DEftsra no rue— The O. E. B. should 
do all In Its power to dUcouraoe strike*, and 
adopt such ni etuis as will tend to bring about aa 
amicable understanding between Local Unions 
and employers. 

Laws,— We desire uniform 
throughout the United State* and < 
in g a mechanic's lien the Bret ruor 
estate to secure the wages of labor first, and 
material second. Bucb. liens should be granted 
without long stays of execution or other on- 

BCILntno Trades Liuatram.— Each L, TJ. 
strive to form a League com posed of delegates 
the various unions of the building trades ta 
city, and by this i 

QaaDiPO WioEn.- We are opposed to any sys- 
tem of grading wages in the Local Unlons.as we 
deem the same demoralizing io ttie trsde and a 
further Incentive to reckless com lwtltion, bavins) 
the ultimate tendency when work Is eeeros, to 
allow rl rot-class men to offer their labor s t third- 
elaaa p.-ioea. We hold that the plan of flxtna 

minimum price for^a day s work to be jh* safest 

for Carpenters to Bead! 

The United Brotherhood 
Joiners of America waa founded In Convention 
at Chicago, August 13, 18SL At first It had only 
13 I .oeal Unions and noli mam here. Now, In ( 

tears, it baa grown to number over Tie 1 
fnlons In over StO cities and St,37f enrolled 
members. It la organised to protect the O 
tor Trade from the e\i Is of low price* and 
wovkt Its aim la to encourage a higher 
of aklll and better 
Apprentice By steal, 
members by mutual 

wages; to Reestablish mm 
and to aid fcod assist to* 

turn! protection 
_- i. It pays* Wife 
S2S to ISO; Member's 1 
1200; and Disability Benefit 1100 to 

i Funeral 

t «f 


Oeneral Benefits f64-S*f bare been 
pendedthe past year, and IjOSMSihe past tan 
years, while I*7t,t00 more waa spent Tor Sick 
Bene flta by the Local Union*. Bucb an orgatuV 
aatlon la worthy the attention of every Carpenter. 
The Brotherhood Is also a Protective Trad* 
Union a* well as a Benevolent Society. It , 
raised tbe wage* In MS cities, and p aced II v* 
and a Half Million Dollar* more wages aiaosJIy 
I n the pockets ot* the Carpenter* I n 
It reduced the hours of labor to S hoar* ■ day la 
&1 cities, and 9 hour* a day la 41* attt**, not M 
speak of 467 cities wMoli have esUbusbed thM 
or 9-hour syste m on Sat u ' day a. By this Oaf*** 
12,1*0 more men have trained em ploy men I 
is the result of thorough organisation. A 
very few strikes bav* occurred, and 
money baa been spent on sink** 
It la not a secret oath bound 
competent Carpenter* 
this 1* an Invitation US you as an lota 
mechanic to send In your aipllcst Ion fs* 
bershlpln thai Carpenlsrs Union of your 
It a branch of the Brotherhood 

wo with I 

the a 
the baosdt*, 



A Plea for Shorter 

Id the world lucre's need for labor. 

Useful efforts, fair and true, 
Work is good, so let all share it, 

Mine fur tne arM yours for you. 
Rich and poor, let's have no shirkers, 

Make a world of fellow-workers 

Through the world there's need for leixure, 

Time to think in, time to pray. 
Time for winning health and pleasure, 

Time for wiping grief* away. 
Share the spare time, nor nbiis* It, 

Teach each other how to use It. 

You who slave make others Idle ; 

Thus you work a double 111 — 
You are sweated, they are starving, 

They bind you upon the mill. 
Share the work 1 Rich Idlers ride you, 

Whip) ess. goun they'll work beside you. 

R'ch nor p ior there'll be no shirkers, 
But a world of happy workers, 

— JtfljVwev fi*i'»'» 






AVING devoted 
considerable at- 
tention to the 
changes made 
in the actual 
constitution of 
the trade anion 
daring the four- 
teeath century, 
we now proceed to rapidly trace ita evo- 
lution until the middle of the sixteenth 
century, the period of the distinct and 
final separation of the trade union into 
two opposing organisations ot employ en 
and employed. 

Oppressive as the reorganisation of the 
trade onion in the special interest of its 
richer members eventually became, it 
would be a mistake to infer that the ex- 
clusion of the journeymen from the trade 
union franchise was immediately fol- 
lowed by their economic degradation; 
because we have ample proof that the 
interval between that exclusion and the 
first permanent fall of wages lasted for 
more than one and hall centuries- It if 
an undisputed fact that with the rise of 
the special classes there was a corre- 
sponding rise of the real wages of labor, 
continuing from the first quarter of the 
fourteenth century until after the open- 
ing of the sixteenth century. That there 
was nothing accidental in this long con- 
tinned improvement, or In the subse- 
quent rapid decline, of the economic 
condition of the workers we are prepared 
to show. 

C haraeter of the PMod. —The general ten- 
dency of this period was, primarily, 
toward liberty ; and, secondarily, toward 
specialty of employments. The result 
of this tendency was, primarily, an In 
oreased production of wealth, consider- 
ably assisted by the use of mechanical 
Inventions ; and, secondarily, a progra 
•ire increase in the real wages ot labor 

Imdeney to Liberty —It Is the habit of 
historians to ascribe the whole credit 
of this great industrial revival to the 
effete of the civic populations ; we, how 
aver, must beware of taking this one- 
sided view, the more especially because 
it lathi to reveal how the great change 
from a military to an industrial civiliza- 
tion was achieved. 

When, having neither rational object 
or adequate reward, the Intense military 
lifity of early times began to decay 
dSr^Lm of the military chU 
were aUTeVfteat Landholders, waa more 
or lees strongly directed to the improve 
■Mat of their possessions. To this end, 
or to acquire ready money to indulge In 
roxnries, the landholders gave to 

of the more intelligent and industrious 
of their serfs inducements to more dili- 
gently cultivate portions of the land and 
stock, which had previously been culti- 
vated, with unsatisfactory results, on the 
communal system. These inducements 
were in the nature ot leases of separate 
individual holdings at fixed rentals; pay- 
able partly in produce aud partly in labor 
on the reserved portion of the lord's 
domain, or in money In lieu of such 
labor. The impetus given to agriculture 
— the production of food— by this exten- 
sion of liberty, was Indirectly communi- 
cated to manufactures, to commerce, and 
finally to public credit or banking. That 
a long continued preparation had been 
made for this great extension ot liberty 
and industry is certain, seeing that the 
trade union had already effected its free 
craft and municipal organization in the 
more populous centres, and, in the most 
favorable localities, the mercantile and 
financial classes had been more or leas 
clearly differentiated from the manu- 
facturing class. Yet no great impulse 
was given to industry until, abont the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, 
practical liberty had been acquired by 
the masses engaged in agriculture. 

This important period, is known at 
" the renaissance," or the new birth. It 
was at this period that industry began 
to be more attractive to free and intelli- 
gent men than war ; and that the work- 
man, the agent of construction, began to 
assume greater social importance than 
the soldier, the agent of destruction. 

Itndency to Specialty. — Having already 
dealt with the tendency to specialty of 
employments in onr previous remarks 
on the evolution of the professional and 
the four great industrial classes, it is not 
to trace the progress further, 
to trace this tendency in the 
several crafts would be to multiply in- 
stances ot the working of one general 
rule which each person may verify for 
This rule may be roughly 
stated as follows- The tendency to spe 
cialty of employments is from the least 
numerous to the most numerous class or 
group, and from the class or group exer- 
cising the most special ability in some 
direction (though perhaps extremely in- 
capable in every other direction) to the 
class or group exercising the least special 
ability; or to the mass engaged in the 
most general and least specialised, the 
so-called unskilled, kinds of labor. 

Mechanical Inventions —The best proof 
that the great revival of Industry wsa 
the result of the general extension ot 
liberty is to be found in the important 
mechanical inventions that were adopted 
at the beginning or were called into ex* 
during this period ; and the proof 
" will be the most conclusive to 
those who best recognise that serfdom, 
like slavery, Is unfavorable to the use of 
mechanical expedients to dispense with 
manual labor. Prominent among these 
Inventions were the compass and print- 
ing. The first named of these had long 
been known, hot was only now adapted 
to practical use. In regard to the latter 
we must not tall Into the error of credit- 
ing the whole Invention of printing to 
the time of Guttenberg, and thereby 
ignore the much earlier invention of 
printing from engraved wooden plates 
The use of the compass, the chief 1m 
provement in the means of transports 
tlon, by assisting the uniform dlstrlbu 
tlon of products, wsa equivalent to i 
considerable increase ot production , and 
powerfully contributed to the Increase of 
real wages. There were, undoubtedly, 
of hardship arising from the intro- 
of Inventions, as In the ease of 
the copyists thrown out of employment 
by the use of the printing, press ; but the 
then existing bountiful institutions lor 
the relief ot distress were folly adequate 

in doing bo without degrading the 

IncTiating Waqtt. — The dominant fact 
of this period was the progressively high 
average rate of real wages. Not only did 
the money wage-- received by the laborer 
continue to increase, but the cost of the 
necessaries of life relatively decreased. 
As an illustration of this genera) eco- 
nomic progress we will take a fairly 
representative trade tor example. In 
the first quarter of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, a skilled carpenter, residing in a 
large city, by working three hundred 
daya in the year, earned a wsge equal in 
purchasing power to about five hundred 
dollar* ol our present money. Wage* 
progressively increasing from that time, 
by the middle of the fifteenth century, a 
skilled carpenter, working three hundred 
days, earned a wages equal in our money 
to more than nine hundred dollars. 

In arriving at this conclusion we have 
relied on the data given by Thorold 
Rogers In his colossal work on "Agri- 
culture and Prices," the Irnit of twenty 
years' diligent study, based on a mass of 
recently discovered original financial 
records. Without departing from this 
data, we have taken three hundred 
working daje at seven and a half pence 
a day, giving an annual wage of Bine 
pounds seven shillings and six pence; 
this sum multiplied by twenty, for the 
difference between the cost of the 
necessaries of life there at the time 
stated and here at the present day, gives 
us one hundred and eighty-seven pounds 
ten shillings ; this sum multiplied by 
five, to reduce the pounds sterling to onr 
money, gives us nine hundred and forty- 
seven dollars and fifty cents as the 
present equivalent of a carpenter's an- 
nual wages in the middle ol the fifteenth 
century (300 days at 7Jd ~- £9 .07 .00 x 
20= £ 187 .10 ,i0 x 5 - $047.60). 

During the course ot the century wages 
rose yet higher, but we wish to keep 
well within the limit of the facts and 
guard against exaggeration. It is true 
that the rate of wages here given, 7j 
pence, is that of a large city, where the 
rate was higher than that established by 
sew-and-hatchet men in agricultural dis- 
tricts, but we have not taken into onr 
calculation the joiners who bad a sepa- 
rate union in the same city with a ten 
per cent, higher rate. Three hundred 
working days in the year will not be 
thought excessive when we consider that 
the carpenters did not necessarily lose 
time during stormy weather, that the 
short workday enabled extra hoars to be 
worked when work was pressing, and 
that neither journeyman nor master 
were in the habit of chasing all over the 
city day alter day without being able to 
find each other. A multiplier of twenty 
(20) for the dlfierence between the cost 
of the ntceatarles of life then and now 
may at first sight seem excessive, but it 
would require a multiplier of twenty- 
five (25) to meet the difference between 
half a cent a pound for beef at that time 
and the price the workman has to pay 
for beef to-day; and a multiplier of 
thirty (30) would entirely tall tajffr 
the dlfierence of rent Before quitting 
thie subject one thing has to be ex- 
plained ; during the months of Decem- 
ber and January twenty five per cent, 
less time and wages was made; deduct- 
ing, then, nine Sundays and three Christ- 
mas holidays from these months, fifty 
workdays with three-quarter time and 
pay remain, Involving a reduction equal 
to forty dollars, nearly ; yet leaving an 
annual wage, as previously stated, equal 
to more than nine hundred dollars. 

Eight hour workday.— There are good 
grounds tor affirming that the customary 
workday at this period was one of eight 
hoars' duration. if ight hoars constituted 
s day's work and 

orable statute of laborers and all subse- 
quent legislation to the contrary not- 
Withstanding. Therefore, during the 
two months when the sun was nearest 
the winter solstice, and darkness cut off 
an hour from the morning and an hour 
from the afternoon work spells, a three- 
quarter workday of six hours was the 
result. For the remaining ten months 
of the year each work spell was of tour 
bourn' duration, work commencing at 
seven and ending at five o'clock. Thus 
during the entire year there was between 
ihetwo dally spells an interval of two 
hours, from one hour before to one hour 
ufter noon, devoted to eating and rest; 
this interval wan called " noonschent/' 
in the old and. "diner" in the new 
English speech. Short interruptions of 
work were allowed at nine and three 
o'clock for a bite and sup, called 
'Movers." When, however, the pres- 
sure of work demanded overtime the 
invariable custom was one hoar for 
breakfast ami one hoar for supper; 
since no higher rate was paid for over- 
time, it Is probable that these Intervals 
were counted as time and added to the 
overtime actually worked. 

The eight-hour workday Is not, ac 
many people believe, a modern innova- 
tion ; it was a pre-existing normal labor 
condition, which we have lost during a 
long period of degradation. Like other 
important features we have referred to, 
tbe eight hour workday was a natural 
development of tbe trade nnioo, and 
with the modern revival of the trade 
onion comes also the necessity of the 
trade anion normal workday. 

Cawe* of iJfetint.—U being sufficiently 
evident that the progressive increase of 
wages during the fourteenth and fifteenth 
cento ries was the resul* of the grand 
revival of industry, and that this revival 
was the sequence of the important exten- 
sion of personal liberty prepared by the 
growth of the trade union and a corres- 
ponding decay or the military spirit ; 
therefore, it is now In order to point out 
the causes of the decline in wages which 
commenced with the sixteenth century 
and became permanent for cantnries 
thereafter. This decline In the economic 
condition of the workers Is distinctly 
traceable to two primary causes; first to 

tbe spirit of egoism, or selfishness, that 
commenced and continued the revolution 
in the ancient constitution of the trade 
anion ; and, finally, to a series of sense- 
less and criminal acts committed by the 

lack o/ Sotidariiy— In all previous ages 
we have seen tbe trade union serving as 
the bulwark of industrial and monktpsl 
liberty ; bnt now, when the historic or- 
ganization of the workers bad fallen Into 
the hands of men swayed mainly by the 
Instinct of self aggrandisement, we have 
to regard the union sa tbe violator of Its 
own basic principle— all for each and 
each for all ; and are confronted with the 
spectacle or the trade union in 
alliance with the state as tbe oppressor 
of industry and the betrayer of liberty. 

As tbe undisguised object of the re- 
organization of the trade union, com- 
menced In 1827, was the substitution of 
the principle of wealth for that of merit 
aa tbe qualification tor the direction of 
industry, the revolutionary process once 
begun was destined to proceed to its 
shameful end . Let ns mark this progress 
After the re-organization referred to, the 
three original degrees of apprentice, 
journeyman and master continued to 
exist ; bat a fourth degree known as 
"the livery j" consisting, as per charter, 
of the richer masters and claiming the 
sole power of craft government, now 
came into existence. Admission to this 
degree, which at first could only be 
gained by apprenticeship, w*« In tbe 

^ ~~»*^***™m*m*<*!^ 

point of view, were able to pay hind- 
nely for a ahare in the craft monopoly, 
tn farther pursuit of thia degrading plu- 
cratic policy, a fifth degree, that of 
'the wardens, " was eventually coneti- 
tuted. Thia degree, Belf perpetuated by 
la bj stem of secret election, finally con- 
; cent rated in the hands of a "court of 
listanta," composed of some dozen of 
its members, all the executive, legislative 
id judicial powers of the onion. In 
[addition to wielding thia enormous 
power in craft afl aire, the courta of assist- 
anta of the wealthier uniona arrogated to 
themselves the power to elect the mayor 
and all other municipal officers, snda'so 
to elect the members of parliament repre- 
senting their city. 

That the journeymen keenly felt the 
social degradation entailed upon them 
by thia revolution la apparent by their 
sympathetic participation in the revolt 
of 1381 , and their banging of the Belgians 
who bad been imported by the King to 
break down the un-reorganized weavers' 
union ; and that the poorer masters were 
alao deeply aflected as they saw the ave- 
nues to industrial and civic distinction 
closed against them is no lees certain. 
But though bereft of voice and vote In 
business and political affaire by being 
throat out of the corporations, the journey- 
men and small masters still retained 
membership in the brotlurhoodt of their 
crafts ; and consequently, still controlled 
the moat important part of the onion 
fonds; the lande, buildings, and other 
property devoted to benevolent purposes. 
We shall hereafter see what became of 
this property. We have seen how the 
grocers took advantage of the reorgan- 
isation to engross and enhance the prices 
of all wares possible, and how the legis- 
lation enacted to restrain them was only 
used aa a weapon against the poorer 
craftsman. We have seen how the richer 
tailors, spurning the sbopboard In their 
ambition to became "merchant tailors," 
or cloth monopolists, flrat violated tbe 
trade anion rale of apprenticeship by 
admitting klr gs and lorda to anion mem- 
bership. We have alao seen the meres rs, 
drapers, and tailors combine to rob the 
weaver's union of the right to the free 
disposal in open market of their handi- 
work. Similar rases might be adduced in- 
definitely; bat one characteristic, though 
grotesque, instance of thia monopolistic 
spirit in the house painters' anion will 
be aufneieat. This union memorialized 
that an amendment be made to their 
charter giving them power to " restrain 
all persona not or their corporation from 
painting portraits of noblemen and 
others, as well as all other manner of 
paintings;" for the reason that 
paintings "ahowed fair to the light bat 
were not nbdantiaXly wrought. " In fact, 
tbe rage for chartered monopolies grew 
with what It red upon ; until as the cele- 
brated Bacon has truly said, "the com 
pan i Be, "»r monopolized uniona," were aa 
full of abases as a homeless dog la fall or 
I leas." 

Debated Mow;}.— The li rat great crime, 
the flrtt step toward the robbery of the 
workers was effected by collusion be- 
tween tbe richer members of the trade 
union and the State; bat the crime, 
or the long aeries of crimes, to which 
we now refer was committed by tbe State 

Until the year 1344 there waa but little 
temptation to debase the currency, be- 
cause previous to that time all large sums 
were paid in bullion , In pounds weight 
of silver cut into blank, unstamped 
nieces of twenty to the pound. Tbe 
standard of fineness being twenty-two 
and one-fifth carats ; and the ratio be- 
tween silver and gold being ten to 
Small sums only, 
paid la coin of 
deeply quartered by a c 
they might be easily broken 

change was 

and fourths 

At thia time, as long previously, the 
pound weight of ailver was coined into 
340 pennies. The first attempt at de- 
basement of weight was made in 1347, 
tbe year after the battle of Crecy and the 
year before the Black Death, when the 
pound of ailver was made to produce as 
many as 365 pennies. The sharp in- 
crease of wages . following that dreadful 
pestilence diverted attention from thia 
swindle. Anyhow, tbe 'experiment was 
repeated in 1354, when the pound was 
coined into three hundred pennies ; and 
any complaints most have been drowned 
In the eh outs that bailed the criminal as 
the victor of Poitisra. In 1422 the pound 
was struck into 380 pieces, but tbe fame 
of the victor of Agincoart stilled every 
tonga*. The civil ware gave opportuni 
ties to the partisans or the white and the 
red roses to further debase the weight 
of the currency, and the number of 
pennies was flrat increased to 445, in 
1401, and then in 1465 to 480 peonies to 
the pound. Dearly enough did tbe 
workers pay for each or these barbaric 
relapses Into militarism ; for by this 
time the depreciation of the currency 
amounted to exactly fifty per cent. 

Hitherto, the grand impetus or in 
dustry, the improved productive capacity 
of Labor had enabled tbe laborers to in 
creasingly indulge in more and better 
food, clothing, furniture, tools and 
houses despite each of these successive 
filching* from their wages. But with 
the beginning of the sixteenth century 
the long series of crimes committed by 
tl e State began to have visible effects 
tbe cost of tbe necessaries or life began 
to rise taster than money wages. Tbe 
laborer might earn three pennies where 
before be only earned two ; bat these 
three Stste pennies, in spite of bis harder 
and better labor, would only procure him 
two and a half pennies' worth of bread 
No opportunity was given for recovery 
for whereas in 1509 the pound was made 
to produce 640 pennies, In 1548 that 
arch-thief, Henry VIII., conceived the 
diabolical idea of betraying the commer- 
cial honor ot the people and a further 
robbery of tbe workers by debasing the 
idard of fineness; of lowering the 
quality of tbe currency to twenty carats, 
and bo furthermore coined a pound of 
thia inferior ailver into 676 pennies. 

Two years thereafter, in 1446, this 
worthy representative of the State re- 
duced the standard to twelve carats, the 
money was now half ailver and half 
brass- The very next year, 1646, thia 
bloated and ulcerated ruilian debased 
the coinage to eight carats, one third 
stiver and two thirds bran, dia son and 
successor In State policy carried on the 
work ot forgery and seemed to cap tbe 
climax of villany ; for, in 15M, be coined 
a pound of nameless dross, composed of 
one quarter ailver and three- quarters 
brass, into 864 pennies. The penny was 
now almost aa thin as tinael and as black 
as the ace of apades ; and ths workman's 
penny loaf was fast approaching the one- 
spot in aire and color, 

Omfitcalum of Brotherhood fundi.— This 
crowning crime against the trade union 
has not hitherto received the attention 
It demands, because, being inextricably 
interwoven with a more general and ex 
tensive crime committed by tbe State, 
two otherwise opposing prejudices, so- 
called religious and anti-religious, have 
conspired to prevent the subject being 
regarded from a purely trade union 

The mediaeval trade onion was superior 
to the Roman trade union In two re- 
spects first, it substituted apprentice- 

centres : one ot these was known in the 
new English speech as the "corpora- 
tion," and the other aa the " fraternity " 
or "brotherhood." Ths former was 
pecial and practical, being devoted to 
the protection of industrial and muni- 
cipal liberty ; the bitter was general and 
social, being devoted to the cultivation 
of the bond of sympathy or benevolence. 
Tbe former centred in the craft-hall, tbe 
after centred in tbe craft-chapel. We 
have seen tbe richer masters assume ex- 
clusive possession of tbe corporation, tbe 
protective centre of the trade anion in 
the craft-hall ; we have now to see the 
State, two centuries thereafter, stretch 
forth ita blood and crime stained hand to 
rob and strangle tbe brotherhood, the 
evolent centre of the trade anion in 
the craft-chapel. 

We are not able to form any estimate 
of tbe money valne or the lands, build- 
ings, furniture, vestments, plate and 
money, the property or tbe brotherhood, 
the patrimony of the widow and tbe 
orphan, the sick, distressed and aged 
craftsmen, that waa confiscated by the 
State daring the fifteen evil years be- 
tween 1 586 and 1551 ; because the greater 
part o.l this property waa indiscrimi 
nately seized with tbat of the conven 
tool institutions We have, however, 
already seen that in 1639 returns were 
made to the Court of Chancery of the 
number of corporations and brother- 
hoods then existing. Nothing is known 
of the returns from the corporations ; 
bat there are still extant returns from 
more than five hundred of the brother 
hoods. That the total amount of tbe 
plunder realised from the brotherhoods 
was very great is an assumption sup- 
ported by all the known facta in connec- 
tion therewith. We have positive evi 
dence to this effect in the case of twelve 
corporations in London who made a 
profitable speculation by buying from 
ths State ths confiscated lands or their 
craft brotherhoods. The attested an* 
nnal value ot the lands so bought 
amounted to nine hundred and thirty- 
fire pounds fourteen shillings, for which 
they paid, at the rate of twenty years 
purchase, the sum of eighteen thousand 
seven bond red and fourteen pounds, 
or a sum equal to $1,871,400 of oar 
money. A tact pregnant with thought 
Is tbst a plot ot land bought by the 
grocers In 1433 for somewhat less than 
thirty-two pounds waa sold by that 
corporation in the year 1800 to the 
Bank of 


:o» L, This organization shall be known 
M ths Amalgamated Council of the Building 

Sec. a This council ■h*ntx>ootnpc*ed of dele- 
gate* duly chosen fnm all aooietlr* In the build- 
ing trade*, who shell, before being admitted, 
produce credential* signed by the president and 
recording secretary of their society, and ah all 
have tbe eeal of their union attached. 

Sec a In ease of a secret society, tie eeal of 
their lodge attached shell bee sufficient guaran- 
tee of their genuineness. 

Baa 4, The officers of this society shell ootuntl 
of a chairman, vice-chairman aud recording- sea- 
lery, treasurer and I 

Baa, ft. The chairmen end vice-chairman aball 
be elected at each meeting, and aball be i 

of different i 
shell any chairman alt In J 


be elected quarterly! 
Bhall rteefve sue 


„!>« 1. The executive functions of this 
council shall be Tested in the officers and dele- 
gates white In eeesloL and In such committees as 
this eour.eil may find necessary to conduct its 
business under this constitution. 

Sao. 3. The objects of thia council shall be to 
centralize tbe united efforts and experience ol 
the vsriou* sooletlea engaged In the ere 
alteration of buildings, and that they i 
one common council, and with com mo 
to prevent that Which may be Injurious, and 

Eperly perfect and carry Into effect tbat whisk 
r may deem advantageous to themselt es.and 
the common good of all. 
Sac ft. All trade end labor so. 

In this council, when desirous of makug a de- 
mand for either an advance of wage* or an 
abridgement In tbe hours of labor, shell, through 
their delegates, report tbe same to this council, 
prior to the demand being made, when, If con- 
curred tn by a two- thirds vote of all the societies 
Ml meeting, Ihe action shall be 
*ion shall 
on Its own i 

present, at any si 
binding. This 

SaCrtog 1. No trade shall be entitled to mote 
Uisu three votes on any qui 
affecta the material interests of any t 

Baa* All trades or societies I 
be entitled to three delegates, 

a. Any society having three or mi 
es shell be entitled to one delegate 

aancxB rv. 
_ *. Any trade society i 
tble council that may desire mat 
state their ease to this oounel), and. If appro* 
by too' delegates, shall bring tbe matter before 

r reoresented In 
sterlol aid, shall 
snd. If approved 


r of thwj 


It aball be the I 

' lb ed U U iM-l |n* to 

•cabs " to conform to, and obey 
tbe laws of, the society tbat they should properly 
belong to. 

Baa A It shall be tbe duty of any trade or 
labor society to use ev. ry lawful means to la- 
duos all non-union men or soaba to become 
members of their respective uniona and any 
Wade society falling In their fast efforts, shall 
bring the matter before this council through 
their delegates, with all the fact* in tbe case, 
with tbe names of the men. U possible, where 
employed, end the name or the employer, lbs 
earns) to be presented In writing with the signa- 
ture of tbe president of lbs society affected, 
when this eon null shall take immediate action tn 

Study this crowning crime as we will 
our minds cannot folly grasp Its enor 
mlty. If we take the number of colleges, 
schools, hospitals and asylums of every 
kind, Urge and small, that were thus 
plundered and suppressed, and then take 
the area of England, Walss sod Ireland, 
we ahall find that there was ons soch 
institution in England and Wales to every 
piece of land 5x6 miles square, aod tn 
Ireland one to every C 'lea square. The 
occupants of these .Itotiona ware 
turned adrift to beg, starve or steal. The 
lands were given to fawning favorites.and 
these to rued tbe land over to rack-rented 
farmers who discharged laborers and 
evicted small tenants to make room for 
sheep. From the plenty and joyooaness 
of ths previous century the great mass of 
tbe workers were reduced to grinding 


building where said _ 

i may be employed. This 

into effect through toe 


lay walking delegate or delegate* 
a strike without U>e as 

any oootsty etdertng a 
gent of this council, the 
beheld responsible *>r 

trade be represents shall 
tbe wages of tbe men on 

tbe most ferocious laws were pasted to 
prevent the starving wretches from sak 
ing bread. 

If history has any meaning or use, if 
one generation Is able to profit from tbe 

la a solemn warning to avoid 

. 1. On demand of * uuton t . 
I Strike shall be ordered to reli: 
. St member* who have struck and ate 
employment on the* job thai we* 
any wai" " 
r order! 

strike. This shall sol prevent a delegate front 
ering a strike of tb* mem bets of the society 
resents to adjust Its own Internal affair* 
lib* assistance of this 
1 Member* of ■ 

aaricxa via. 
Bsortoa 1, When the member* of two 
tepresented In this council work at tb 

recti the earns job. 





■■■ I 









**W* cpits of these patents may be had at 
fifteen cents each. 

835.28S. Alarm-Lock. Charles T. Mol- 
niau, Allautlc, Pa. Filed Wee. 20, 
1894. Serial No. 533,338. (No 

2- A threshold having a longitudinal 
groove 13, and a ledge 13, a strip located 
on raid ledge and in laid groove, pine 15, 
fixed to and projecting from the ends ol 
Baid strip, which pins are seated for 
oscillation In grooves formed in the 
threshold at the ends of the groove 12, 
and a log fixed to and projecting out- 
ward from one corner of the said strip 
and adapted for engagement with the 
door to oscillate said strip, which lug 
rests in the groove IS, and supports the 
strip from tilting when said strip is in- 
verted as set forth. 

Claim.— I. The combination with a 
spring latch, of a hollow abaft for oper- 
ating the same, a knob spindle passing 
through said hollow shaft and having 
rigidly secured thereon a toothed wheel, 
an escutcheon provided with a slotted 
hose, aod a sliding bolt monnted on eaid 
hollow ah aft and adapted to be alternately 
engaged with said slotted boas and 
toothed wheel, whereby said knob epin- 
dle and latch are thrown Into and out of 
operative engagement, substantially as 

2. The combination with a spring latch, 
of a hollow shaft for operating the same, 
a knob spindle passing through said hol- 
low shaft and having rigidly secured 
thereon a toothed wheel, an escutcheon 
provided with a slotted boss, projecting 
earn carried by said hollow shaft, a slid- 
ing bolt seated between said ears and 
provided with an elongated slot, and a 
pin passing through said dot and secured 
in said ears, whereby said bolt may be 
caused to alternately engige paid slotted 
bo-B and toothed wheel, to throw said 
latuh and spindle into and out of opera- 
tive engagement, substantially as de- 

3. Ttie combination with a spring 
latch, of a hollow shaft lor operating the 
same, a knob spindle passing through 
said hollow shaft and having mounted 
thereon a longitudinally adjusiablaeteeve 
carrying a toothed wheel, an escutcheon 
provided with a slotted boss, and a slid 
ing bolt mounted on said hollow shaft 
and adapted to be alternately engaged 
with said slotted boss and toothed wheel, 
whereby said knob spindle and latch are 
thrown into aod out of operative engage- 
in tnt, substantially as described. 

4. Toe combination with a spring 
latch, of a hollow eh aft for operating the 
same and carrying bell striking mechan- 
ism, a knob spindle passing through said 
hollow shaft and carrying a bell and a 
toothed wheel for actuating the bell 
striking mechanism, and means for 
throwing aaid hollow shaft and knob 
spindle Into and oat of operative engage. 

584,987. Fastener for Meeting- Rail* 
of Sashes. John J. Alsdorf, Albany, 
N. T. Filed Not. 1. 1894. Serial 
So. 527,673. (So Model.) 

634,806. Weather Strip. Noah W. 
Stover, Lucas, Iowa. Filed Oet 24. 
1894. Serial No. 520,890. (No 



I 1 

Claim.— 1. A fastener for window 
sashes and the like, consisting of a bar- 
rel or casing adapted to fit a recess in the 
inner rail and be secured to the rail, a 
sliding bolt mounted in said barrel, an 
open-ended recess in the barrel, a bead 
detacbably secured to the inner end of 
the bolt and playing in said recess, a 
spring encircling the bolt and reacting 
between Its head and the bottom of the 
recess, and a detachable handle or key 
for operating the bolt ; substantially as 

2. A fastener for window eaahes and 
the like, consisting of a barrel or casing 
adapted to fit a recess in the inner rail 
and be secured to the rail, a eliding and 
turning boit mounted In said barrel, a nut 
Bcrewing on the inner end of the bolt, a 
spring encircling the bolt and acting to 
keep Its outer end withdrawn within the 
barrel, a right-angular slot in the barrel, 
a pin on the bolt playing in said slot, 
means for adjusting the nut on the bolt 
to vary the tension of the spring, and 
a detachable handle or key for operating 
the bolt ; substantially as described. 

3. A fastener for window sasbea and 
the like, consisting of a barrel or casing 
adapted to fit a recess in the inner rail 
and be secured to the rati, a sliding and 
turning bolt mounted in said barrel, a 

d on the inner end of the bolt, a 
spring encircling said bolt and acting to 
keep its outer end withdrawn within the 
barrel, a slot in said barrel having iongi 
tudinal and transverse portions, a pin on 
the bolt playing in said slot, a screw- 
threaded recess in the inner end of the 
bolt, a forward prolongation f' of the 
transverse portion of the slot In the bar 
rel, and a detachable handle or key for 
operating the bolt having a threaded end 
adapted to be screwed into the said 
threaded recess; substantially as de- 

585,056, Fastener for Shatters. L+roy 
J. Ellis, Fanwood, N* J. Filed 
March 28, 1894. Serial No. 605,- 
078. (No Model.) 

• CWm.-l. A threshold having a longi- 
tudinal groove, a strip removably and 
replaceabiy mounted for oscillation in 
fetid groove, which strip is adapted for 
reversion or inversloa, and so shaped as 
to rest In the groove Immovably when 
reversed for rigid positioning, and a log 
on said strip adapted for engagement by 
door to oeeitlpfr said atrip whsn to 

ating poet looecly connected to the oppo- 
site end of the latch and extending 
upwardly beneath the lower rail ol the 
window sash; substantially as described. 

2, A fastener for elm tier and the like, 
consisting of a pivottd latch, a recess in 
the window frame within which the 
latch is arranged, said latch having at 
Its forward end a catch adapted to tit 
into a recess in the bottom edge of the 
shatter, means tor normally holding the 
catch within the shatter recess, ami a 
vertically arranged operating post loosely 
connected to the opposite end of the 
latch and extending upwardly beneath 
the lower rail of the winduw ; sash sub- 
stantially as dercribtd. 

8. A fastener for shutters and the like, 
consisting of a pivoted latch having a 
catch at one end and an operating pro- 
jection at the other, a recessed housing 
in the window frame wiihin which the 
latch is pivoted, and a spring for nor- 
mally projecting the catch above the 
housing, said spring consisting of a piece 
of wire having coils on opposite aides of 
the latch, the free ends of the spring 
rigidly secured within tbe receeeed hons- 
ng, and the bend of the spring engaging 
within a notch in the top of tbe operat- 
ing end of the latch ; substantially as 

4. In a fastener for shutters and the 
like, tbe combination with a pivoted 
latch and its housing, ronttitntirg one 
port of the fastener, of a keeper consti- 
tuting the oilier part of the fastener, and 
consisting of the plates m m', the former 
of said plates er tend ing below the top 
surface of the bousing, and tbe latter of 
said plates being opposite a solid portion 
of the top of the housing, whereby the 
catch cannot te tampered with by the 
insertion of a knife blade or the like; 
substantially as described. 

means subs! ant (ally an described f 0r 
securing said core to said socket aod 
thereby preventing longitudinal move, 
mentofea d shell arid core in the o ppo . 
aite direction relatively to each other ai 
Bet forth. 

534,70.1. Combined Latch and ( \\^\ 
Ituru- WHiM, Chicago, HI. |jj H 
Nor. 19, |M92. serial Its. 482,511 
l So Model.) 

Claim.— 1. A fastener for shatters and 
the like, consisting of a pivoted latch, a 
recess In the window frame within which 
the latch ia arranged, said latch having 
at Ita forward end a catch adapted to fit 

534,766. Tapering Attachment for 
Lathes. Jackson Klrharda, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., assignor of one-half to 
John T. Johnsoa and Edward II 
Sch older, »ame place. Filed May 1, 
1894. Serial So. 509,091. (No 

•' : .. * ■■ - > - • - ■ 

■• ■ ' • ; j 

Claim. — A taper attachment having a 
boss designed to be secured to the spindle 
of tbe tailetock of a lathe, a body pro- 
vided with a longitudinal slot, a movable 
center working in said slot, capable of 
adjustment at any desired point therein, 
an extension at the rear thereof, and 
lUitable means for attaching and detach- 
ing saiu extension to and from the body 
of the 

Claim -1. A combined catch er latch 
and 1 heck for doors and the like, com- 
prising a easing, sn air-cushion stated 
therein having a vent, a latch or catch 
having one end beveled to engage with 
the door or the like and the other end 
provided with a surface for contact (as 
with the cushion to close the vent and 
thereby prevent the compressor! of the 
cushion, and a retractor arreted ar*ja. 
cent to the latch and adapted to be pro. 
j'Cted to compress the cushion and per- 
mit of the manual retraction of the latch. 

2. A combined catch or latch aud 
cheek for doors and the like, comprising 
a casing, an air-cushion seated therein 
and having a normally open vent, a latch 
or catch having one end I leveled to en- 
gaga with tbe door or the I ke, the other 
end provided with a surface for contact- 
ing with the cushion to close the vent, 
and its intermediate portion provided 
with a slot, a retractor provided with an 
extension for engaging the cushion and 
having on one side a lug for engaging the 
not in the latch nod on the opposite aide 
a notch, and a spindle having a projee 
tion engaging tbe notch to project the 
retractor a ltd compress the cnahion and 
thereby permit tbe manual retraction of 
the latch. 

534,7«7. Combined Latch and Cheek. 
It 11 f ir* Wriirht, Chicago, III. Orlg 
Inai application filed Jan. si, IMU, 
Serial So. 496,099. Divided and 
thi« application tiled Jan. H, 1H94. 
Serlul So. 49b, 1 00. (No Model.) 



535,050. Knob. Sherman P. Cooley, 
New Britain, Conn. Filed Sept. 26, 
1894. Serial No. 524,962. (No 

claim.— 1. The combination with a 
two-part shank, comprising an outer 
tubular shell, a core loosely mounted 
within said shell relatively thereto and 
extending beyond tbe tame, and loosely 
engaging locking-members formed upon 
said shell and core respectively and 
adapted to prevent lateral movement of 
tbe same relatively to each other and also 
adapted to prevent longitudinal move- 
ment of said shell and core In one direc- 
tion relatively to each other ; of • knob 

isooIts t«*4 

Claim —1. A combined latch and check 
comprising a latch, a spring resistance, 
a movableabutiuent normally interposed 
between the latch and the spring resist- 
ance whereby the automatic retraction of 
the latch shall force the abutment against 
the spring resistance and thereby cause 
the latter to oppose sueh retraction on ths 
part of the latch, said abutment being 
also adapted and arranged for disengage- 
ment from the latch, and means whereby 
the said abutment may be disengaged 
from the latch and the latter retracted 
Independently of the movable abutment 
and «it bunt opposition on tbe part of 
thespring resistance, substantially asset 

2. A combined latch and check com- 
prising a latch, *n elastic air-cushion . a 
movable abutment constituting a power 
tranamitting device normally interposed 
betaeen the two and arranged for alter- 
nate connection with and disconnection 
from the latch as a power trar emitting 
medium, and a key for temporarily dis- 
connecting said device from the latch, 
substantially as set forth. 

3. A combined latch and check com- 
prising a latch, an elastic air cushion, a 
movable abutment constituting a power 
transmitting device normally interposed 
between the two and arranged for alter- 
nate connection with end disconnection 
from the latch, and a key adapted and 



a> M. Uomum— <:. niitrh1ii»on, 1022 Government at 


Mt. Hot HraiBUd - Walter Moore, 3IB Market Xt 
K. Walker. 176 S. Mtale it. 



Lox A»i|i.* H <lr»y, Box 221. 
PA«ADSJIA-tieo. W. Heed, lk>» 206. 
■nwm- Chx*. Hamilton, tth and Kuct- 

I y pi us >tb. 
Bah Fs^xt isoo— Secretary of lM»t. Council. 

J. R Nelxwetider, lltTurk at, 
N L. Wendell, 23 Ntnlli St. NU. B 
(Gar.) Wm. Jilge, 22.11 % Miaul on it net. 
Ouy Lethrop, IIS Turk at, 

Jmi-E. K. Crevro, 504 H. 3d At. 

Bom 678. 

It A PA XL — K . Hoott, Bos 073 
r* Bimu-K. A. Smith, 



93. Ha 1.1 PAX, If. 8.— A. North up, 169 ... 

11. HaxilTob— W. J rrtd. 34 Nelson at. 

1M. LoXDOX-E. J Ami, 706 I) m st. 

LM. MowTXXAL-lPrOS. l.evelHe, 1*0 
3d Fixt 

■76. " B. T. Holland, U Kent iL 

St. Br, CiTHABlltBS -Henry Bald. Ix>utn» «L 
17, ToAOlfTO— D. D. McNeill. 2a* Hamburg ave. 

■17. Vaxooctxx. B. O.-L. O. Ifcildxe. Box 200. 

Ml. WiMir», Mil.-H Bell, 7« Bihulti it. 



■13. (k)U)iiuoMM».-<: (iel»i>ler. 83 Franklin at 

H Dbiii II M Wood", 2231 uogen ave. 
410. PURIA-J, B. Banner, 826 W. tub it. 

0* l**tjF'Ox>, ft3J Pf. Uotmni 1 


| lit, Ba!I>0XTOXT-Oh»rlea Walk III*. 30 Alloa it 
it. HAATFOnn— Wm A. Nellaon nWoofleret. 
tt. MniDR-OM. J. Stanley, 2AH But Main al 
, IT. Nxw Brit aim— John Hlltpukt, PO.RoiWi. 
7M. Raw Hirn-a. K Oh I pro ao, 401 Washing- 
ton at. 

UT. ItoiwiCM -A D. Lewi*, 9* Asylum »t. 
7*4 NrawiLl-Wn. A Ketlogp, Box 391. 
414. RocXTIl.LX-Oeo Dlederln 


-w p. 

nwi-L F. Burner. 1001 B xt. N. W 


jAOXXOXTILLn— (Ool.) M , K Dunlxp, cor. 

Hank and Union ata. 
J*e*eoxTiLx.- O T Hood, 626 W. Church it. 
7* rnuwU-Uiw Marble. Boa 71. 
127. " (Col. I A H Pettlway 311 K OhAaest, 

Tmri li Kdr.nn.-ld, Hoi 44. Ft. Brook. 
Wawr Palm Bmi-lf, V. Rushing. 


It*. Aoo^A^-^l^T^P^I^wU.^M Philip it. 













BilliiiUJ l Q«e*. 411 Krtetow ft. 
BXIUKTOX P"g — P Poullut.UM Joaeph at. 
Caxto* - Homer Whale n, 346 W.I'am Plaoa. 
(Jxk'auo- H«cr«lary of I "telrtci Oouuctl, 

W H Bowrw 49 I* Halle at. 
Adolph Htamin I J* W. )«ke»l. 
(French! P Hudon 54 Vernon Perk PI. 
J. II Stevena, 6*m IVAibnm at. 
Wm. Mead. Tilt N. 1 li ).« K > are 
1 IV. ham I John Bund . (t:to. W 30tli *l 
(Her ) Aua. Kelt -lie, 4u Jt Atlantluat. 
(Hoand ,1 K Kngborg. WO Heine at. 
((far >Tlieo. 1 >e*ch , M27 Union ave. 
Wm. Ban ne It*. 1744 N. Clark at 
(Oer.) Jaa. Bell. 1810 Van Horn it 
(tier.) John Buck ran, 3244 Oakley ait. near 

fHoll I K F Ven.taen iwrf . 117 1 l**h el. ata. T. 
(Stairs) float. Hananu, 3n8 Aunt In ave. 
(Polish) 1. Me-lek, 123 W HlacHiawk it. 
(Boham HJ. Nvolxxla, 4*14 Cook at, 
W. H Phillip*. 1341 W Polk at 
(tier.) (Mill Bench Bands) F. H. 

lilt Hlnma. > si. 
B. Prledrlcti. to Heine 
F. Lmni. TBI Jan* at. 
fF~ir"»iilll ft ii n Bchoattie. 
XabT Br, Louts- B Wend I in*. 15 1 3 llltnel* «v 
f^W«U»eT-{tier.^H._rtlellna, P 




Nugent, t 

EtaXXTos-J. F. MoFarran. 1*28 Kmeraun it. 
Fm»awoo»-0, Buhman, JefTernon, cor. 103d 
QalowOwi — P. F. Hwanaon. 73 1 R. North at, 
QkD Oaotum — OF. Atmar*, T730 J>ot>ao 1 1 ave 
Babtwt-D. O. Mora* 

HTM FlU-8. ». Raker. 7018 Okleaby 34M, 
" P. < tartar. 7*2 K Chamber* 
K I*pollo*, 31* 118th at.. 
Chi oaf o. 

LAKB Fniwl- R. W Dean. Box tt 
LaBaias—F. H Rlllott lilt Oreye Oour *t. 
LDOOLl-B F. Poe. 807 With at. 
Monnorrnr— Fra"k Wataon 
MccutLAjro— J. T, Hume, Itflt Kin ate at. 
OAK Plit-E BoeUcher, 138 Marengo at, 

ItS. PABU— Dartd Oeor e e. f H% 

1M. UniCT-Win. Benner. NO N. Front »t 
lot). Horja; UtAWD-Joe. Neu/eld, 437 7th at. 
199. Booth Chicago— J. O. tirantham, 

Bdwarda are. St*. 8., CTht. 
rtt, 8, Kmouwood— I. To 



STB, AuTu niit — 8. W. Rich man. 

SU. ABOKAnOM- A M. Cooper, 89 B. Butler al. 







Joa. F. Wurth, 902 B. Columbia at 
(tier \ P. F. Nau. 1801 Fulton are. 
(PI. Mill. Maeh. and B. H.) O. V. 

1424 R Mlinouriat. 
Port Wath»-A, H. Haa* JOl Taylor at 
runron- Frank 8 troth man, lit A South 


Hapohtiioj — I H. Whit*. 
InniARATOU*— (tier ) F BUhl hut, 239 N 
Pine at. 

" H. E. Travlii. -J!ji Brookalde are. 
J. M. PrulU, 2i» Proa pert at. 
I J, FA 1 HI I ■ H. O. Oote, 887 Mouth iv. 

(tier ) Jacob Ehorle. 133 Union at, 
LooAmroBT— J. L. Hch rock. 720 Eleventh at. 
Ma bio* — J M. HlmonH. 809 Hherroan it. 
Mu»c»-J. U UUrk. 718 Klrby *t. 
Naw A LB Air v — A, T. Smith, ISO W. 8th tt. 
HlCBHOXI> JcfTerron Cox, 827 N. 19th street. 
Boctth Baxro— tieo. Leaher, Boi B6D. 
Tkbkb H atjtb — 8. Hut ten 813 8. 14th it 
ViNcwjnrata — A. O. Pennlncton, tit N. 8th at. 
P. Mac y Box BIS. 


884. BcrxxonrTOK— Wm. Ruff, 1115 ElliAbetb at 
864. DATBjrroBT— W. C. Meyera, 934 Harrlaon at, 
88. Dxp Moinaav- A. T. Bway n>, 763 Oak at . 

073. IH'hi - M K Hogmn. 199 7th at. 
3*8. OaxALooBA-J. H. Parker. H 1st at, 
787. Ornwwi — A. M ell fa. 313 N . Urn via at. . 8. 8. 


MoOa^llv tlhAftenecata, 



It R. ThouiAe 
ill W. 12th at. 

(tier ) Joe 
4*1. Datto*— Jamee floating 
442. HOPXtXXTILLB— W. O. Ball. 
7. LouiXTlLLB— H. W. Downard, 1712 Port- 
land bvb. 

103. H. 8. Huffman. 613 Twenty-fourth at 

114. " (tier.) J . Schneider. IBM Brent at. 
73t. (Otut Butler Lvebott, 1718 Hancock at 

898. Naw roar- M M.-Caon, Oea. Delivery. 
Kl. Paddcax-W. B. Wllhama. 707 S. 10th at. 
701. Wl-CMBWrBA- J« M. Powell. 


Nxw Oi 

oil. F. 
Tt. D C. Kc 

2IB. F n. Knaa. Si 0V IVmataiine at 
704. T. Duhrkop, *43t Annunciation m 
7*9. John Balaer. 613 VI Here at. 

■Ajar-Secretory of Dtatrtot 
. O Wetter. Strf Joaephlneal 
ler. 2818 CuiutlAnm at 


407. La TW U bTO»— A. M.Flaa-x, 94 Sprint at. Anbnrti 
344. Pobtlapd— N C. McDonald It I York at. 
389. BOCKLAV0-A W. Smith, 6 Willow at, 




ila Dtatrlet CoruiHl^BccreUry W. C, 
Dc«»Tla *n Central Park av„ H, de Park 
— , J. Hhleid.. 10 Cheahlreal., 
Jamaica PiAtn. 

.) L Rlchter, 6 Shaaff 
da) W. 8. Jardltia.4 
■fde ave , Somervtlle. 
<■— D. Malonay. 14 Huron ave. 
A. B Mcleod, It Mt Auburn a*. 
Raxt Bobtox— J R Potts 224 I^ondon at 
Fall Rivhb Jaa Walton, 4 Branch at. 
TvicmMuma— V. Weatherbee. 96 Urean tt. 
ULOofwrmx— H.W.I>»vfB, Box 448. 
Hathuius-P. V Oaaa. 100 l/ocke at. 
H SOBAM -Oolln Oampboll. Box 111. 
Hoiiavm— (*•<). R. Bryant. Box IX, 
Htn Paba-B. Daly. 41 Oarfleld at, 
1^1 WBKX<<X— JamfA Mcl Aran, I DO 
I.bhox Jno P. Klrby, Box 14S. 
1»wkll— Frmnk Happier, Ml Lincoln at. 
I. Tax M. I, Delano. 1 OP Lewla at. 
MABBIAXBAD— P Harumotid Boi 104. 
M * aiao to— J. O. Doiiohue, 11 School lL 
N*th-X — M. P. Ann!*, 18 Oakland at. 
Nxw Hxoroxo— <V Q Frmneta, U Rpruoa at. 
MarwToa—C. Conn ere, Box Tl. 
NxwTox Cxjrrxx-Fred BtiUner, Box Tit. 
NOBTB Adakb— Joa Dary U% Proa pert at 
Noarru RaXTOX-C. W. M axon. Boi 448. 
Uoxxobt— H. M. Taylor, Fen ton at., Dor* 

Baiaw—F. A. K-rttts 1 Bmltb ava. 
Woxbbvillbv- Ira Douxhty, « Carlton at. 
Bo. FxAMlMOHAM- IrwIneMank. 
Brxix«inxaj>— { French) I. Haaxewe Box 744. 

" Geo Elmer, 414 Central at. 
I acbtox- D, O K<ux. 10 ti«n Cobb, 
Waltsabt— John Verio. 
Wstr Nxwtox-U. T By aa, Box BM, 
Wxtmoctx- B. J. Pratt, Wa 











MB. (Mil)) L. Mater, 181 Barnard at., W. 8. 
884. J. B. Charl.boU, ifflN. Fayette it. , W, 8. 
404. (tier.) Wm. Teckeullen, 331 8. Huh at,, B. 8 


Ml. DtTLOTH- J. L,. HeaaUy, 415 tth 
87. Br. PAUXf-Aos. J. MataceT, 4M 



619 Button Statiox— O. K. Nloholxon, 0974 

Arthur Ave,, 8t. Loutx. 
1M. Kaxxax CTTT— W. A.Loehman, 709 Moody av 
377. Srxn»«Fwu>-J W. Patilok, 20*7 N, Boone- 

v I lib at. 

St. Loom Se c retary of Dtatrtot Council, 
V. 8. Lamb, 6318 Odell ave. 

4. Geo. J. Swank. 212* Alice av*. 

t. (tier.l Rudolph Gloor, *09 Pidney at. 

13. (Oer.) Rdw. klemilinx. »1B N. Market at. 
tU. Jama* Shlie. 426* Hlalne kva. 
240. (Ger.) D. Fluexel. 1117 Benton at. 
MT. 8. O. Ferxnaon. BIT W. JefTeraon ava. 
till. A. N. Wolff, tm Theodoxla av. 
433. (tier.) O. Jablonaky, 26J(l Clara ava, 
618. (tier.) Henrv Thlele, t^ouchborouf h mad 

Or* vol* ave 
673. (Stair Bldrx.) B. Poc'uli. 1111 Listen XT. 
SO*. (Mlllwrlihtx)-J B Miller, 29M Rada BT. 
699. O. H. tiulpe, 1629 Olive at. 
T84. (Bar. Mill) P. A Iaux. 3307 


M. AXAOOXDA— C. W. Stair. Box 504. 
138. Baxi ■ — A. I. Wood burp. 




of Dlxtrle* rtrmvett 
Ohaa. Bpeyer. 9«1 Wa-h.at. 
E. A. Ko.iu 1M* Chieho^m at. 
Jaa J. Kane. 837 B. Jtlh at 
J. 0. Louuabury, tiunaon Bldf., Ml W. 37 Ih 
(Jewiah) John Gold/arb, 213 Madtaon it 
Makera) Lonla 



(tier. Cab 
76' hat 
A. Watt. Jr., 108 W. 1 tilth at, 
(Ger) C. Kacchele, 2u« ad ava. 
if . Seymour. 1390 3d ave. 
(Scan.) J. Lowander, 28 E 1141b at, 
(Ger.l H Malberger, fa R. 168th at. 
J G. Doyle, 132 A 28. h at, 
n. Trotter, 918 9lb ave. 
Chamberlain, 887 E 138th at, 
tr.| H. Baumanu, SSlaiav. 
Patrfek Bavanaxh. 344 W. *9th at. 
(tier.) Richard Kuehnel, Bl At*. A. 
(Fr. Canadian! L. Bellmara, 2M E, 76th (t, 
3. P. Bpal na, 2*63 8th ava. 
(Oer. MUlwrichle and MUlen) 

17th at So Rwiklrn 
Niauaba Falla- E E. Cornell, 

MTACK-Bobt F. Wool. Bo* 498. 
Ob aorta — A J. Ryan. E E. 


Belt— Wm. E. Riley. 
Bottx OtTT— H, F. Lapler, Box 8M 
Obaat Pallx— a. j. Em merton. 
Hxr.xwA-Ohaa Cain 610 6th ave. 

MT Fay XT. 

Omaha — Thoa. McKay, 3418 Franklin rt. 
" (tfer.) K Kuppcrt, 3018 Martha it. 
" (Dxn ) J. Tolatrup, 1S7S 8. 16th at 


Laraen, P O. Box 



780. AaxuBT Pa xx -Henry P. Oant, Box 8f 
ttt, Batoxxa— Stephen Huaay, 748 Avenue E, 
111. BxiDaxroB— J. B. Beevea. 115 Fxi ' 










L. Q. Pott, 
i— H. 
So. BIlxAbeth. 
Elixabbth— (Ger.) John Kuhn. B37 Martin tt 
KHMUWOOD-H, I,. W eater veil, Bo i 336. 
Hoboxbb — F. Stelxleltar. 199 Gxraeo a*. 
Hacxxhijcx -T. Heath, »0 Stale St. 
JnawrOrrr— G. WllllAmaon.UO^ 3d at. 
(J. C RxioHiai John tixndorf, North at. and 

Loxw Bxaxox- Chax. B Brown, Box 141, 

Look Branch CHty. 
MiLXCXJf J. H. While, 

MoNTCLAix - Thoa. Kchoe, 9 Fulton at , P.O. 
Box It. 

Mokxixtowx~C. V. Deal*. Look Box 1M. 
NXWAXA— H G TjODg. 1-0 Norfolk at 

A. L. Beetle. 811 H Oran.e at. 

(Ger.) G. Arendt. 698 S. HLh at. 
Oomiino— MMtV T. Alxx. Box 70. 

Patxxxom- (Hoi I ) Al. Meenen, M N Main 

" P. B, Van Houten. 713 B. t>tn 

Paaxaio— Frank Wen link. Bos 133. 
pMiLwrxxcx*— Wm. Hodx*. or. MulberTy 

and HprtniOerden ata., Ex at on. Pa. 
Plaifxixld— Wm. H Lun«er. 94 Weatervelt 
BoansTiLA»~vt . W. Pltteiner, 
8. OXAKOX Ed. Walsh. Maple wood. 
BrjUMrr— Ed ward Mart n, Mox BIB. 
Tow» op Uxtox -Joa WohKarth, 
ken P O . 




Dxrmorr — T. S. Jordan, 417 Heautklt ava. 

" H. tilbblnxx, S77 Heaubten xt 
Oxabd RAPID*— Aug. N el >on, 14 Mai lou *t 
.tAtixaOX — H. Beban. 208 Deyo at 
Kalamazoo - H. timrndyk. 1008 N. Park at 
l.ODiaoTOX- A R. Dtbhlo, P O Boi 596, 
MaxIXTXA— Wm Klodxet. BtM Maple at 
Muaxxoox F. E. Rtdout.oare 102 Bua'on av 
MAftrXAW-Heo. of D. O , O. B, Orxhjan, IH 








D P. Klrwtn, 48 _ 
Jam as Flan, MTOrxnxe at. 
(tier.) Alex. Btckert, 41t Elk at, 
AXATBBX.au— Herbert Clark, Per kin* it. 
AtTBlTKX-W. W. GUIaaple, 119 B, 
BiMHAMTttX— 0. H. Ton 
BaVOOM LTX — Secretary of 

T, B. Llnebur xh, 
M. A. Maher tl Irvlnx PI 
W w Aracory, 1118 Atlantic xv. 
B. . . Elltaon, 110 J Putnam av 
Obex. Monroe. 81 St. Mark • ava. 
M, Bpenoa. M Van Buren at, 
(Got.) Thlemaen. St Dltimara at. 
8 E. Elliott H Rock away ava. 
W a. Carroll. 7H Mar i an at. 
Fred. Brandt, 466 tth ATX, 
(Mlllwrlxhkt) W. E. Kelk, II 
Jaa. Ble*k. M9 6M xt 
BPXTALO Wanrat xr y of DtxtHot 

W. H. Wregitill M Trinity at. 
W.H Wraxtxlu. M Trinity al 
(Qwr.)B. Luenee, 117 Ro»e at. 
B. O. Tokom, 19 Fergoaon ava. 







3. W 

M. Fletcher, 81 Hartlettxt. 
[Ger.l Frank Schwlnd. 4 Mav Plaoa. 
ALLS— C. E. Do'y, 79 I happts tt. 
9GHKXXCTA.DT — Henry Bain, 326Cntix at, 
BtATBW IblaXD— SecretAry of Dial, OoudMI, 

T RhAT. 1» 6th ave. New Brtxhton. 
Poxt Richmond— J, Keenxn, 338 Jen 

New BrlRkton. 
StAPLxrox— P. J. Klee, Box 197. 
mtxauuux— i tier.l R. K re tech. 721 Buttarnntt. 
TA»»TlgXTM— D. Page^North Tnrry town, 

DTtCA— O W. Grlffltba. 140 Dudley ava, 
Watxxtowx— P. J. Doooey, 3 Onion I~ 

Araanel at. 
Wavxxlt— I M. Terry, Box 178. 
Wxwr Chxxtxx CorXTT— Hecreta 

trict Council, June* (lagan, 

St., New Bothelle, N. V. 
Wbwt TXOT — Charlea Angua, 131 3d at. 
Willi aha Bxidob— John F^gley. J 


Axxox— J. GIaab, 111 E Thar a ton xt 
BmllaibA— Geo. W. Curtis, Box M. 
BxiIMiKrOXT — John A. FawoeU. 
Bucvxrx — J. A. Fink. 
OaFtox— Keller Huff, 91 Charles xt. 
ChillIOOTHX— R F. Thompeon, 167 W.l 
OlXCIXBATi— SecretAry of District Onunext. 
D P. Rowland. 103 Symmex it , Walnut 


A. Kenyon.lltSymmea at. W. H. 
(Oer.) Auguet Weiss, 369 Preeuutn ave. 
(Ship Carp.) J. A Hamilton, 130 K. Front, 
(MIU.) H. Bilnkworth, M Woodward xL 
(Btalrs) H Hogg 42T Mil ton it. 

ergtta at., StAtlon A. 



(Btalrs) M Hon 
_ A. Bergar. 337 rt _ 
M4. A. J. Balnea Mi Delta xve. Station 
tt?. M. A. Harlow, 284 Eastern ave 
676. L. A. G roll, 318 Jefferson av*., SU. ] 
681. F. A. Wagner. 739 Freeman xve. 
MS. Wm. Ethel, 134* W. 6th at, 
MS, J. F. Luckcy, 7 Bloom *t. 

ULarvnLAJiiJ Bs x tamry ot District 
Vincent Hlavln, IM Hu parlor xt, 
li. A M. Blair. M Say lax at. 
M. (Boham. I V. Hlavln. 134 Carran at. 
(Oor.)Theo Wethrfch It " 
Ger.) W. H. S bulla. M Conrad St. 
H. J, Riga*, M Sanaa xt. 
OoLLaax Hill— M Simons. 
Ooumxrjx S ecretary of 

J. W. Meli, 218 E Spring at, 
tl. A- a Welch, 143 W Broad a*. 
CM. John GsAaii. Mt Leonard ave. 
104. Dattos -W. 0. Bmllk, »-8 E. Huffman Ave. 
tat. " (Oer.) Joa. Wirth. 311 Clover xt. 
171. DxlMi— James S lattery. Home 01 tr 
MB. K. LivxxrooL— R H eMev.nann PleA"W.ntsl. 
tM. FlTDLAT— W- 
MT, Baxiltox— W O Muaeh, 1141 
tM. IxoxtoX.— A D. Neumeyer. tM R. B. xi i 
MT. Lima J Vanswurlngeo. 7118 Main av 
M. LocxLASD— Chaa K. Hertal. Box 182 
4M. Maouxixvillx— E L. Belden. Box Wl. 
MS. MAXXXTTA-J. W. Fores' er. «* 41b «L 
T19. 11 A Bios -J B. Smith. SON Stalest. 
14. ItAJrrTJl • FtSXT — Thoa. V.Sallabury, Box tti 
736. MlDDLXTOWX— Wm. Bill, 14 Vandevire tt. 
TM. "t Waaxixtox-W. H Nicholson. 

A. H. Miller. 

Norwood Cincinnati. Ohio. 
PomAOT— J.M Fowler, MxxonCtty, W. Vn. 
««uth— J P. Wanlaes. Box SM. 


Brown, 918 I 
B. Rnlaley.9161 
rjTXVXXXVTLLB— D H. Vtrden, 3.0 8 . 8th si 
TtXTTX— A. Wefgle, 161 Sycamore St. 

-J. W Mllchel' 49 Va> ce it 
(Oat.) A. •'opper, 814 M^orert. 
1-0. N. Crosier, IM Baldwin at. 
Fred. Kx-ppaa, ' 

J O Welgal. M Waver I y at 
. Van Ar 

nth i 

Ponrr — O. A. Plckal. 6th ava. 

OoaxwALL-ow-HtTBeox— K. Decker, Box I 
OoaTLAxn— E W. OrandAll. t Maple ave. 

- Hi- 



rutraxr-p ' r 

tiLAX Covm LI, John Martin. 
GLaVJX riffg Irx Van Duxen , 
l A T lXOTo X— AJax H. Smith. Box laT. 
ITXLAOA— E. A. Whiting, IS LAke Ave. 
■"1 11X101 T nx|illT1l)|i|l Box 100. 
LrmA ring T B. MangM. MB Garden xi 
MT. Vxnxox— J. Baardsley 1S1 N. Tth xve. 
Nawxcxexi-D. O. Bealy. M J oh 

PEN Nfl^f L' VANlA 

aO.L Mohney, 70 Wllxon ava. 

■TT. (Ger.) Robert Oram See* H Dsn at. 

aT7. AlTOOXA- H . L. Smith, JOM 4th xvi 

A- Ji-hu . 

BxAwroxn— O. Cumxafnga- 1 Cheatnnt as. 
OAnxOXDALA— Thro. E < rsl n . 64 Teriace at 
I 8. Rig by, MO B Fifth xt. 
: P. Bora. 914 Butler xt, 
B, Na 

Oxusa s lo wx — J . K. Martin. 
GaAXixxrxA-J. H. Row*. Ml Concord at, 
Haaxjsxtjxo— <J W. Dtahl. 1 tM Men at. 
HoaiXxrXAI»— T H. WHaon, Box 627. 
jMABXxvr*— J G Baker Penn Station. 
, Laaicaxthb— C Hansel), 301 Naw HoHaav* av 
nxrr-S G Gilbert, 1010 Rrtek alley. 
~ , H. MoOonkay, Cxm*gia,Px. 

Box IM. 
Nxw tl f XT AXXOX C w. 
NxwCAxn*— W. W. T" 



' DIM Hoi OouneU 
W. F. Wlllock. Box 115, Mt. OIItw. 
14X H. O. 8cho maker, 1» Webstar at., jUleg. 
1M, (Gor.t Adolph H*U 131 4Mb at, 8. S. 
lM, (R. End) P A. Klneajf, S301 Shakespeare tt. 
M. F. B, Roblnaon, Juliet St., lltb Ward. 
SOL (Oar.) Lad wig PaukfT, U10 Breed t at., B. 8. 
14a. PimTTt«T¥T-Wm Krana.hox 1ST. 

, 1111 OrMDwleta It. 
-A. Tt Ontai-miitb Urn INC 
Sounon— Secretary Dts.riot Council, 
Robert Gould, 813 Marlon St 
MS. G«o. Bteenback. 905 Oxford at 
iM. 8, ScRAirroN-fGer.) O Ro*«ch, 725 Paltu il. 
87. Shahokih-H A. 1« HmU)K.610 K. Oaunero. 
MB. flWAHOH- J. P Smith, 36 A at. 
175. Tjiimn-T. C. Miller, Box WH 
717 Tatixib O*or»e W| c ks, Box 46. 
4W. Umoirrown— W. H. Roonlt. 18 Mors>nUiw^ 
let. WlL*«B-BiB»»-M Mallny, 89 N Wash St. 
KM. WitLUWWir-L F. Irwin, 514 ~ 
191* Tom; — EDd. Mick lay, IV N, I**%iid 


. B. Dawlev. 

\ 3. L«f illiani, Box 32. Valley 

P. DoUn, 31 Grand View at 


H. Omasxbstow— (Ool.) K. A. 

Mount it. 
Of, Ooi.rjsnu_(OoL) O. A. 


m. KaoxTTix*— N. Underwood, 14 Anderson at 
IM. Mastiit-K. R Jefrresa. 
IN, mwiu-CliM. Welner, 3 SI Front at. 
755. 1Um*tt**-t. F. Lhinnabaoke, 14* N. Ool- 
l«4re at, 


SOD, Auana— H. Rossaler, Itll BreekenHd K e st 
TU. OOMHOAFA-W. J. Foster, 1110 W. 11th are, 
198. Dallas— O L, Wiley, Box 299. 
•71. Daroojt— C. H. Miller, uox 394. 
133. Ft. Wom-J, B. Boldock. 
177, " A Krauae, Oor New York and 

Willie at* 

MS. Galtbwtom— O E Ballard. Box 895. 

II L (Ger.) Richard Satdel, N. W. Oor. 

MS »nd 17th ala. 
114. HoustOB — A . Denntaon, 71-3 Walker »». 
187. SAW AJTTOWIO-H. L. Mitchell, Box 650. 
450. " (Ger.) T, Jauerols;, 1111 . E. 
717. " A. G. WieUel, 135 Oentxe at 
Sit. TnuLt— L, E. Walker P.O. Box 54. 
833 Waoo-B d Loncttuth, U Walnut st 


ML HALT LakiOttt-A Tracey, 4M E 7th 8. at. 


. 22 North M. 

'. A, Thibatilt, 


-Wm. H. Gaol, 6M 
(OoL) J. B. 


, O. Herm«r,510S. 1Kb at. 


L. Jones. Box 5M 

. D B. Martin. Box TOi. 
4M. Faibmovt— G. E. White, Palatine. 
719 H u hti iraTOa* — T . R. Gllkfao", 1829 4th ave, 
g, WlULnro-A, L. Bauer, 1419 Jacob .C 



MS. Gun Bat— W, Warner, 518 N Madlaooat 
M5. LA OMO-John Lelde. 1808 AJaina at. 
180. Madlbos— Wm Moll. 208 Murray at. 
Milw AUBM-Becretarr of DUtrtot 
John Bettendnr', 7M7lh a v. 
80. (Gar.) Wm. Bubllta, 7*0 1Mb at 
MS. (Got.) Joan Bettendorf, 7« 7th Mtv 
Ml. (Ger.) J Werner, 1135111b 

St.lfw'l Budj.tarttt.lAltL 

tUtJrl Said Mrk M 
oHfn Stttirno*. ant aa> 
, bmn JinidartHttn Mr. 
tttnstt. fcxl$t tn ktiaV 
fd)«n Union ■ Sntcttrtta 

(for Our (Jfrman Members.) 
aWonolfl Son»(4aa. 

Son 3ofepbu*. 

United States Patents. 

Continued from page It.) 

abutment from the latch and for retract- 
ing the latter, when the abutment is freed 
therefrom, said latch being provided 
with ■tope between which tbe ward «, ot 
the key U arranged, one ot said atop* 
being positioned to be engaged by the 
■aid ward when the key le operated to 
raise the abutment from engagement 
with the latch, and the other etop being 
arranged to be engaged by eaid ward 
when tbe key it operated to allow the 
abutment to drop !nto position for en- 
gaging the latch, substantial )y aa and for 
the pnrpoea aet forth, 

4. Tbe combination of a slotted latch, 
an elastic air-cushion, and an inter- 
vening movable device engagicg in the 
•lot of the latch, eaid slot being adapted 
at Its rear portion to provide a atop with 
which the said device can temporarily 
engage, substantially aa set forth- 

6. The combination of the latch a 
comparatively light spring resistance con 
cMLutiy opposed to its retraction, a 
stronger spring resistance normally op- 
posing its retraction, and means tor tern 
porarlly relieving tbe latch from the 
strongd spring resistance, substantially 
aa and for the purpose aet forth. 

jfjrtnb bie burgerltdje ©efellfdjaft 
in alien SAnbern Banletott madjt, 
tii ft en fid) bie otgauifitten It* 
beiter mm ffintfdjeibungftfampf, 
bet itjnen bie Befteiung com 3odj bet £obn< 
ftiaoetei bringen »irb. llnfete fteinbe fteben 
am Gnbe threr t'auf bahn, einet £aufba(n bet 
@emalitb&tieleit unb ber Serbrcrben. 9iUr 
ba„ea*n fteb<n am Uieainn unfetet Saufba^n, 
mil cintr gl&njenben $er|pe!tiiie auf (91ud, 
t^rcibeit unb aagemeinc ^etbruberuna ! 

Die Sdyamlofigteit ber buTgerltrben man' 
feroiteure tfl n>ur>l niraenb jtoper, a(s bier, 
in unferem gelobten £anbe, too an ber 3pi|e 
ber Oenaltbabtr ein SRann ftet>t, beffen 
etgene SRit^erifdjet t^m etflftrt baben, ba| 
aQe feint gtnanjDOrfcblfiac gut $erfa)tebung 
befi arofcen ftrarbs ni$ts tauaen unb ber 
tro| aHebem nidjt Sbrgcfflbl aettug befi|l, 
etrtjufl(Peb.en, bap er fetnen 6eruf oerfe&lt 
bat 1 SBo anbers more es roobl moaltd), bap 
ein 3Jlenfu> rote ©rooet Gleoelanb, nad> alien 
Cbi feiaen, bie er oon ber eigenen liartei er« 
batten t>at, ftd) bennorb im Kmte be baupttn 
fdnnte? 34 fllaube, ber oerrucfte Jlatfer 
oon^)eutfu>ianb roflrbe abbanlen, roennfeiue 
Satbfieber , feine lonferoatioen unb national! 
(iberalen $artament«meo)te iftm erflarten^ 
er fdnne nidjt reaieren unb "Afltl, mat er 
uorfa>iagt, fei purer SI 5b ft tin- ?tber, ac> 
tabe bie Zbatfad)e, bn D bit amerifantf$tn 
^olitiler unferer Zage, menu fie einmai im 
Xmte ftnb, ttob bei Ditptrau*n« unb Un> 
roi Liens beS 5Jo»te ibre Seute nidjt 
laff en, ift ein b n d)erfreu(io>el 3eib>en fiir 
uiti, barauf bmbeutenb, ba| bie Srlbfuna 
nabe tfl ; benn bie (Kefo>io>te lepr! unl, bap, 
ie ncibet tin @en>a(t v aber feint m 6rur|e ift, 
bepo blinber unb bartnddifler ball et an fei< 
mm HJa&nftnn feft. 

* • * 

Kber, es fmb nid)t nut Seute, Die Sleoe* 
[anb, metdje ncrbtenbet fmb unb bie geiajen 
bet 3eit nidjt oerfteben ; (onbem aud) bie 
fieineren 9jerbxedjer in bet Jtapitaltftenflaffe 
rennen biteft auf tbr Serberben tod. JQie 
mftre el ion ft mbglidj, bap bie @ouD;meure 
einex Xnjabl ©iaaten lufammentommen, um 
bie militdritcbe Srjif bung oon @d)u(tinbern 
}U teffltworten J Unfere etgenen' Rinber 
molten bie fapitaliftifdjen Diebe auf unfete 
Jtoflen ju profefftoneUen Otorbetn 6eran» 
bitben, bam it fie, toentt ber grope fociale 
fttieg erft einmai in bal Stabium be* So>ie< 
pen* unb 3>teinfdj(agen« ttitt, ibce Sater 
unb eigenett Qruber, bie m Krbeittti Lrga« 
nifationen getdtcn, auf SSefctjl bet tioffe mit 
blauen Bobnen nieberlnaOftt IBmien. 91a- 
tatlicb roirb et babin nidjt lontmen ; benn 
bet blutbatfiige Soifdjtag bet 9Rt8ionllr|i 
banbe toirb nut baju bitnen, bie Saffen be* 
SoKel auf bie ibneu brobenbe @efabt auf* 
mertfam p maa)en unb fie in beBtn ^aufen 
bet atbeitttbroegung in bie Simt |u trei« 
ben. 3db begtH|e ben SBorfdjlag |ut militft' 
tiftijen ZitilEung bet 6a>uIItnber be*balb mit 
Steuben unb etboffe son ibjrt ein tafa)tte* 
tOadjfen unferer Otganifalionen, all butd) 
bat »iben unb Cdjtciben unfetet Organifa< 
toten unb Stgitntoren auf bent ubltd)en, 
tangfamen unb befa)r v ettid)en Sege b«bei- 

unb be* 13. tn$id*6tr., mo auf 
unb Jltnbern gtfeuett unb ein armet trjadji 
bedet bei bet Mtbett ermorbel routbe, fallen 
im gangen ilanU mieber unb bringen bunbett- 
taufenb Melruten in unfer fiaget. Slatt 
un* eiit|ufdjitd)letn, madjt bit jtaptialifleii* 
flaffe mit ib^rem Stutotrgieften tutfdjloffene 
91tbellen unb tiidrid)t*Iofe gtertbeibtger net 
Stei^eit aus bteber lammfronrmea ^ftbciietn 
unb gebulbigen Sllnoen. Unb bad tfl el, 
ma* roir felbft 6i*b« nidjt fertig bringen 

II* mat audj oon ootttcffltgct Oittung 
baft oor cinigen Bodjen in fJeooUsn fdjatf 
gefa)offen motben ift. Da* Slut bet Opfct, 
meldje* unlet btn tugsfn bet mitittaBunfai 
gtftoffen ift, fdjteit laukt |um t>hntncl, «|| 
jeftnteu'enb SoUltebnetit 
7. ncaiineitt* in (alfeo Ctt 

Xud) bit @efe|geber unb Winter bet bf rr- 
fdjenben JtlafT* bemu^en fid) nart) Jtriiften, 
ba* SSerf ber Xufflatung }u fdrbttu. 3n 
alien Segtelatuten tauiben (Heftf elDotftblage 
auf, babin glelenb, ftrifenben itrbcitttn bie 
$anbe ju binben, fir megtn ftontrafibruo)* 
ju befltafen unb ibtt Ctganifationen ju vtf 
nicblen; rodbrenb Slirbttt in ¥olijei« unb 
Supreme dourt* bie beflebenben ^ifele in 
beratt ungetedjtet SDeife aullegen, baft aud> 
bet 3 no itfe rente fie einft&tn muft, baft nur 
nod) 'ffliHiondre unb flurpora tionen in ben 
©eiidjien 9ieo>t erlangen fiinren. (Sine 
beflere Xgitation fut bit ttbfo>affuug bet 
jtapitaliflenllaRe fann e* boo) roobl mum 
gt ben ! 

filer bd'tte oor ein paar 2Bo4en baran ge- 
badjt, baft Jtapitaliften>Qerbii!bungen mte 
bie Sroorinner ZroUfo-Sabn.Rompegnien 
bunberte oon 3Kenfo)en umbttngeu unb bie 
Beoolferung finer ^tifltonenfiabt monatc 
tang tettortfiten fbnnen, o&n.e bafur gettd)l< 
(trb betangt m aerben ? Jest aber ftebert 
mit oot bet ooBenbeten Z:batfa4c : eainmt< 
lidje @efefee, metdje mm Sdjufct be* ^ubli. 
Turn* im %Ugemeinen unb bet ZroOtqbabn> 
KngepeEten im Befonbeten etlaffen murbtn, 
fmb oon btn Seftletn jener tSabnen off em 
Funbig oettc|l motben unb, ftatt bit ft i*on-- 
biten fiir ibt mbtbetifdjel Zteiben ju beftta- 
fen, gaben iftnen fammili4e Wunicipat. unb 
6taatflbeamte, fomie bit 9iidjtet, an rotlrt)e 
S infer unb SBiirget fid) menbeten, „Keo)t" 
unb e* mirb iftnen gefagt ; „^orbet mit 
Cuten Scab- (Ear* nut rubig meitet ; faugt 
6uten Sibttttrn meitet ba* Slut au« unb 
be banbtlt ba* ^ubtifum h la canaille --- mit, 
IK agora, @ bet iff 9. (Slouoerneute, bet me 1 in- 
be!leibete Widjtet unb @efe|gebet ctbcilcn 
9n4 Sbfolution, benn 3br babl fa VtiOio* 
nen, oon benen Jbr un* einen Z^eil abgebt ; 
fiir baatcl Oelb ftnb mit atlefammt }u baben 
unb ba* bumme Sol!, mtldjef un* geroabli 
bat, mbgc mm Zeufel ge^tn !" SBiU mit 
nun irgenb ^etnanb fagen, baft tin |olo)e* 
Zbun unb Zteibtn ben 6tut| bet jebigen 
(Semaitbabet nidjt oiet fa)neHer betbeifubten 
muft, at* ba* (angfame, mabfame Drganifl' 
ten unb HaHiren einet getin»en Sin jab I 
felbftlofet unb bodjberpger Dl (inner, meldje 
fid) bit Sufrtftrung bet Krbeitermaffen bard) 
JBoti unb Sdjrift all fieben*|te[ gcftetit 
baben ? 


Die ffiirtungen ber fapitalifiifdjen Xgila> 
tionlmeife mad)en fid) flbrigenfi nidjt nut in 
i btftbteunigten tBadjfen bet ■tbeiter* 
bemegung, fonbetn audj baburdj fablbat, 
baft aUentbalbtn in ben Otganifalionen felbft 
|e|t Befdjl&ffe gegen bie Wilis, mr Set- 
ftaatlidjung aHer Setlebtlmittct unb mr Sr> 
obetung bet Staatlmadjt butdj bal atfiei* 
ten be Salt angrnomtnen metben. Sogat bat 
teaftton&te (Element ber SWittelflaffe bat be. 

men, mit ben organifitten Hrbeitern |U 
fampatbtfiten unb beffen ^otbetungen nad) 
bem &efit ber Berfettsmlitel unb Vtbcitl' 
roetfjeuge gut|ubeiften. Die Kleinbllrgct 
feben eben, baft el ibnen an ben Jttagtn gt t) t r 
unb baft el fat fl* leine anbete Rettung gibt', 
all bet ©efammtbefit bet groften "Wonopole, 
meldje bie Jtonfurtmi bet Ileinen Seute er* 
btoffeln. Bkr fottte unlet fotajen UmftSn* 
ben nidjt ftob unb gulen 3Rutbt* In bie gu* 
tunft blidenf 

* « * 
3nRem$Qtf baben bie Serltetet bet Bau* 
gtmetfe luritio) mit benen tbret Boffe ein 
©o)ieb*getid)t gebitbet, mttdjeft in flu, 

runft «Be Strife* vettinbetn foil, jj, 
Boffe meifen babet auf bfe Zb<ilfad>t n, 
baft fie mit ben SOIautetn fdjon feit :jabre« 
tin beratligel llebereinfommen gelroffea 
baben, meldje* fldj ttefftid) bemflbrt bat 
Sie baben nun ben fibrigen Sautanbmetreta 
oerfprodjen, in gleidjer Sfleife mit tljnen )u 
oetfabren unb gtgen ben Rreb<sfd)aben bet 
„£utnperfl" geineinfam ootjug«bfn. G* ^ 
ju roilnfdjen, baft bie Sadje feinen ©inttTae. 
ban!en bat, unb baft bie Carpenter*, fcanu 
ert, Vlaflftcrl, Blumbtr* it. in fatu$ 
otjue Strife* ffjre 1'obne unbXrbett*|eit auf, 
tedjt ertialten metben, Sbet bit* (ollte ft c 
nidjt oetbinbern, an bet aUgemeinen flrbei, 
lerberoegung tbetlmnebmeii, meldje ibntn 
nidjt nut ben jttigtn iiobn unb bie je^iat 
«rbett«ieit gatantiten, fonbern fie uberbaupt 
in ben Befit be* gefammten Brobultt* ,bm 
JtrbeiUhaft ft ten mirb. Dal gtsl ber Sau- 
banbmerfet muft e* ftin, all bie eimia/n 
Unlernebmet alter offtntlidjen unb $tmati 
arbeiten anetfanut §u rotrbtn. Ste miiffen 
in ber (Jitu $iafl ibrt DflteCfl ^a&en tbjte 
Setttetet miiffen aQe Jtontrafte abfdjliffita 
unb igneu aDeirt miiffen aBe Vrbeitert aben 
tragen metben. Det Jtontrattor muft oet. 
fdjminben unb in bet Union muft jebrt Sau> 
banbmet!et fein, oom Sebtjungeu unb lagi 
tobner bi* |um gefdjidteften Stdjttefttn im 
gan»en Sanbe. Stoot mit bit* nidjt errei* 
djen, ift audj ba* 3itl unfe er Bemeguni 
nidjt trteidjt. Dam abet g'b&it oot atltin 
anberen, baft aQe Obngen «tbtitet jufammen 
roirfen, um <Hefe|e m erlangen, netdx tinea 
fotdjen 3uftanb bet Dtnge befreiircn unb 
mit Untetftfltung btt i taatsmadjt aue> mt 

DetBefdjluft be* Wrrotrlfdjaft*' Q on. 
gttfft* Gngtanb* |u @unften einer wnab> 
bdngigen politifdjtn Btmtgung auf (octal' 
bcmoftatifd)ct Baft* bal bei nicttn Semtit' 
fdjafttetn Btftiidjlungtntinet^etfBlittetura 
btt bi* fctt einig gemefrncn btitifdjm (He. 
rotTffd)aftlbemegung madjgttufen, bie fitti 
aud) btmabtbeiteten, foroeit btc poltti<d)t 
Zb^tigfcil bet engtiidjen attbeittr in Jv. 
ttadjt tain. Die tabitale polittfd)e £tel« 
(ungnabme bal bie Jtluf I imifdjtn btn dm. 
ftroatioen unb ben Habilalt n nidjt clma rtr< 
engert, fonbetn etmettett. Die Sertrtttr 
ber brei ftatt io nen, bet tonferoatioen flk* 
roe rffd) after, bet ^nbepenbent Sabot Batip 
unb bet „SoctaI Democratic fte Sera Uo~\" 
btfdmpfrn fid) gegenfeitig mit |unebmenbtt 
Bittetfeit, tin .^rattfpalt, bet fid) nun and) 
auf ba* bfonomlfdje Stbitt bet <$tatiU 
fdjfflfttbemegung aus be but. 

Der Bctbanb bet Jteffetfdjmitbe (Boilti 
Slafetl' Union), nadj btn ^ngenieuten bit 
ftdtffte @eroerlfdjaftoiOraanifation (Htoft. 
britannienl, ttal nun aulbtm fflemerfldjaf 
fongtep au9, meit betfetbe in 9totmtdj tint 
potitifdje BaeteifteQung annabtn unb bit 
Zt)tor\tn ber Sojialbemorrattt antrtanntt. 
Die Urabflimmung im Brtbanb ctgab 14,000 
etimmen |u 0unften unb 0000 gegen brn 
Stu*t»itt. (Safer*' Journal.) 

Die Oeu)ettfdjaft**Sevcgunfl 
Deftetrtidj* geminnt tmmet mebt an Bobtn. 
Die @runbung einer 8erbanb*<0rganifation 
folgt bet anberen auf bem ftufte unb bie 9*> 
mertfdjafll>eommlffion bat augenfdjctnlidj 
bauetnbe ISutiet gefdjlagcn- Km 8., 9. unb 
10. September trat bet Setbanb ber ¥° r ' 
geQan* unb Qilalar better in* ge&en. 

Km 24. Dejem&er trat in fflien ber etftt 
Berbanbllag bet Bauatbettet unb ein Btr- 
banb mit 2782 Xitgtiebetn ttitt in* Seben 
unb am fetben Zage routbe ber fiebenl* unb 
®enuftmittei.«tbsiteteetbanb, cbenfaO* in 
ffiien, in* Seben gmifen. 

ffllit fteuen un* btefer ftettfdjritie auf bem 
prarttfdjften unb etfotgoetfpredjenbflen «e» 
bieie ber ItbettetbeiDrgung. Det mabrt 
Itlaffenfampf mobilifirt lanifant, abet fid/tr 
feinen ©eetbann, bet fldj auf bem Boben bet 
©eroerffdjafHberoeaung beranbtlbet g|m 
tfbtt bUSufunft. 


♦Welter, Ignet (hire Vflitfjt! 

mixtt ««« OreaniiotiflBrii. 

2)ie ttu*fid)t*lofiafeit unb Bmtatitat beo 
JlapitatiJmuw unb bie absolute 9Ua)l*rDer« 
t&Jflfeit nam SRenftbenleben unb <5r,iften»en 
it/m fleaenilber, ift wobj noa) nie in fo fta. 
planter SJeife bemonftutt inotben, al* in bet 
[eft en Serfiauaenbeit. 5 o fast ber $incin< 
nati „(£bjomc[e." 

$ie .fcomefteabrKffaire, bie SufftSnbe ber 
;Wmen»rttbeiter in fcenneffee unb anbeten 
Crttn, bet Ie(fte flro&e <Sifen6al)nftute unb 
bet fceenbete Stn(« bet Straftenbacjnanee > 
fteUlcn in Stoollpn ic — fie aUe boten einen 
leitfl bent MapttaltSmusi Seleaenijeit, fta) in 
fritter roabren SRatur \u jeiflen, unb anberer* 
feits nutbe ben SJiillionen von rUbeitern bie 
Situation in bet ft« fid, befinben, in fo utp 
groeibeutvatr SBeife rot Bugen atfa&tt, baft 
man pcrjroeifeln modjte an bet Sntelliaenj 
obet btm fluten SUillen bet *tletier, falls 
itjneti niajt jc|t enblia) ein Sic^t auffle&t, fall* 
fie nid)t enbliri) begreifen, baft ibt £oofl em 
tseit trauriaerrs ift, a(9 baa etued gemolmli. 
djen Sflasen. fflit btftnben una mitten in 
einem Jtampf auf Uebtn unb 2" Ob, urn ©ein 
obet flidjtfein, in einem Jtampfe, oon beffen 
Xutaang ba* Slob, I unb SBefje bet tommen. 
ben Oenetationen abbangt. 

2)a* ftapita! ift beute unumfdjranfter 
fcertfcbec abet Wiles. G 4 hat Jtunft unb 
ffliffenfcbaft unb bie Selbftfianbta.feit bet 
SPtetifdjen pcoftituitt unb iiberbaupt rtlle* in 
feinen I)ienft neftetft, roa« fleeianet ift, feme 
5>ertfrfjaft *u ermeitern unb ju bcfefligen 
3toenb ettoa* (2Ren[a>en nia)t au*ae< 
fchloffen), beffen ffiertb fid) ttiajl in Xollart 
unb Sent* outbidden Idfjt, b«t naa) bet &eu. 
ttaen Ctbnung bet Dinae ubfifjaupt leinen 
tBertb, ruitb b&a)ften3 al* Dtittel jum 3tue«\ 
refp. ale aclc„entlia)e6 »u*beutuna*objett 
brnufct. $a«JUpital befinbet fta) «uf einetn 
Siegesjufle ; KBc* rcao tf,m binbetnb in ben 
Etea. tritt, niitb „|etfu)metteit" unb bie ttau. 
Tigen 3uftdnbe, benen rait enta,eaengeb>n — 
faUft biefe |Sb,aie bet Sntmiffeluna. nia)t ge. 
roaltig abaefCtjt obet flberbiiidt roirb — 
laffen fid) tjo^ftens in (Slebanfen au*maten, 
abet nidjt befa)reiben. £er atbeitenben 
fllaffe fast natutgemab bie fltofce flulrui. 
aufaabc ju, &ieriu arunblia) SJanbel ju 
fa)affen, b. ft. Suftdnbe beibeiiufflb.ten f untet 
benen bie $n>*mlle bet Satut unb bet 3Rem 
|a>en nia)t meftt oom flapital monopolifitt 
unb oetfo>tunflen reetben, fonbetn bet ge- 
jammten BtenfajbeU ju (Sute lommen ; 3u^ 
ftanbe, untet benen nio>t ptobuiitt mitb, 
lebiglio) um bie lirofitroutb, be« JtapitalS gu 
iattiflen, fonbetn um jebem TOenfoJen em 
anjenebmeo 2)a|ein ju frmcgtiajen, unb 
untet benen bie gorttfttttte in bet Zedjnt! 
fia) niajt meftt al« ^lud), fonbetn aid tflnbl- 
ifiut f Uc bie 3Rtnfd)en emeifen. 

®lU<flia)ettDeife btitftt fio) biefe Stfenntnife 
befonbctfl untet ben orgamftriin Xtbcitetn 
tmtnet mebt 9aftn, unb teit baben bie ©off- 
nung nod) nid)l nuf ae«eben, baft e* unl net" 
gdnnt fein metbe, 8*«fl< <»net leffeten &e 
jeUfcbaf«otbnuna |u fein. ftltflrlid ift ei 
'HfUtbt iebe« ttbet|eiifluna««uen «tbeitetf, 
bie tt foroobj gegen fid) ftlbft unb feine Wit' 
meu|d)cn ( at* aud) aeaeu bit (ommenben 
®enetationen }u etftttten b.at, baft « fein 
Rbglid)ftee iut Stteid)ung biefet ibealen 
3uftdnbe beitrafle. Da rum, Stbeitet, bUtbt 
nia)t untbdttfl, ttetet ein in bie Meibe ber 
Kttmpfcnbcn fiit bie potitifd)e unb olono* 
mi|d)e emancipation bet Unterbi iltften unb 
left Sure flanje StftaHtaft ein fut bie 3lu«. 
btettuna, £«nttalifltuna unb ©nttoicfeluna 
ber mtbeitetotaanifatUnen, bain it biefe in 
ben Ctanb aefeft nerben, baft Sd)limmfte ju 
petftUten, bie ISrbe unb SUeft roaft batauf ift 
ben Alauen beft fterjtofen tapitalft gu ent< 
reiften unb ben Ulenfdjen 

3 ft beine Union ta einem Central- 
liitpet oettteten? SJenn nid)t, fo fotfje ba« 
fut, baft fie r>«) ""«n foia)en anfa)lwfte, 
benn in bet gegento8rtiflen 3eit ber Xtuft* 
unb Kombmationen ift eft mebt all \t n»rt« 
toenbig, baft bie Mtbeiterotaamjationen fid) 
en get aneinanbetfa)lieften, fta) fiber bie elm 
iuftblagenbt SCattTf oerftanbigen unb | 
mcinfam ftanbcfn. 



2>er tag ift nid)t meftt fetn, reenn eine ge^ 
ton I tine Unfit engung son Set ten beft ftapi< 
talS gemad)t roerben mitb, um bie Xtbeitet* 
Otgantfationen ju getfa)mettetn. Sobalb 
biefe gtofte Campagne beginnt, mitb baft 
u a pita I ein ftbt attogantet Dittatot n>et< 
ben, foil ten fid) bie (i)emetlid)aften nid)t mebr 
unb beffet organificen. So j. S9. iparen bie 
VSifenba^nar better 3Ritgiiebet can fie ben obet 
mebr National' Unionen unb 9rfiberfa)iften. 
^n alien 3tagtiffft> unb 8eitfteibigung*< 
Sampagnen baben fie bia jebt eingeln ge< 
tampft unb toutben ntie baft fprfid)(Dortlid)e 
^Unbel ^utften befto leid)tet gtbtod)en — 
fetft fmb fie beffet geeint ; bie Saugetnerfe 
baben iftre einje Inen Unionen, abet im ^alle 
eineft it amp f eft follten fie oeteinigt fein, um 
Srfolge gu ertingen. Xa* ift aud) roaftt bei 
ben Sd)ttftfe|ern, fjteftleuten, eteteotijpetn, 
Slafcbiniften, Jtotteltoren, Sud)6inbern ;c, 
unb ben Dtinenatbeitent, nnb beinatje ob>e 
Ruftnaftme in aOen Unionen in ben perfd)ie« 
benen anbufttiegroeigen beft Sanbeft. Xit 
n)td)tigfte £trungenfd)aft fiit Sue ift: bie 
©eroertfd)aften mit ben 10 obet 14 BliHionen 
Srbeitetn gu oerftatlen, bie fid) je|t nod) 
aufterftaCb oon ftei$ unb ©lieb befinben. 
Unb toenn bet gtofte Jtampf — biefe gen>at< 
tige Slnftrengung — fommt, bann nerben bie 
^einbe einct bcffeten Sebenftnetfe gcrbrfldt 
roerben oon einet n ; t bagenefenen Stunrt' 
ftutt) — einem Strife oon ungef&fjt 1,000,000 
@eroetffd)aft[ern untetftfi|t oon 11,000,000 
gufammcngeftotiaen Srbeitetn, ©djultet an 
■defaulter, ate ein 9Ramt. Xurd) eine beffete 
Crganifation ber Stbeitet roetbin beffete 
3eiten tommen — beffete 3eiten alft mie fie 
leutgutage etiftiten. Of)ne Organtfation 
inb bie Stbeitet ftafttoft bem Jtapital go 
jenttbet, meit Re ibtet $5ttbe Srbeit jeben 
Xag oerfaufen tnfiffen. 

Sut menu bie otganifttten Stbeitet cine 
IP.ebrb.eit ber Stimmen in iftren Steiften 
baben obet biefetbe fentrotttren, lann man 
ibe Snniftme eineft po(ittfd)en programme 
beffitmotten. $utd) 0efe|< murht bie St< 
beitftieiterftoetratgt, nad)bem biefelbe oon 
Stbeitet.' Droan if ationen beteit* oerlfltgt 
teat. £>ffentlid)e S(e inung geftt bem <3efe| 
ooran. Surd) bie ooBfiSnbige Digantfation 
ber Srbtitet, gum toenigften bift gu 7,000,000 
Stimmqebern, mfirbe bie Sroeitftgeit unb baft 
gange ton ber „Smetican Sfcbetation of 
iiabor' 1 gu Sftkago oetlunbete poIitifd)c Vto< 
gtamm — obet toenigften* fo oiel alft an« 
nebmbar erfd)etnt — fofott ®ef e|eftftaft er« 
tangen. 2>ie Stbeitet foUten ben Matft- 
fcblagen bet $o!ititet au« bem Stege geben, 
bie fUt ibtc U arte i baft Sed)t in Snfprud) 
neb men, ore cintige ^tcunbin bet Stbeitet 
unb a He in im Stance gu fein, ift: rn bau» 
erube eefd)afttgung unb ftofte obet ftbftete 
iiobne jit oerfeftaffeo. $olitifa)e Xftatiglcit 
faun nte unb roirb nie guetft tommen unb 

One of the probable prod acta of the 
next century will be the billionaire. He 
will not be a singularity, bat a plurality. 
His chief habitat will be the United 
States, bnt he will aleo appear in Europe 
and poaslbly in other parts ef the world. 
The millionaire long ago ceued to be a 
novelty. There woe a twenty -millionaire 
in New York fifty years ago, and a eve- 
millionaire in Philadelphia a score of 
years earlier. Bat only within the last 
quarter of a century has the multi- 
millionaire ceased to be a cariosity. We 
now have In New York persona who have 
reached t he centennial mark in millions, 
and there are supposed to be two or 
three who are well advanced toward the 
bi centennial figure. 

Starting with the last estimate the 
evolution of the billionaire proceeds aa 
logically as the attraction of gravitation 
on a down grade. A sum of money 
doubles in twenty years at simple in- 
terest. One hundred million dollars 
well invested, will realize five million dol 
are annual interest- Suppose that the 
owner of this snog sum lives like a Croe 
pus, the compounding of interest will not 
Interfere with the doubling of the prin 
cipal in a score of years. Therefore, the 
hundred-millionaire of to-day should be a 
two hundred millionaire in 1914, a four 
hundred millionaire in 1934, an eight 
hundred millionaire in 1954, and a 
billionaire in 1959. 

While it is easy to figure how high one 
end of the see-saw will go, it is not so 
easy to forecast the consequent depres- 
sion of the other end.— New York Daily 

Katftfdjtdge rote biefe finb fojrflgetifd) mie 
bet «efang ber Sitene 
Written aud bem Webim, 

bet Siren en. Setlreibt biefe 
mie ©ift au* bem 
ftihper. ilaffet bie St be iter seme guna ein 
fefte* Snftem anueftmcn. Saffet afie StbcU 
tet um bie Bannet ifttcr Dtganilatton fta) 
ftftaareu I Sic fioffnung unb SBunfdje bet 
gangtn Mibeitetbemeguna finb gegrunbtt auf 
eine ooUftdnbige Dtganifation atfet Stbeitet 
gu einet 6a)ui<«eteinignng. (Gapt. 3oftn 
D'Srien im „Smetlcan tfebetatwnifL" 

faces give an opportunity to make a 
record of the form of tooth made, so 
that each time a saw requires setting tt 
may be given the exact shape found 
most desirable. This tool is light and 
strong ; it may be easily and successfully 
operated by any mechanic, even If he 
has not the skill to set a saw with a punch 
and hammer ; it operates rapidly and its 
work is in plain sight always. Its de- 
sign is mechanical and its ingenuity 
commendable, and we recommend the 
award ol the Edward Longstreth medal 
of merit to C. C. Taintor, the inventor. 

The diploma is signed by Joseph M. 
Wilson, president, and W. M II. Wahl, 
secretary, and countersigned by Arthur 
Beardsley, chairman. 

The Franklin Institute Gives a Medal to 
the Inventor of the Taintor Haw Set. 

The Taintor Manufacturing Company, 
for whom Wiebusch & Uilger 84 and 86 
Chambers street, New York, are sole 
agents, advisee as that a silver medal 
has been awarded by the Franklin Insti 
tote to C. C. Taintor, the inventor of 
the Taintor Positive Saw Set. In the 
diploma which accompanies the medal 
a description is first given at son 
length of the special features of the saw 
set and the advantages it possesses, clc 
ing as follow! : 

The safety of the tool lies chiefly in 
the correct form of the anvil faces and 
the impossibility of oversetting any 
tooth , or causing an abrupt bend in it 
The lettering and numbering of the 

vmos-WAiia oood«. 
Jtoofatd, Thai we u ft body thoroughly ftp- 
proTe at the object* of the American Federation 
of I>bor and pledge ourveivea to gire U our 
earnest and hearty support. 

Retolvtd, That members of this organization 
should make it a rule, when purchasing roods 
to call for those which bear the trade-marks of 
organised labor, and when any Individual, firm 
or corporation shal I strike a blow at labor organl- 
sation, they are earneaUy requested to gWe 
that Individual, Arm or corporation their careful 
•onside ration. No good union man «s 


Resolved, That we most emphatically Am- 
courage carpenters and joiners from organising 
as carpenters under the Knights of Labor, as we 
believe each trade should be organised under Us 
own trade head in a trade union. " 

Resolved, That It Is of the goatcet Importance 
that members should vote intelligently : hence, 

if *t ' 

the members of this Brotherhood shall strive 
secure legislaUon in fsvor of those who 
the wealth of theco 
resolutions in that direction shall be In order at 
any regular meeUng, but party politics must be 

£esotcecL That while we welcome to our shores 
nil who come with the honest intention of be- 
coming lawful ritlseiiB, we at the same time con- 
demn the present system which allow* the 
Importation of destitute laborers, and we urge 
Organised labor everywhere to endeavor to se» 
of more stringent i 


as good and fklt 
ir duties to their emt 

Mmeivml, That we hold it as a sacred principle 
that Trade Union men, above all others, should 

" bithful work- 
el r employer* 
ve» and llii li iiigsufiallnn. 
hocks OF Lanoa. 
We bold n reduction of hoars for a day's work 
Increases the Intelligence and I 
laborer, and also Increase! the < 
and the price of a day's work. 

We recognize that the Interests of alt 

tabor are Identical, regardless of ck 

nationality, religion or color, for n wrong 
to one is a wrong done to ail. 

We object to prison contract labor. 
Dot* the criminal In competition i - 

eassolved, That we most earn* 

the practice In vogue In many d 
■specially In the West, thai c 
ScStiou* building booms/as tt ha* 

In such localities. 

Am Excellent Form ef Indenture for Carpenter Apprentices. 

Vine @eroer(fd)aft ift eine Scieintt 
flung von Sarfcaenoflen, vela>e auf aero erf < 
Iidjem ©ebiet, mo imrnu ft* bie Seleflenfceit 
bidet, ben Rrr>eit n ebern, rein, ben flapttalu 
ften, etmae abjujaaen iud>t, fei e* an 2o(m 
erbiibuttfl ober an Irbeitinetlfirgung. 3)te« 
teS ift, mo einiflermaften (9eta)&ftcflang ear* 
E^anbcn ift, am fecften bura) Strife* unter. 
ben fleaebenen Serbftitniflen )u 
(St. fainter.) 

Die 50 rub er \ a) af t ber Rimmerleute 
unb S3aufa)reiner non Hmerifa oefa>io| auf 
ibret fiit j I ta) in ^nbtanapotis abge^altenen 
Consention, alle ftrftfle auf drringung be* 
X^fhmbcU'Xafle* in fallen etttbten, no er 
nod)nia)t etngefilfjrt ift, ju concentriren, unb 
bil auf Settere* feine Strife* gu untet' 
ftutf.cn bie nta)t ffir tgrtinflung, refp. Kuf* 
ted)tet()altuna be* Xd)tftunben>Zaaet unter* 
nommen merben. eobalb ein %utebetauf> 
(ebtn ber «ef4aftc ftottfinbet, foC ein adae* 
Botftnp nad) btefer Mi 

«f|t* «» » Witneseeth that...., by and with the 

consent of hath pot himself, and by these presents doth 

voluntarily and of his own free will and accord, pat himself apprentice to 

to learn the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 

Joiner ; end after the manner of an apprentice, to serve the said 

for and daring, and to the full and and term of years next ensuing. 

During all of said term the apprentice doth covenant and promise that he will 

serve faith folly, that he will not play at cards or dice or 

any other on lawful games whereby the said may be Injured. 

That he will not absent himself from work daring the recognised boars of labor, 
without leave, nor frequent saloons, hotels or play houses, bat in all things will 
behave himself aa a faithful apprentice ought to daring said term. 

And that the said on hie part, doth covenant and promise 

that he will use the utmost of his endeavors to teach or cause to be taught or 
instructed the said apprentice in the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 
Joiner. Said apprentice shall not be required to work more than the recognised 

Ttl6 Mhid »»•••* iiMi*(ti*>Mntit>M ■•sAirlhcr AgTMl to 

And for the true performance of all and singular the 
aforesaid, the said parties bind themselves each onto the 

In With »w Wbbbbov, the said parties have interchangeably eat their hands and 
seals hereunto. Dated this. 

Executed and delivered before 




End Vi»w of No. 2 Variety Wood Worker 

Bend for Special Wood Worker OnUloKnie, 
Whfefa will ihowill the various kinds of work it 
will make, II in the tno*t uaeful uiachlue for a 
ParpnnUir or Rullilor now In citm. nco. 

J. A. FAY & EGAN CO., 

188 to 208 West Front St., CINCINNATI, OHIO, U. S, A. 




The Largest Line in the World of the Latest and Best Approved 


Outfits or Single Maohlnea Supplied. Sand for OhwIowu-h 

r*.b fm Ps»«r 

ti». r 

You should see w'*** 


SAW SET ml) 

No. 93. 

Vaurin im It ,t th. 

foi »r win mm4 it ul 

an v di al, i » mi r , . | ural 

of »r win «r ad ii t«i 
anj a. I It.-., „„ ,, , , H 
Of |l, fltrular- frr. 


•6 Ci»mt>«n St , N.V 

llvlll^i .uuuil.iMX* *llk 
I ■ on It Haiti k«l| tat 
Ml I- >.*• r and d<> more nuik wttk- 
oil) 111 iiaMnan fll.fr aawi. ti.ar.ty 

Mi- in Ul.nr e:,.| i ..«! Of Dial 

1 li«| are marie of U* teat i 
ul r J fi., ( .«.in»l.nd«» 

k'I'I.I.Y U' itlHll 

y,„eeiat>y alii 


All latest designs and 
approved new models of 
the best manufacturers. 

Chos. E. Schou, 

279 Main Street, 

Br, O. & J, of America Society Good* 







HTROUDSBUUO, Monroe Co.. 1'a. 
WBW YORK, 161 Washington Hired. 
CINCINNATI, 1 Weal Pearl Htreel 




R a_ 

m t 



Regalia and Badges. 

Over 2000 Hoclety Flag* and Banner* Manufao- 

Ovur tp! I 



■ th aai or ii'M ts V 


« ■ I 


No. 84 Court St., Cincinnati. 



■■LL'iCAtriMTirliADi Hur Is 00 

Tim ButLi>SB'i Gliiub and UBTiMAToa.'g 

Faics Boo a. llodgton 1 00 

Tn> briiu ivji'AkK, AHii How to V*u It I 00 
PRACTICAL Cab rKHTK V, Hodgaon 1 00 

Otaib-Buill>iko Mauk Kaiy, Uodgaou . 1 00 
Baku tUiUKtt Malik Has* 1 as 

CHAWJCAJ 1>«a winc-Booh. A Self In- 
atructo , with 300 111 Miration* 1 00 


t Coatr aa-ioir 

Bo* 8S4. Philadelphia. Pa 

> jo 


Handy Wood Catting Tool 

FawBW4 J a if IV, IBB*. 

out p<wket . 

on door*, au;. . tiding In at 

_ took- plate*, dadoing from & I u. to any width 

KTaSTpt <n^ioe. ^Ii<fto7*roal»". 7 

ft) iWAM B, 



Or Balloon and Roof Franitrg, hy Owen B 
MagrnnU, nuthor of "Pratfloal Centering," 
" How to Join Moulding*," *fc>..*ta 

II ta a practlaal treatise on lha latest and beat 
inatliodi of lay-In* out, fraiuinr and raising tim- 
bar house* on the balloon principle, together wlUi 
a complete and neatly underatoodayaleu) of Roof 
Framing, Uj. whol« making a handy arid eaally 

Pa at I.— Balloon Framing. 
Chapter I. General description of , 
Prams*. Framed -1'U and thulr uonatructlon. 

i 'Kapler 1 1 Flrat floor Bcanu or Jotnta, rHory 
Hootloni, Heonnd Floor B«ama, Htuddtng. Fram- 
ing of Door and Window Opanlnga. Wall Platoa 
and faff Timbera, 

C!hapt«r III. Laying out and working Balloon 
Frame*, a Hi era. ttfi FoaU and Htuddlng- 

Chapter IV. I a> log out Flrat and Baoood 
Floor Jot* la or Beam*, Catling Joint* and Wall 


Ohapter V. laying out and Framing th* Roof. 
Chapter VI. Raising. 

Paat II,-Dlmoult Roof FnuaiNg> 
Chapter I. Slmpl* Roots. 
Chapter 11 Blp and Vallay Boob. 
Chapter 1 1 L Roof* of Irregular Flan . 
Chapter IV. Pyramidal Boon, 
Chapter V. Heiavot al Roofa. 
Chapter VI. (Jon leal or Otroular BOOB 
The work la Illustrated and as 
M large angrarlnga of bo 
Ball iaohe 

PRICK, - > |1,M 
am*, addraaa and oaah for book to 


plained' by orer 
, roou, *to., and 







It is in the form of • Chart, 18x28 inches 
in size, uiMUnti^lty mounted, on which the 
pitches .ir<- illustrated in connection with a 
diagram of the fultaized wrpentern 1 square. 

Tiie itn^ths of braces, common and jack* 
rafters, lii|>> and valleys, are given in plain 
ri^uii ^ to the i-.^-' part of an inch with .1!) their 
bevels. Also that of theti mii>, rises, degree «»t 
pitch and contents in board measure. 

Much otbei information, such as hoppei 
cuts, framing uneven pitches, polygon roofs, 

curved roofs, etc. 

of PRICE - S3. OO 

fit M 

St-nt ]«>stpaiil upiiti receipt 

a dor ess THE CARPENTER 

■tot BBS. 


If you want the very beat tools 
wad*, bu^ oiHy thuae 


without a Hart, ercooth keen, cutting edge. Thla U tna una eammltal feature of a f.**1 «l«e tool 
one In wriM'li the ■■rlta Tool* are aarei 

Ui their *ii|>ertor roiling <|uallly t* mainly <\ < 
hold, of balna the he*, to il.e f ' 


u* the raou 

l*o you 

[or'aaLtVy daafari tii \'h lag >■ grail* t)«l* throughout tlx 
- ,*r> >w . 1, ...4., .he.,, ^ort for r,.t. Mhiura'. 

They are alaonf III* Iwal .hat— ana well flnt.he.1 
lotadoii wliti-h thty have iiefil for an rnauj V"*r«. 
foil warn aurh u«.l«r If you do y,M> tan hai* U 
.ighfwt th* Cm led «!•!** If eot.r dealer doe* 

aii<l th* 

Keep uiem and fefnae* o. -M.. <Ka*n -ena ror r,.tr iinmra.ed . ai»l.*jue 
orderlua ar* glviri. not foraeitlitg Lo niwitfy . alal».«o.- „t gal j.ei.iera' lauM 

HACK efc < tmmt mt Ptatl n«r«i, K(>< IIRATKIl. R. V. 
of th* u>.wtait*nw.'*lir,*uf Fin* Kdg* To- Umtbe United 



Promptly (soared 
and LaosI 


Oi»e* aHpTftftESAi 
CUT! for t-'.p. valley 
princtpa). Jack and 
cripple rafter., and „ _ _»-._ 
leusthatiift.andlm. G. I. TOPP 
eUluataullv, Ask 
oar Hiidwir* 

ft CO., 


Wm. McNiece $ Son, 


(land. Panels 
1 -wand Rip 3aws, 


. A 1 . 

■1 I I WMPWrfM IB 

A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests , 

VOL. XV.-No. 5. 

Established 1881. 


/ Fifty Cents per Year. 
I Single Copies, 6 Cts. 

Er>«-AKi. Bahtj.ktt from t'nlon MS, New 
Tmk, for Itn-Hi h of truitt. mid ■ le»l r. >y i nk papcm 
'fa • ileal I l rial in, alio for emhe/ilitiK fun (1m of 
Ike I). * ■ "f New York City. 

▲rnuari H I)i»Tr.K«, from Union 87, Bt. I 'mil, 
Minn., for mialng dtnaeiiaton unit »l»nderit]K 
UmIuii men, 

StiWAHU O- OvriiiMAVKR from I'nloti 601, HI. 
Lou In, Mo., fur emlwixllng fundit uf tlio II, B , 
Mar of these funds wen- iiionry* which he 
ebon UI have -i-tit lhud.S T , mid muni; he should 
k*vei>atd>lu the l>, C. of St I .mi In. Ho wu ab» 
■hurt hi his acmunU u K. 8, 

Financial Secretaries Who Should 
be Fined. 

Under Sec. 15:!, paragraph C, of the 
Constitution, it is the duty of the F. 8 
to send a report monthly to the G. 8-T, 
under penalty of $-'.00 fine. Here below 
!■ a licit of Financial Secretaries who 
should be fined for their neglect to com- 
ply with Sec. 153. 

Tn particular the Financial Secretaries 
of the following Unions have been 
repeatedly negligent in this particular, 
Tl»: Unions 3'.*, 52, 127, 145, 165, 216, 
288, 1!54, 863, 2<!3, 305, 3M, 887, 308, 3K0, 
m\ -Ho, .0515, 574, 623, ti:il, 723, 

and 767. 

The F. S. of the below named Unions 
should also be fined 12.00 aa per Sec 153, 
rla : Unions ir»», 204, 223, 244, 252, 318, 
818, 388, 422, 501, 507, 725 and 744. 

The carelessness and delinquency of 
Financial Secretaries moat be checked 
aad in moat cases is entirely inexcus- 
able. The reports to the G. S-T. should 
b* forwarded promptly and regularly 
each month. 

Church and the Labor Movement. 

*« What we want is not the relief ol 
paupers, but the conditions which pre- 
test their manufacture. What, now, is 
the church doing to secure ench con- 
ditions? Where are the pulpits with 
preachers like Christ, denouncing the 
oppressors of the masses ? Where are 
preacher, declaring to their wealthy 
new holders that it is easier for the 
oamt'l to past through the needle's 
eye, than for the rich man to enter the 
kingdom of heaven'' Where are the 
mlnlstera who are denouncing the pro- 
cues by which the Carnegles and Rocke- 
fellers absorb from the common pro- 
deet countless millions and leave the 
aching void of poverty? The complaint 
of labor Is that the spirit of Jesus is 
absent from the modern church. It 
looks quietly upou the wretchedness of 
the people and makes no systematic 
attempt to reach the real cause. If ever 
there was a time when a crusade was 
needed, it is now. No holy aepulchre 
baa fallen into the hands of infidels, but 
the privileged classes have robbed the 
*non people of their liberties, and 
rioting in luxuries while their vlc- 
starve."— Z. W. Rogtrt. 

Frank J. Mi ■Farm n, Is the new Busi- 
ness Agent of the Carpenters' Unions in 
Koch ester, N. Y, 


Samcbl Gompbrs, Ex-President of the 
American Federation of Labor is now 
on the road through the Southern States 
as au organizer for the United Garment 
Workers, and he is doing very effective 


James Duncan of Baltimore is the 
newly elected General Secretary of the 
(J ranite Cutters' National Union. Brother 
Duncan was Acting President of the 
American Federation of Labor during 
President John McBride's recent illness. 
The latter is now restored to health and 
is attending to the official duties of his 

The Boycott on the Crawford Shoe 
Is Lifted. 

For eeveral years there has been a 
boycott on the < Yawford Shoe Company 
for unfair treatment of union labor. 
The firm has made its peace recently 
with the organized Boot and Shoe 
Makers, so that now the Brockton 
Branch of the Lasters' Protective Union 
appeals to union men everywhere to 
patronize the Crawford shoe to Bbow 
them what labor can do. 

The Iron League of New York. 

This is a powerful combination of 
contractors and manufacturers engaged 
in the structural iron trade. This League 
was very successful In defeating the 
HouBefimitha' Union of New York City 
several years ago in the fight for the 
eight-hour day. On May 1 this year, 
the Iron League voluntarily conceded 
the eight hours e day without any re- 
duction in wages, the hours of labor 
heretofore were nine hours per day. 

All this In a Land of Plenty. 

Black slaves used to cost money ; white 
slaves now cost nothing, Black slaves 
uied to be led, clothed, housed and doc- 
tored ; white slaves are now left to shift 
for themselves. Women may become 
prostitutes for the dude sons of rich men 
if they can't find work at pay to keep 
body and soul together. Men, a limited 
number at least, may become coachmen 
for board, for bejeweled upper ten ladies, 
or all commit theft and become public 
charges, branded as criminals, to be sup- 
ported by taxes wrung from millions of 
toilers, but one step from the same con- 
dition. And this is In a land of plenty. 
-(Iowa) 'lritmne. 

A. C Cattennull. 

Alfred C. Cattennull was elected last 
September at the Indianapolis Conven- 
tion a member of the General Executive 
Board. Prior to that, early In January 
last year, he was elected President of the 
District Council of Chicago, and was 
again re-elected in July last. As Presi 
dent of the D. C. it was also bis duty to 
act as Chief Business Agent for the Chi 
cago District, which embraces a vast 
amount of territory, and has the largest 
membership of ary local labor organ iza 
tion in America In this trying position 
Bro. Cattermull acquitted himself credit 
ably, and as President of the Council he 
displayed excellent executive ability and 
keen parliamentary skill. 

Bro. Oattermnll was horn to London, 
England, April 4, 1857, and first entered 
the labor movement by joining Oar 
pentera' Union 161, Hyde Park, 111., early 
In 1886. He was Recording Secretary of 
that union and In 1887 transferred his 
membership to Union 28, Chicago, 111 
He was a hard, energetic worker In the 
eight-hour strike of 1886, and again In 
1887, and on every occasion he b as proven 
himself a zealous, sturdy worker for the 
U. B. So wedded is he to the Interests 
of our Order that he has again and again 
declared, there should be no organization 
of carpenters in America other than the 
U. B. He is a member of the I. O. O. F, 
of Illinois. 

Practical, plain and decisive in all his 
actions, Bro, Cattermull wields a worthy 
influence in our ranks, 


Below is a Hat of Unions from which 
no list of officers has been sent us up to 
date, since the election last December: 

















Our Local Unions should join Central 
Labor Unions or such Central bodies of 
organized labor as may be in their 
locality . It is only by uniting and solidi- 
fying the ranks of anion labor that we 
can hope to advance our cause. 

Sic. 90 of the present Constitution is 
now in force since Jan. 14, 1895, and 
applies to ail members in arrears, whether 
so before the above date or since then. 
Under that law a member cannot be 
suspended until he owes an amount 
equal to twelve months' dues. Then he 
must join as a new member. When in 
arrears, however, to the amount of three 
months' dues he is out of benefit. No 
new initiation fee can be collected from 
a member in arrears— not unHl he la 
finally suspended, and then he joins as a 
new member. 

Labor Legislation Id 

The Toronto Trades and Labor Council 
and the Local Federation of Trades of 
that city is urging on the Ontario Go- 
vernment, to insert in all Provincial 
public contracts a specification that the 
union rate of wages, where a union exists, 
be the Government rate of pay. Bro. 
Thos. Kyvee, of Union 27, who is Presi- 
dent of the Federation of Trades, wae 
one of a delegation who had a lengthy 
interview on the subject with the Com- 
missioner of Public Works. Bro- Ry ves 
was the principal spokesman, and ac- 
quitted himself very ably. The Com- 
missioner regarded the subject very 
favorably. The Labor Legislative Com- 
mittee of the organized workingmen also 
have a Union Label Act before the 
Dominion Parliament In Ottawa. We 
were very successful in the Provincial 
Legislature here in Toronto in defeating 
several measures obnoxious to the work- 
ing people, and in securing i 
legislation for our people. 

Acting Like Idiots. 

11 1 can hire one- half the people to 
shoot the other half"— aaid Jay Gould, 
with a sneer, when some one spoke of 
the people's rising against the iron 
rule of the corporations. 

And he spoke the truth. There is not 
a day in the year when we might uot 
win this fight against class laws, if the 
voters who are suffering from them 
would only unite. 

No blood need be shed ; no violence 
done to person or property. 

We could win with the ballot ; and 
with an irresistible public opinion. 

But they can throw the apple of die- 
cord among the people ; and while we, 
like idiots, are fussing over names end 
details and personalities, our common 
foe unite in forging our chains.— Zom 


Bvery Vi-ur. 

The | tOOt are getting IKKWtl 

Kvery year; 
.MarwilitmY growing MMW 

Kvery >etu ; 
Nor in the |iraa|wri brighli-l 

'i'hllt their lilir.leli- Will be light*! , 
Kor thu lOmiiiH are getting liglltati 
Kvery jear. 

Tin' lii h arc nrn« inn a.fotlger 

Kverj yM( ; 
Their nurae 1* Kitting longot 

Kvery year ] 
I'or they mil' with Iron luMtd 
The |irinhii ci!< of the Irtinl, 
Anil i'h' lioii'x ahgre demand 

Kvltj year 
BhIii h for bread mi' crying 

Bntl y year ; 

By -mruitiuii Mora arc dying 

Kvery year; 
Their crlrHHo Nrtatl aaoetuthag 

With fnMuw of alma are blending ; 

Ami heart* of aafft1s rending, 
Kvery year. 

Tlie rich hi-ril not the erylng 

Kvery j eai | 
Nor (he angutab of the dying. 

Kvery year; 

Hill nre wikithiR for Hie I r 

When In their iiomii ami power 
Thiil more li^im* they may devour, 

Every year. 

Though tliey tall without ceaallig 
Every yeur ; 

Their i>ovcrty'n increasing 

Kvery yenr ; 
To «kch|i« the lilt* betiding 
With grim poverty nbniiiiK 
Tlnsie nre Ihwmgdi ettleiding, 

Kvery year. 

The right of homes are emalttg 

Kvery year; 
Ami tenant* nre IneMSMgUlg 

Kvery yenr; 
For every law ihnt rtaaaea 
Wealth Id given to the eteafte* 

By grind trig down tin maeaaa, 
Kvery year. 

— a a. white, in Chicago Ilayiaii 

( 'Ihi* DeptirtmetU it open for our reader* 
and member* to diicutt ail phatet of Hie 
labor problem, 

Corretpondenlt ihould write on one tide of 
the paper only. 

Matter for publication mutt be in tiiig office 
by the ffitfi of ttie month previous to issue . ) 

A Clear Statement ol the Situation. 

EVERY working 
person with per- 
ceptive and ob- 
serving faculties, 
ia conscious 
ol the fact 
that wages 
have fallen. 
In a few 
only have 
wagea been 

kept at their regular standard through 
the effectual agency of trade unions, 
brotherbooda and confederations, which 
have aided them to resist the natural laws 
of decline, while wages have fallen in 
most ot the labor department*. True, 
normal rates per diem are only a trifle 
lower now In some of the branches, but 
the issues ot newspapers every morning 
told us of cuts in wanes, and the bottom is 
not yet reached. Throughout the land 
are strikes, lockoutB and shut-downs; 
shops and factories are running short 
time in the week, and many have laid 
off portions of their help, and millions of 
idle or partially employed laborers are to 
be seen. 

This gloomy aspect in labor conditions 
is the result of vicious legislation In the 
establishment or a single gold standard 
of money. Instead of trying to legislate 

for the general welfare of the country, 
CongresB and the Executive are benefit- 
ting speculative branches ol trade and 
advancing the interests of foreign money 
kings ami extortioners, who loan vaBt 
sums of money to governments, and these 
loanH absorb the products of labor to pay 
the interest. The situation brought about 
by the demonetization ol silver appalls 
the mind ami chills the heart of every 
workingman. For while we are a debtor 
nation we are under bondage to our cred- 
itors. Better, if we owe anything, that 
we owe it to our own citizens, who ought 
to have patriotism enough to hold it for 
an investment. 

The labor element is in a disquiet and 
restless condition, and the disturbances 
are of dual form, the one political and 
the other social. The political trouble is 
the disturbance and change in values. 
The Iobh in values, in this country alone, 
by the demonetization of silver, approxi- 
mates to the sum of 13,000,000,000, 
an amount inconceivable, a sum nearly 
equal to our national debt at the close of 
the war. In fact, the rise in gold has eo 
affected the balance of the national debt 
that it is aB big to-day as it was twenty - 
five years ago, except aB to the name of 
the thing. 

The result of this change in our pecuni- 
ary matters has created an alarm not 
without reason, and distrust and stagna- 
tion pervades business. It was an nnwise 
and outrageous proceeding, to destroy 
one-half of our real, actual money, when 
there i?aa not a sufficiency, and has been 
the means of throwing millions out ol 
employment, all for the honor and glory 
of a plutocracy. 

Then there ia the social and economical 
difficulty. Our liberal policy toward im- 
migration has flooded the cauntry with 
workingmen. They come here not to 
establish new industries, but to appro- 
priate the use of t hose ahead y established 
alter many successive generations. This 
country is large and populous, and we 
have wide fields for industry and develop- 
ment, but we have not an excess of in- 
dustries to furnish steady employment to 
all who are compelled or actuated to labor 
for their support. The ratio of increase 
of working people is greater than the 
opportunities tor employment. Every 
year we are adding additional numbers 
to the working population, by ingreaB ot 
foreigners, the increase of native born 
citizens, and the introduction of women 
and children in the fields of labor where 
before only men were employed, all to 
cheapen labor and increase the profits of 
the employer. 

Can we remove or improve this diffi- 
culty? The most etlicacioua remedy 
would be to apply the eight-hour day 
system, that would afford opportunities 
for employment of more help, provided 
we could keep the industries in the cur- 
rent of progress and improvement. 

The right and privilege ol laboring is 
allowed to every person, but wage earn- 
ing and employment pertains only to a 
certain few. In hiring, it is not to be 
careful in considering by the employer 
whether the one whom he is engaging 
is compelled to work for his support or 
not ; he is not inquiring aa to the equity 
of the case, what he wants is the work, 
it does not matter whether he is giving 
it to the most needy, only that he ia get- 
ting the moat efficient help. But is it 
not proper to prohibit the employment 
of a parson for unreasonable and exces- 
sive number of hours, without liberty 
to rest and recuperate his physical 
powers. Then why would it be impolitic 
and unreasonable to reduce the number 
of hotfra of a day's labor, and thereby 
give greater amount ot opportunities for 
working jien to receive employment to 
earn their bread f (Still It ia not wise to 
make our country too attractive to 
to which Europe may send 

her idle laborers, and be relieved of the 
expense of keeping them as paupers 
Hut the greatest difficulty is to harmonize 
the different and incongruous element* 
among the working class. There is as 
much antagonism in their own rank a, 
aB between them and the other classes of 
Bociety. While Bui-h is the Btate of factB, 
no law will or can be enacted tor their 
relief and protection. 

The Bnrrounding conditions and cir- 
cumstances imperatively demand the 
shortening of the day's labor, not merely 
from purely philanthropic motiveB, but 
as a necessary stage in the evolution and 
regulation of human industries. The 
movement in the way of lessening the 
number of working hours in a day in- 
volves the abolishment of one of our 
venerated institutions, though not 
sacredly maintained, which in the lapse 
of time has become obnoxious, that of 
the ten hour system. The special in- 
terest in the movement does not demand 
to enquire if it is a hygienic measure, or 
one of social reform. However, the edu- 
cation and tastes of some people of this 
age would seem to furnish an argu- 
ment against the movement. We are 
obliged to acknowledge that more leisure 
dispose some people to seek recupera- 
tion and refreshment through exces- 
sive indulgences in acts ot dissipation 
and licentions conduct. But, like many 
other reforms, the I light hour system 
may be distinguished by what it accom- 
plishes, instead of what was intended 
by it ; that in place of establishing a 
class of people of depraved morals, it 
would be the means of instigating them 
to a life of virtue and the development of 
a higher civilization. 

This is no measure to be attained by 
a proclamation of emancipation, but a 
cause to be gained only by working 
men's own concentrated efforts. It is 
not going to be accomplished through 
interposition of vacillating politicians. 
From such it is vain to look for help, 
and their promises will all be deceptive 
and misleading. Individuals must forget 
and sunder their party ties, which have 
bo long subjected them to slavery, and 
act independently. Your champions 
will be among your own number and in 
yonr periodical journals. It is a mon- 
strous injustice that this country should 
be governed in the interest of a class of 
usurers and money brokers as it is at 
present. Can it be possible to educate 
and stimulate working men to intelligent 
action? The lack ot systematic per- 
sistency characterizes nearly every labor 

Briefly adverting to the use of ma- 
chinery and the share it takes in the 
labor troubles, it is here Btated that 
every machine in uae displaces from five 
to seventy -five pairs of hands. It is 
estimated that the type setting machine 
has thrown five thousand printers out 
of employment in the State of Now 
York, and the printing business is atill 
in a moat flourishing condition in the 

It ie well understood that the ten- 
dency of the timoa is to cheapen the 
coat of production, while our wants 
and neceealties are constantly augment- 
ing. It must also be borne in mind that 
prices, in a large measure, are Influenced 
by the volume or amount of money in 
circulation. And now the strange 
phenomenon appears, that when oar 
population is increasing, and more 
money is needed to carry on business 
transactions, we have foolishly con- 
tracted onr currency circulation hy de- 
monetizing silver. Altogether it seems 
that now is a propitious time to start the 
eight-hour movement, and urge the pro- 
tection of our shores against the impor- 
tation of foreign laborers. 

JAMga E. Maim. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

Plain Talk at n tiilon Meeting. 

-/WON 638, Waco, 
Tex., makes it g 
practice to have 
its members each 
in turn prepare 
some paper or 
essay, or deliver 
an address at a 
stated meeting. 
This has aroused the latent talents of the 
mem here. Here is a sample of an add rise 
recently delivered by one of the intm- 
bere ■ 

"I hope you will deal charitably with 
this my first attempt to speak on labor 
issues. If each member will only have 
something to offer every meeting nifiht 
on bo me subject, there will always be 
something said that will cauee us to 
think, that will cause us to read and fin- 
ally cauee na to speak, and in a short time 
we will become familiar with matters 
and etudy our craft interests. There is 
no workingman these daya but has his 
own t hough tB regarding what would be 
best to do to better the condition of hit 
craft. There are certain kinds of aggres- 
sion I am not in favor ot. There is agres- 
sion that sometimes does more harm 
than good. 1 have no doubt in my mind 
but the day will come, not only in Amer- 
ica but in the whole world, when labor 
and capital will be in bucIi harmony that 
aggression will not be needed and Btrikea 
will be a thing of the past. In order to 
reach this beaut il ul harmonious Btate of 
affairs, we must be up and doing. Kvery 
honorable means should be resorted to 
to increase our strength, by bringing into 
our ranks all non-union men and educate 
them to our way of thinking. Kach and 
every union man must put his Bhouhier 
to the wheel and every man will have to 
make "a long mill and a etrong pull ami 
a pull altogether," and to pull together 
is the best pull ol all. 

It lays entirely in our own hands. 
How long the day is oil' when we will 
have the harmonious time we are look- 
ing for, will be a hen the laboring part of 
the world will be eo well organized so 
well acquainted with their rights, so 
strong in n timbers, wise in council, eo 
united in action demanding justice that 
capital will have to surrender. 

Do you ever give it a thought, yon 
that have spent your whole life, given 
your energies and talente such us they 
are and all you bad, building palacee for 
the wealthy, that there is something 
rotten about an economic system that 
allows a man who confers eo mnch upon 
hie country aB a good carpenter a hare 
subsistence as a reward for his labor. 
What a good mechanic earns from the 
trade he follows is not half what he 
giveB by it. The carpenter who builds a 
mansion rearing it through a whole sea- 
son receives a few hundred dollars ami 
is Bupposed to be well paid and is him- 
self satisfied and people seems to think 
that is the whole that he bus done, lie 
has worked hard during the summer he 
has earned his money to support his 
family and perhaps laid up some, and 
what has he done? Karned his money . 
Yee he has earned his money but he has 
built a mansion in which a family shall 
be sheltered through a hundred years, 
when he is dead and hia children dead, 
hie work stands, and he got what ? A few 
pititul dollars, and he gave what? lie 
gave the community benefits, in his 
skill, in his mind, or incarnated in 
timber, he gave to the community price- 
less gifts. Carpenters, what do you get ? I 
aay working hard all your life, spending 
all yon make to educate and support your 
family, generally speaking at the age of 
forty-five you aro a grey-haired, broken 
man, it is hard for you to hold a job, you 
have nothing laid up. If you do not hap- 
pen to have a good child with whom you 
can live, what is going to become of you '.' 
It is a matter for thought and I would 
like to hear some hrother speak on it 
eorae time, the way I have figured it ont 
ia very well expressed by thoee lines : 

Ye , build, ye build, but ye enter not In 
Like, the tollera whom thedeeert devoured In 

Prom the la.nl of promiae ye fade and die 

gleam* forth unon your weary 

Kr« lla verdure 



Practical Hans anil Intimates. 


1JY I. 1'. IIK'KM. 

>«*•• •«« 


AVIN(; hail eeveral 
calls for store front 
plans lately, and 
thinking that per- 
haps there may be 
among the many 
readers of Thi 
('abi kntkk some who may he in need of 
a cheap yet rather tasty design for a 
small, one-story front, I hare conclnded 
to enhmit the following design for their 
consideration. Ttie size ol the ground 
plan or floor plan over all is UOxSKi teet. 

The walls are 12-inch brick, except the 
front, which is laid up with block atone 
Lo the bottom of the I beam as shown. 
The cellar is to be 7 feet tt inches deep. 
The store room ceiling, 12 feet in the 

There will he two doorB and two 
windows besideB the front. 

Distance around outside walls, 1 12 feet. 

Length of front cornice, including 
gable, 31 feet. 


'200 yards excavating, 30c . . $(;0 00 
50,000 brick laid in wall, $S . . 400 00 
Stone in iront and sills 130 00 

jaw oo 



(loor joists 1,120 



•_-s, 2i 
30, 2x 
26, 2* 
90, 8s 
5, St 
10, 2s 

V2 20 ft 
H 20 " 
fl 'JO " 
4 12 " 
12 11 
10 11 

ceiling joists . . . 
root joists .... 
partition studding 
for platform frame 



2,845 ft. in frame, $10.60 per m. , $46 04 
000 ".sheeting for roof, $18 perm. 16 20 
000 " 4-inch flooring $30 per m. 27 00 

200 *' 1 finish, $40 per m 8 00 

1,200 " I ceiling, $30 per m. . . , 38 00 
tOO " 10 inch baae, $2.50 per h. 2 60 
100 " 5-inch casing, $1.50 per h. 1 50 

4 plinth blocks, 8c 32 

8 corner blocks, 5c 40 

2 windows 10x14, Slight, $1.50 3 00 



1 back door, 3x7, 1J . . . . . 
1 partition door, 2-8x0 8, 1? . 
3 cellar sash, ttslB, 3 lights, 


50 ft. A X -inch crown mould, 

$2.50 perh 1 

2-inch bed monld, $1 50 

per h 1 

I quarter round, i-0c per h. 1 
parting stops, 60c per h. . 
30 " window stops, 1 inch, 00c 

per h 

80 " door stops, 2 inch, MS p. h. 
13" 5-inch oak threshold $4 

per b 

Mill work on front, including 
doorB, brackets, cornice 
and everything need in 

the front 70 00 

<i'aPB :io 00 

8 50 

2 25 

3 75 




a j 


750 feet tin roof, 8c 60 00 

32 " gutter and conductor, 10c 8 20 

$R0 02 


$250 01 

< 'ABPftttTM ffOKIt, 

S'jre, framing and laying floors, 

$180 $11 70 

11 framing and ceiling, 11.50 13 50 

Excavating and masonry . . . $5! id 00 

Lumber bill and mill work- . . 256 91 

Carpenter work 88 70 

Hardware ■ 80 02 

Painting - 30 37 

I ias fitting 12 00 

Plastering 124 yards 26c ... . 31 00 


During the month ending March 31. 1190. 

$1089 00 

Thus we find the estimated cost of this 
store front as designed to be $1,080. The 
same design could be carried out in a 
frame building in close imitation of stone 
front for $800. The panels under the 
windows are made by planting in a cham- 
fered block with a turned rosette in the 
center. The gable is finished by plant- 
ing on the sheeting square corner blocke 
which should be ornamented to some ex- 


" framing and sheeting roof 

$1 00 o oo 

2i " framing and ceiling parti- 
tion, $1.40 8 50 

■10 lineal feet of cornice, 15c . . 
100 lineal feet of base, 4c ... . 
2 door frames complete, $2.50 . 
•2 window frames complete, $2.50 
:t cellar frames complete, $1 60 . 
Cellar stairs, including ratling 

Work on back platform 

Work putting in the front .... 

*HH 70 


20 lbs. 20d nails 50 

60 " lOd '« . 1 30 

100 " 8d " 4 05 

50 " 6d " 1 50 

20 " lOd finish (SO 

30 " Bd " M 

16 " Od " 50 

2 " 3d " 08 

50 "sash weights, l\c . . . . 62 

1 Bkein sash cord 60 

8 sash pulleys, 4c 32 

2 sash locks, 16c 30 

2 mortice locks, $1.00 2 00 

1 front door lock 2 00 

1 set flash bolts 1 60 

tent by being turned in the center, or if 
not turned they might be bored out with 
a bit to take away the plainness in looks 
The cresting may be scroll sawed work 
cut from good solid stock about 1 J inches 
thick and finished with a short turned 
post at the ends as shown. The linial 
which surmounts tbe top of the gable 
should be made of galvanised iron. 

The brackets supporting the cornice 
should show a face of 3 1 or 4 inches and 
should be 2 feet long by about 12 inches 
wide. The cornice over the gable should 
be 2 or 3 inches wider than the other 
cornice and the brackets widened pro- 
portionately. The general appearance 
of this design may be somewhat improved 
by laying two or three courses of atone 
above tbe I beam, thus making the front 
from 16 to 24 inches higher. 




Gives «n PITCHES &' 

CUTS for hip, valley 
principal, jack and 
crlppl* raftert. 

1. TOPP 4 CO., 

jgffinlm** IMOIANAPOLI 

1- f 190 00 182- tl 10 60 '326- -|:o |<| 

s — m as tes — n so ,32s — 24 an 

8 II 70 1*4 4 SO 337 3* 00 

4 — to 40 ibs — 21 so |asa — a ho 

B 16 00 166 18 60 329 3 SO 

5 4 70 167 28 00 

7 S 40 w--n 00 

a 6fl 10 ISO 64 00 

9 B 00 IT0 fl 10 

11 63 50 171 21 20 

12 II SO 178 3 30 

14 7 20 175- -to en 

15 42 00 IT8- - 60 85 

16 21 40 177 17 BO 

17- -12 70 179 IS 10 

II 7 Oil 161 ffl SO 

SO— 81 AO IBS 5 20 

tl 45 SO IMS 9 in 

29 9S 10 189 31 SO 348 

23 78 90 190 6 flit 34' 

60 191 5 60 

20 IS 20 192 55 

$7 — 21 BO 193 — 14 50 

2S- -261 +0 191 6 00 

29- -H7 »0 196 16 00 

BO 24 TO 196 fl 30 

31 fl an 198 23 00 

33 — 166 10 199 19 50 

85 12 50 200 27 £0 

87 3 20 201 2 60 

88 12 6O208 IB 60 

89 32 90 207 20 95 

40 ID 60 20S-- 6 80 

42 IS 7B 209 68 !0 

43- 168 80 211- -47 70 

44 33 00 214 7 75 

46 8 50 115 33 70 

48 6 M 318 7 65 

49 8 40 230 14 00 

■0 10 90 231 10 60 

63 87 25 234 38 60 

*4 76 50 316 17 00 

• S 13 00 23S— - 10 3S 

BO 11 60 TOT B 00 

69 3 20 32R 36 20 

64 II 80 329 11 2** 

81 1H 40 330 16 to 

62 3J 60 381 2 60 

63 3 00 333 2 TO 

64 39 SO 533 1 80 

67 5 i0 V* 11 50 

68 8 20 236 8 60 

19 II 90 287 lOon 

70 1 1 90 238 29 CO 

73 20 10 239 84 80 

78 26 40 240 85 00 

74 18 96 342 7 60 

76 16 95 313- — 7 60 

78 13 SO 244 6 60 

80 — 13 30 216 8 60 

S3 17 80 24*i 15 10 

83 74 10 247— - 36 00 

84 3 GO 

84 8 00 

87— 81 80 

88 17 70 

90 47 06 

93 18 00 

94 27 60 

96— 67 28 

97 8 75 

99 7 50 

100 8 20 

101 12 40 

103 9 80 

103 • 40 

104 30 24 

107 18 03 

109 — I IB 10 
111 84 SO 

113 75 56 

IIS 8 00 

114 36 60 

US 17 to 

118 11 10 

119 44 00 

m — it oo 

131 87 10 

124 fl 10 

128 41 70 

130 8 70 

181 « 70 

182 IB 90 

134 16 20 

IBS — 15 00 291— 16 40 

187 IS to 294 17 60 

138 8 10 296—13 50 

140 7 (K m 3 00 

141 41 3ii»l 46 10 

142 45 u m 13 60 

t48 II 75 305 7 30 

144 t 20 

146 9 5f 

248 7 00 

219 18 40 

260 12 60 

261 20 70 

3S4 7 80 

256 fl 20 

337 96 00 

2.S8 19 76 

8 80 

381 8 30 

4 K) 

263 fl 00 

365 4 60 

268 8 60 

387 6 60 

368 18 70 

389- -5<j 40 

370 88 80 

278 8 10 

374 21 SO 

5 00 
1 40 

377 20 50 

379 2 80 

. 7 70 

381 4* 60 

J83 fl 00 

31 00 
37 70 

17 82 00 

SB 23 76 

361 4 60 

362 9 20 

856- -88 16 

3ts — s on 

359 34 86 

380 16 £0 

361 10 60 

166 7 CO 

367 11 10 

— 18 00 

370 20 »« 

371 8 OO 

374 16 30 

378- -160 00 
376.— 20 Sf 

377 4 M 

378 7 40 

380 18 00 

881 S5 35 

382 101 50 

386 7 20 

490- - 11 40 

391 19 10 

393 10 10 

394 - 2 60 

7 00 

21 on 

4 80 
403- - 1 10 

4M 9 00 

407 31 60 

409 9 00 

iio — o m 

411 54 70 

417 8 «0 

«1D ]fl 5" 

420 4 00 

421 12 80 

P2 4 80 

123 12 40 

121 14 *0 

138 3 40 

137 12 00 

438 6 80 

139 14 85 

431 6 B0 

432 7 00 

m — 44 00 

487 6 26 

140 18 00 

621- -(30 70 

423 3 60 

526— - 86 00 

S84 9 00 

643- — 6 .30 

849 3 80 

580 6 00 

181 fl 00 

468 4 50 

H4 — 44 10 
651 7 00 

657 — in no 

f80 7 00 

568-- 47 30 

f64 5 60 

6*7 8 8 BO 

4*8-- 10 30 

•78 1 1 ISO 

878 22 fO 

8fO--1B 10 
6t>5-- 7 50 

186 27 in 

188 s |Q 

691 9 80 

692 3 J0 

593 8 20 

•01 fl TO 

596 2 40 

603 8 80 

608 20 65 

604 8 10 

605 -in 10 

806 1 1 OR 

All- -26 00 

817 n 40 

623- -18 70 

628 12 10 

828 17 50 

639 JO {0 

638 I 60 

687 28 50 

888 34 00 

6'»9 30 60 

MS 12 00 

641 4 40 

848 16 10 

647 — 22 60 
543 7 70 

rtio — 1* in 

Ml 9 00 

854 I 00 

889 28 10 

661 4 10 

843 8 60 

864- — 5 ' 
6flt- -16 16 

647 2ft 40 

87(1 7 60 

878 01 30 

679 10 00 

681 31 30 

(83 20 00 

688 17 60 

887 16 00 

689 II SO 

690- — S 40 
892 23 30 

698 16 00 

898 ST 80 

699 31 10 

442 8 50 701 7 HO 

148-- 8 60 

148 89 70 

449 33 «0 

460 7 0" 

451 47 30 712 

183 61 10 

188 5 on 

«57 — 46 on 

169 10 

4*n — r> w 

48-! 78 80 

484 11 or 

468 7* 9" 

mi — in no 

470 it on 

471 BT I* 

m — 46 on 

(74 »2 on 

47« 2« 8* 

4T9-- 16 60 

181 84 *0 

4W- - ?R »r 

488 16 00 

— 20 5f 

488 9 40 

487 Bf 

4»8 — 3* »r 
m — 8 if 

497 — 8' 6f 

400 19 ft 

16 90 un «w 

6 20 wt , ft fll' 

147 9 2(1 W--14U 40 nm— 7 tf 

149 11 « 114 8 Ml •07-- r, ,, 

181— .ti* t(l us s (10 vo~ -118 ir 

184 14 40 316 B 30 mn 9 40 

166 — 11 60 117 — 41 10 mi a rr 

1S7 8 00 81 

188 10 80 

ISP 29 40 


8 no u* 17 or 

8 00 inn — Bit j< 

7 BO 3)3 40 90 

7 40 

704 10 to 

705 10 BO 

707 21 SO 

-34 60 

TI4 36 00 

718 65 SO 

718 88 20 

717 II 10 

719 I 60 

723 3 40 

728 3 66 

73fl 28 50 

738 1 BO 

780 (11 30 

781 9 30 

784 4 SO 

TBfl 8 TO 

788 12 96 

789 14 SO 

741- - 33 30 

743 6 30 

74S 6 60 

74(1 14 SO 

780 76 BO 

7S2 8 SO 

758 4 60 

747 10 60 

768 t 20 

780 3 60 

788 S 80 

767 S 60 

775 11 V) 

778- - 4 JO 

788 11 On 

788- - 13 10 

788 16 50 

799 4 *B 

808— I BO 

^110,103 68 
'* 4.76160 

Total for 

t • • m 


Geo. II. Ctutudlee. 





E1«etrieal ind Mtchanictl Exptrtt. 
York, Wm. WuMnf ton, D. O. 

*. i 

j| Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Woo d Workers, Planing Mil! Men, and Kindred Interests. 

VOL. XV.-No. 5. 
Established 1881. 



/ Fifty Cents per Year. 
I 8tngie Copies, 5 Cts. 

Edward Bahtmtt from t'ulnn id*. New 
rk, for breach of trout, nrul <lo»troy Injr jmperw 
a death ctahn, alao for embroiling funUH of 
D. C. of New York City. 

CiiUBTCh I>i<rri,Ka, from t'nion 87, fit, 1'aul, 
nil., for raining dinit-nplon mid alanderinK 
Ion inni. 

KEi>wAH!> O. CWniviAVKU from I'nlon tM, Ht. 
Mo for emliei/llnn fundi* of tlie U. H 
Sflktn^ of Uieae fnndH were money* which lie 
_ afco u lii Imve ~« nt ( lie li. 8 T , and wniit' tie ihoiild 

fc»v, paii* to tilt; ll. C. of fit I.di i in. Hi* was alHO 

Short in IiIh account* aa F. S. 


Secretary Who 
lie Fined. 


* Under Bee. 15:i, paragraph C, of the 
Constitution, it is the duty of the F. 8. 
to tend ft report monthly to the G. 8-T. 
oader penalty off l'.OO fine. Here below 
to* liai of Finftncial Secretaries who 
fjhoold be fined for their neglect to com- 
ply with Sec. 153. 

In particular the Financial Secretaries 
of the follow! ng Unions have been 
rwpefttedly negligent in thfe particular, 
lip: Unions 5'-', 127, 116, 165, jlfl, 
MS, -M, 2ii2, 803, :i0r>, :m, 867, 368, 3^, 
4*0, 1*3, 522, 543, 553, 574, 688, 631, 723, 
■nd 7il7. 

The F. h. of the below named Unions 
should al»o he fined (2.00 as per Sec 153, 
: Unions lo3, 204, 223, 244, 252, 318, 
SS8, 388, 422, 501, 5(17, 725 and 744. 

The carelessnesB and delimi'iency ot 
financial Secretaries most be checked 
wd in moBt cases is entirely inexcus- 
able. The reports to the G. B-T. should 
b* forwarded promptly and regularly 
each month. 

Frakk J. Me Farlih, Is the new Busi- 
ness Agent of the Carpenters' Unions in 
Rochester, N. Y, 


Samlikl GoMPaEs, Ex-Prenident of the 
American Federation of Labor is now 
on the road through the Southern States 
ae an organizer for the United Garment 
Workers, and he is doing very effective 

* * 

J a at as Duncan of Baltimore is the 
newly elected General Secretary of the 
Granite Cutters' National Union. Brother 
Duncan was Acting President of the 
American Federation of Labor during 
President John McBride's recent illness. 
The latter is now restored to health and 
is attending to the official duties of bis 

The Boycott on the Crawford Shoe 
Is Lifted. 

Church and the Labor Movement 

What we want is not the relief ot 
Ipers, bnt the conditions which pre- 
|t their manufacture. What, now, is 
the church doing to secure snch con- 
ditions'' Where are the pulpits with 
yppacriers like Christ, denouncing the 
stressors of the masses? Where are 
fpaacheri declaring to their wealthy 
holders that it Is easier for the 
kel to pass through the needle's 
, than for the rich man to enter the 
|dom of heaven? Where are the 
listers who are denouncing the pro- 
l by which the Oamegies and Hooke- 
rs absorb from the common pro- 
countless millions and leave the 
ng void of poverty? The complaint 
of labor is that the spirit of Jesus is 
tnt from the modern church. It 
qnletiy upon the wretchedness of 
people and makes no systematic 
apt to reach the real cause. If ever 
there was a time when a crusade w i 
sjMded, it is now. No holy sepulchre 
haf fallen Into the bands of infidels, but 
privileged classes have robbed the 
ion people of their liberties, and 
toting In luxuries while their vic- 
"— L. W. Roger: 

For several years there has been a 
boycott on the ( 'rawford Shoe Company 
lor unfair treatment of union labor. 
The firm has made its peace recently 
with the organized Boot and Shoe 
Makers, so that now the Brockton 
Braich of the tasters' Protective Union 
appeals to union men everywhere to 
patronize the Crawford shoe to 
them what labor can do. 

The Iron League of New York. 

This is a powerful combination of 
contractors and manufacturers engaged 
in the structural iron trade. This League 
was very successful in defeating the 
Houses- truths' Union of New York City 
several years ago in the fight for the 
eight-hour day. Oa May 1 this year, 
the Iron League voluntarily conceded 
the eight hours a day without any re- 
duction in wages, the hours of labor 
heretofore were nine hours per day. 

All this In a Land of Plenty. 

Black slaves used to cost money ; white 
slaves now cost nothing. Black slaves 
need to be fed, clothed, boused n nd doc- 
tored ; white slaves are now left to shift 
for themselves. Women may become 
prostitutes for the dude sons of rich men 
if they can't find work at pay to keep 
body and soul together. Men, a limited 
number at least, may become ooachmen 
for board, tor bejeweled upper ten ladies, 
or all commit theft and become public 
charges, branded as criminals, to be sup- 
ported by taxes wrung from millions of 
toilers, but one step from the same con- 
dition- And this is in a land of plenty. 
—(Iowa) lribune. 

Alfred C. Cattermul) was elected last 
September at the Indianapolis Conven- 
tion a member of the General Executive 
Board. Prior to that early in January 
last year, he was elected President of the 
District Council of Chicago, and was 
again re-elected in July last. As Presi- 
dent of the D. C. it was also his duty to 
act as Chief Business Agent for the Chi- 
cago District, which embraces a vast 
amount of territory, and has the largest 
membership of any local labor organiza- 
tion in America In this trying position 
Bro. Cattermnll acquitted himself credit- 
ably, and as President of the Council he 
displayed excellent executive ability and 
keen parliamentary skill. 

Bro. Cattermnll was born in London, 
England, April 4, 1857, and first entered 
the labor movement by joining Oar 
penters' Union 188, Hyde Park, III., early 
in 1888. He was Recording Secretary of 
that union and in 1887 transferred his 
membership to Union 28, Chicago, 111. 
He was a hard, energetic worker in the 
eight-hour strike of 1880, and again in 
1887, and on every occasion be has proven 
himself a zealous, sturdy worker for the 
U. B. So wedded is he to the interests 
of our Grder that he has again and again 
declared, there should be no organization 
of carpenters in America other than the 
U. B. He is a member of the L O. O. F. 
of Illinois. 

Practical, plain and decisive in all his 
actions, Bro. Cattermnll wields a worthy 
influence in onr ranks. 

Oue Local Unions should join Central 
Labor Unions or such Central bodies of 
organized labor as may be in their 
locality . It is only by uniting and solidi- 
fying the ranks of anion labor that we 
can hope to advance onr cause. 

Bsc. 80 of the present Constitution ia 
now in force since Jan. 14, 1895, and 
applies to sal members in arrears, whether 
so before the above date or since then. 
Under that law a member cannot be 
suspended until he owes an amount 
equal to twelve months' dues. Then he 
must join as a new member. When in 
arrears, however, to the amount of three 
months' dues he is out of benefit. No 
new initiation fee can be collected from 
a member in arrears -not nntil he Is 
finally suspended, and then he joins as a 
new member. 

Labor Legislation In Canada. 

Dilatory Unions, 

Below is a list of Unions from which 
no list of officers has been sent us up to 
date, since the election last December: 


















The Toronto Trades and Labor Council 
and the Local Federation of Trades of 
that city is urging on the Ontario Go- 
vernment, to insert in all Provincial 
public contracts a specification that the 
union rate of wages, where a nnion exists, 
be the Government rate of pay. Bro. 
Thos. Ryves, of Union 27, who is Presi- 
dent of the Federation of Trades, was 
one of a delegation who had a lengthy 
interview on the subject with the Com- 
missioner of Public Works. Bro. Ryves 
was the principal spokesman, and ac- 
quitted himself very ably. The Com- 
missioner regarded the subject very 
favorably. The Labor Legislative Com- 
mittee of the organized workingmen also 
hare a Union Label Act before the 
Dominion Parliament In Ottawa. We 
were very successful In the Provincial 
Legislature here in Toronto in defeating 
several measures obnoxious to the work- 
ing people, and in securiag some needed 
legislation for our people. 

Acting Llko Idiots. 

**I can hire one-half the people to 
shoot the other half"— said Jay Gould, 
with a sneer, when tome one spoke of 
the people's rising against the Iron 
rule ot the corporations. 

And he spoke the truth. There ia not 
a day in the year when we might not 
win this fight against class laws, if the 
voters who are suffering from them 
ould only unite. 

No blood need be shed ; no violence 
done to person or property. 

We could win with the ballot ; and 
with an Irresistible public opinion, 

But they can throw the apple of dis- 
cord among the people ; and while we, 
like idiots, are fussing over nsmes and 
details and personalities, our common 
foe unite In forging our chains.— 2 om 


Everj Vi-ar. 

Tin' |ieor are «< Hint; I r*t 

Kvery ) i'Br ; 
siamitionV kiiih lint ■ r 

Kvery \eiir; 
Nor i* the |irutti>v< 1 I »rl »c * ■ * ' 1 
Ttmi their burden* will lie lighter, 
I".. i I he chaiUM Hrt- KctlmK lighter. 

I.very } ear, 

Till) rich lire «ro\> ln]| *.niii);i r 

Kvery vein ; 
Tin Ir imr>e I" ui'llii'B hinder 

Kvery veto ; 
fm the; ruU wtUi iron haud 
The iiroduretii <if Ito.* land, 
\ nd i 'it- don't -imi<- deo I 

Kverj ywir. 

KiIi.m lin bread iw n ) Iiik 

Kvei j yi in ! 
By HtsrvatfvM ni'Ti ;ire dying 

Kvery year ; 
The! I n h- tu h»"l ">•< 1 I'diug 
Willi graana »>f -Ihvi m »r* Mending ; 

Ami hi Hrli- ufangtrift rending, 
Kvery yi in 

Tin- m il heed nut the orylng 

rCvery }eui ; 

Nur the angutah oftha dying, 

Kvery ymr ; 
Htit lire Walling fur ihe limir 
When In llielr |iinii|i iiinl [iowit 
Tlmi more hymen they limy devour, 

Kvery year. 

Though they loll without roastng 

Kvery ; eur; 
Their imvorly'n icereaatnB, 

Kvery petti : 

To e)H»|MS the 111* betiding 
Willi grim poverty utmling 
There nre thtiLJitiuuht iMllfidiftg, 
Kvery year. 

The right of homed are ccaalog 

Kveiy vert r j 
Anil teiiiinlh lire inerciudiig 

Kvery yeiir; 
C«M every law Hint |h»sm 
Wi Hltli I* glvi ii tn I lie i 'h'.si — 
Hy grinding tlOW0 the USMSS, 

Kvery year* 

- i:a. rTMIe, <n OMeapo Xapnm. 

(Open fxirum* 

( 'Ikis DepnHmeid is open for our readers 
and member* to discuss all phaits of lite 
labor prvblem, 

VorrespundeniU sliould write on one side of 
tht paper only. 

Moiln for jmblication must lie in Uiis office 
by the mh of tlie month previous to issue.) 

A CU'nr Statement oi the Situation, 

EVERY working 
person with per- 
ceptive and ob- 
serving facalties, 

1H COUBCioilB 

of the fact 
that wages 
have fallen. 
In a few 
only have 
wages been 

kept at their regular standard through 
the ellectual agency of trade unions, 
brotherhoods and confederations, which 
have aided them to resist the natural laws 
of decline, while wages have fallen in 
most of the labor departments. True, 
normal rates per diem are only a trills 
lower now in some of the branches, but 
the issues of newspapers every morning 
told us of cats in wages, and the bottom is 
not yet reached. Throughout the land 
are strikes, lockouts and shut-downs ; 
shops and factories are running short 
time in the week, and many have laid 
off portions of their help, and millions of 
idle or partially employed laborers are to 
bs seen. 

This gloomy aspect in labor conditions 
is the result of vicious legislation in the 
establishment of a single gold standard 
of money. Instead of trying to legislate 

for the general welfare of the country, 
Congress and the Executive are benelit- 
ting speculative branches ol trade and 
advancing the interests of foreign money 
kings ami extortioners, who loan vaet 
sums of money to governments, and these 
loans absorb the products of labor to pay 
the interest. The situation brought about 
by the demonetization of Bilver appalls 
the mind and chills the heart of every 
workingman. For while we are a debtor 
nation we are under bondage to our cred- 
itors. Better, if we owe anything, that 
we owe it to our own citizens, who ought 
to have patriotism enough to hold it for 
an investment. 

The labor element is in a disquiet and 
restless condition, and the disturbances 
are of dual form, the one political and 
the other social. The political trouble is 
the disturbance and change in valueB. 
The lose in values, in this country alone, 
by the demonetization of Bilver, approxi- 
mates to the sum of 12,000,000,000, 
an amount inconceivable, a sum nearly 
equal to oor national debt at the close of 
the war. In fact, the rise in gold has so 
atlected the balance of the national debt 
that it is as big to-day as it was twenty- 
five years ago, except as to the name of 
the thing, 

The result of this change in our pecuni- 
ary matters has created an alarm not 
without reason, and distrust and stagna- 
tion pervades business. It was an unwise 
and outrageous proceeding, to destroy 
one-half of our real, actual money, when 
there was not a sufficiency, and has been 
the meana of throwing millions out ol 
employment, all for the honor and glory 
of a plutocracy. 

Then there is the social and economical 
difficulty. Our liberal policy toward im- 
migration has flooded the country with 
workingmen. They come here not to 
establiah new industries, but to appro- 
priate the use of those already established 
after many successive generations. This 
country is large and populous, anal we 
have wide fields for industry and develop- 
ment, but we have not an excess of in- 
dustries to furuish steady employment to 
all who are compelled or actuated to labor 
for their support. The ratio of increase 
of working people is greater than the 
opportunities for employment. Every 
year we are adding additional numberB 
to the working population, by ingress of 
foreigners, the increase of native born 
citizens, and the introduction of women 
and children in the fields of labor where 
before only men were employed, all to 
cheapen labor and increase the profits of 
the employer. 

Can we remove or improve this diffi- 
culty? The most efficacious remedy 
would be to apply the eight-hour day 
system, thu would afford opportunities 
for employment of more help, provided 
we could keep the industries in the cur- 
rent of progress and improvement. 

The right and privilege of laboring is 
allowed to every person, but wage earn- 
ing and employment pertains only to a 
certain few. In hiring, it is not to be 
careful in considering by the employer 
whether the one whom he is engaging 
is compelled to work for hia support or 
not ; he is not impairing as to the equity 
of the case, what he wants is the work, 
it does not matter whether he is giving 
it to the moBt needy, only that he is get- 
ting the most efficient help. But is it 
not proper to prohibit the employment 
of a person for unreasonable and exces- 
sive number of hours, without liberty 
to rest and recuperate his physical 
powers. Then why would it be impolitic 
and unreasonable to reduce the number 
of hoifrs of a day's labor, and thereby 
give greater amount of opportunities for 
working men to receive employment to 
earn their bread 7 Btill it is not wise to 
make our country too attractive to 
foreigners, to which Europe may send 

her idle laborers, and be relieved of the 
expense of keeping them as pauperB 
But 1 he greatest dilliculty ia to harmonize 
the different and incongruous elements 
among the working class. There is as 
much antagonism in their own ranks, 
as between them and the other classes of 
society. While such is the statB or facte, 
no law will or can be enacted (of their 
relief and protection. 

The Bnrrounding conditions and cir- 
camBtanceB imperatively demand the 
shortening of the day's labor, not merely 
from purely philanthropic motives, but 
as a necessary stage in the evolution and 
regulation of human induBtriss. The 
movement in the way of lessening the 
number of working hours in a day in- 
volves the abolishment of one of our 
venerated institutions, though not 
sacredly maintained, which in the lapse 
of time has become obnoxious, that of 
the ten hour system. The special in- 
terest in the movement does not demand 
to enquire if it is a hygienic measure, or 
one of social reform. However, the edu- 
cation and tastes of some people of this 
age would seem to furnish an argu- 
ment against the movement. We are 
obliged to acknowledge that more leisure 
disposes some people to seek recupera- 
tion and refreshment through exces- 
sive indulgences in acts of dissipation 
and licentious conduct. But, like many 
other reforms, the Eight -hour system 
may be distinguished by what it accom- 
plishes, instead of what waa intended 
by it ; that in place of establishing a 
class of people of depraved morals, it 
would he the means of instigating them 
to a life of virtue and the development of 
a higher civilization. 

This is no measure to be attained by 
a proclamation of emancipation, but a 
cause to be gained only by working 
men's own concentrated efforts. It in 
not going to be accomplished through 
interposition of vacillating politicians. 
From such it is vain to look for help, 
and their promises will all be deceptive 
and misleading, Individuals must forget 
and sunder their party ties, which have 
so long subjected them to slavery, and 
act independently. Your champions 
will bs among your own number and in 
your periodical journals. It ia a mon- 
strous injustice that this country should 
he governed in the interest of a class of 
usurers and money brokers as it is at 
present. Can it bs possible to educate 
and stimulate working men to intelligent 
action? The lack ol systematic per- 
sistency characterizes nsarly every labor 

Briefly adverting to the use of ma- 
chinery and the share it takes in the 
labor troubles, it is here stated that 
every machine in use dieplaces from five 
to Beventy-five pairs of handa. It is 
estimated that the type setting machine 
has thrown five thousand printers out 
of employment in the State of Now 
York, and the printing busineBa ia still 
in a most flourishing condition in the 

It 1b well understood that the ten- 
dency of the times ia to cheapsn the 
cost of production, while our wants 
and necessities are constantly augment- 
ing. It must also he home in mind that 
prices, in a large measure, are influenced 
by the volume or amonnt of money in 
circulation. And now the strange 
phenomenon appears, that when onr 
population is increasing, and more 
money is needed to carry on business 
transactions, we have foolishly con- 
tracted our currency circulation by de- 
monetizing silver. Altogether it seems 

Haiti Talk at a Union Meeting, 

VNION (122, Waco, 
Tex,, makes it a 
practice to have 
Its members each 
in turn prepare 
some paper or 
essay, or deliver 
an address at a 
Btated meeting. 
This has aroused the latent talents of the 
members. 1 1 ere is a sample of an address 
recently delivered by one of the mem- 
bers : 

" I hope you will deal charitably with 
this my lirat attempt to apeak on labor 
issues. If each member will only have 
something to offer every meeting night 
on some subject, there will always he 
something said that will cause us to 
think, that will cause us to read and tin 
ally cause us to speak , and in a short time 
we will become familiar with matters 
and study our craft interests. There is 
noworkingman these days but has his 
own thoughts regarding what would he 
beBt to do to better the condition of hie 
craft. There are certain kinds of aggres- 
sion I am not in favor of. There is agres- 
sion that sometimes does more harm 
than good. 1 have no doubt in my mind 
but the day will cotnr, not only in Amer- 
ica bat in the whole world, when labor 
and capital will be in bucIi harmony that 
aggression will not be needed and strikes 
will be a thing of the past. In order to 
reach this beautiful harmonious state of 
affairs, we must be up and doing. Kvery 
honorable means should be resorted to 
to increase our strength, by bringing into 
our ranks all non-union men and educate 
them to our way of thinking, Kach anil 
every union man must put his shoulder 
to the wheel and every man will have tn 
make "a long null and a strong pull an 1 
a pull altogether," and to pull together 
is the best pull of all. 

It lays entirely in our own hands. 
How long the day is off when we will 
have the harmonious time we are look- 
ing for, will be a hen the laboring part of 
the world will be so well organized su 
well acquainted with their rights, so 
Btrong iu numbers, wise in council, so 
united in action demanding justice that 
capital will have to surrender. 

Do you tver give it a thought, yon 
that have spent your whole life, given 
your energies and talents such as they 
are and all you had, building palaces for 
the wealthy, that there is something 
rotten about an economic system thai 
allows a man who confers so much upon 
his country as a good carpenter a bare 
subsistence as a reward for his labor 
What a good mechanic earns from the 
trade he follows is not half what he 
gives by it. The carpenter who builds a 
mansion rearing it through a whole sea- 
son receives a few hundred dollars ami 
is supposed to be well paid and is him- 
self satisfied and people seems to think 
that is the whole that he bus done. He 
has worked hard during the summer be 
has earned his money to support bin 
family and perhaps laid up aome, and 
what has he done? liarncd his money 
Yea he has earned his money but he ha« 
built a mansion in which a family shall 
be sheltered through a bundrtd years, 
when he is dead and his children dead, 
his work stands, and he got what? A few 
pitiful dollars, and he gave what? He 
gave the community benefits, in his 
skill, in his mind, or incarnated in 
timber, he gave to the community price- 
less gifts. Carpenters, what do you get V I 
Bay working bard all your life, spend in g 
all you make to educate and support your 
family, generally speaking at the age of 
forty-fave you are a grey-haired, broken 
man, it is bard for you to bold a job, you 
have nothing laid up. If you do not hap- 
pen to have a good child with whom yon 
can live, what is going to become of you ? 
It is a matter for thought and I would 
rh.t nni» u a ». n .;ij n .. *: — * * llL to hear some brother apeak on it 

that now is a propitious time to start the aome time, the way I have figured it out 
eight- hour movement, and urge the pro- is very well expressed by those lines : 
tection of our shores against the impor- y« i.mid, y« ootid, but ye enter not i 

tation of foreign laborers. Liku , H 10 lotlera whom thedeaort devoured 1» 

their aln. 

J AUKS E. MaiIM. F*am the land at promise yo fade and die 
Syroctwe, N> Y. Kr^lt. vordtire Kleann, forth upon your weary 


l'riicliiiil Plans anil tMlmatCM. 

A htokk PROMT. 

BY I. v. MK'KH. 


AVIN(i had several 
t:all« for store front 
plana lately, and 
thinking that per- 
haps there may be 
among the many 
read ere of T h k 
C'AIWUitRK Bouie who may he in need of 
a cheap yet rather tasty design for a 
email, one-story front, I hare concl ailed 
to submit the following design for their 
consideration. The Bize of the ground 
plan or Hoor plan over all is 'J0x3« feet. 

The walls are 12-inch brick, except the 
front, which is laid up with block atone 
to the bottom of the I beam ae shown. 
The cellar is to be 7 feet *i inches deep. 
The store room ceiling, 12 feet in the 

There will he two doors and two 
windowe besides the front. 

Distance around outside walls, 112 feet. 

Length of front cornice, including 
gable, 31 feet. 


200 yards excavating, 30c 
80,000 brick laid in wall, $8 
Stone in trout and sills . . . 

■J*, lixl'J 20 ft. 
30, 2x 8 2(1 " 
28, 2x tl 20 " 
20, 2x 4 12 " 
f», 2x fl 12 " 
10, 2s K 10 " 


Hoor joists .... 
ceiling joists , . . 
roel joists .... 
partition studding 
for platform frame 
" tloor. 

, $ d0 00 
•100 00 
130 00 

1800 00 

. 1,120 
. S10 




2,845 ft. in frame, (10.60 per m. . |40 04 
000 ", aheeting for roof, fl8 perm- 10 20 
000 " 4-inch (louring $30 per m. 27 00 
200 " j finish, $40 per m. . . . 8 00 
1,200 " I ceiling, |30 per in. ... 38 00 
KM) "10 inch base, $2.50 per h. 3 50 
100 " 5-inch casing, $1.50 per h. 1 50 

4 plinth blocks, 8c IfZ 

8 corner blocke, 5c 40 

2 windows 10il4, Slight, tl.60 3 00 

1 back door, 3x7, 1] 3 50 

1 partition door, 2-8x0 8, 1| . 2 25 
S cellar sash, 12xl«, 3 lights, 

H4W a n 

50 ft. 4A-ineh crown mould, 

$2.50 per h 1 25 

80 " 2-inch bed monld, $1 50 

per h 1 20 

300 " J qnarter round, (Mc per h. 1 80 
32 " parting atops, 50c per h. . 16 
96 " window stops, 1 inch, «0e 

perh 21 

30 " door stops,!-' inch, 1.25 p. h. 45 
12"5-inch oak threshold $4 

per h 4H 

Mill work on front, including 
doore, brackets, cornice 
and everything need in 

the front 70 00 

"la*" 30 00 

750 feet tin roof, 8c 60 00 

32 " gutter and conductor, 10c 3 20 

$80 02 

$256 01 


tl ai)ra. framing and laying fioora, 

$1 30 $u 70 

" framing and ceiling, $1,50 13 50 


Excavating and masonry . 
Lumber bill and mill work • 
Carpenter work 88 70 

$500 00 
256 91 


Painting . 

Gbb fitting 

Plastering 124 yarda 25c 

80 02 

30 37 
12 00 

31 00 


During the month ending March 31. UM, 

> our. .iu»Di<irkr. 

*K>89 00 

Thus we find the estimated cost of this 
store front as designed to be $1,080. The 
same design could be carried out in a 
frame building in close imitation of stone 
front for $800. The panels under the 
windows are made by planting in a cham- 
fered block with a turned rosette in the 
center. The gable is finished by plant- 
ing on the sheeting square corner blocke 
which should be ornamented to some ei- 

I- (100 00 IBS- |l 10 60 .135- -tin 10 

1 H2 35 163 24 SO 328 24 20 

8 31 70 164 4 20 327 3* 00 

4 10 40 IBS 21 60 328 9 Nil 

6 10 00 186- -16 10 ,329 3 80 

8 4 70 167 28 00 330 .11 20 

7 8 40 m--23 00 331 2 80 

5 61 10 IM 5 : 00 312- -111 9!t 

9 9 00 1T0 6 10 33? 9 10 

11 63 60 171 21 -*0 04 15 10 

12 13 80 17S 3 30 331 4 40 

14 7 20 176 10 (0 336 23 0T 

15 42 00 176 60 85 888 — IS 76 

IB 21 40 177 17 60 340- -280 OP 

17- -12 70 179 19 10 M2 go 4f 

II 7 00 181 86 20 343 8 TO 

30 81 60 186 5 20 344 6 SO 

31 (5 80 188 9 1" 34* 19 (0 

19 8i 10 189 31 80 R48 

90 190 6 60 349 


-29 60 191- 
-18 20 192- 

- 5 60 


77- - 21 SO 193 — 14 .50 

28- -261 40 IB* 6 00 

29- -147 00 195 16 GO 

r.", 24 TO 196 6 30 

I 25 57» 

4 W 

31 6 80 t 

33 — 166 fO 199 19 60 

35 12 50 2C0 27 tO 

87 b 20 201 2 60 

88 12 50 208 18 (0 

39 32 90 207 20 95 

40 H 60 208 6 80 

42 2g 76 209 68 20 

43- 103 SO 211 47 70 

44 33 00 214 7 75 

46 8 50 915 32 70 

48 6 t0 218 7 55 

49 8 40 220 14 00 

80 10 90 231 10 00 

63 37 26 224 38 60 

14 76 50 215 17 00 

15 13 00 238 10 35 

66 II 50 277 8 00 

— 3 2D 328 36 20 


362 9 40 

355- - 85 46 

3U — eon 

369 34 86 

SflO 16 £0 

33 00 361 10 60 

165 7 CO 

367 II to 

369 16 00 

370 20 9* 

m H CO 

374 16 20 

375- -IPSO on 
870 20 sr 

377 4 50 

378 7 *0 

881 55 35 

382— -101 50 

386 7 SO 

190- -11 t0 
391- - 19 20 

■m — io m 

394 - 2 60 

60 U 80 229 11 3A 399 7 00 

01 18 40 280 10 TO tOft-- 21 00 

63 31 60 281 2 60 +02 4 50 

63 8 00 292 3 CO 403 1 to 

*4 39 30 338 1 80 |t04 9 O0 

17 5 10 286 13 50 |*07 31 «o| 654 I 00 

521- -130 TO 

•23 3 00 

520 86 00 

584 9 00 

543- - 6 30 

519 80 

560 fl 00 

IS1 6 00 

4 60 
••4 — 44 10 
66* 7 00 

567 10 00 

feo — 7 oo 

568- - 47 .30 

C84 6 Co 

6*7- - 38 50 

068- - io an 

•75— - II 50 
22 CO 

SfO 13 10 

5M 7 50 

186 27 40 

UN 9 10 

501 9 SO 

692-- 3 20 

S93 3 20 

'91 fl TO 

5»fl 2 40 

oro — a bo 
ona- - 20 «5 

604 8 4rt 

18 10 
II 96 
61 1- - 26 t>0 

617 6 40 

622- -18 70 

618 12 40 

828 17 BO 

639 10 CO 

638 I 50 

887 26 20 

"38- -84 00 

6"9 30 60 

040- -12 00 

0*1 4 00 

8*5 10 10 

647- - 22 60 
649- ~ 7 TO 
610- -18 50 
Ml g no 

68 8 20 236 8 00 

1.9 ll 90 337 10 (to 

71) II 90 338 29 00 

71 2fi 10 239 84 30 

78 26 40 3*0 85 00 

74 18 95 343 7 10 

76 16 95 2*8-- 7 60 

78 18 50 244 6 50 

80 13 30 241 8 50 

83 17 «D24tj 15 10 

83 74 10 347 »6 00 

84 8 60 248 7 00 

80 8 00 119 IS 40 

87— 31 80 250 12 60 

88 17 70 251 20 70 


9 no 

ft 10 
64 70 

. fl m 
in 5* 
4 on 

7 06 

93 18 00 

9* 27 60 

90 57 26 

97 8 75 

99 7 50 

100 3 20 

101 13 40 

102 9 80 

103- — 9 tO 

104 39 21 

107 18 03 

421 12 80 

P2 4 60 

123—12 40 

424 14 10 

426 3 40 

437 12 00 

428 6 80 

429 14 86 

481 8 (IP 

204 7 SO [482 7 00 

■J £ \ m — U 22 

387 96 00 487 S 25 

2-\K 19 76 440 J8 00 

280 S 80 44!! 8 60 


» " framing and sheeting roof 

$1 00 9 00 

2 J " framing and ceiling parti- 
tion, $1.40 8 50 

40 lineal feet of cornice, 15c . . 6 00 

100 lineal feet of base, 4c .... 400 

2 door frames complete, $2.50 . 5 00 
- window frames complete, $2.50 6 00 

3 cellar frames complete, $1 60 . 4 50 
Cellar ataira, including railing ■ ;t 50 

Work on hack platform 5 00 

Work putting in the front .... IK 00 

$H8 70 


^0 lbs. Md nails .... 





8d " . . . . 
6d " . . . . 
lOd Iniah .... 
8d " . . . . 
Od ««.... 
3d " . . . . 
sash weights, l\c 

1 skein sash cord . . . 
8 eaah pulleye, 4c . , . 

2 sash lockB, 15c . . . 
2 mortice locks, $1.00 . 
1 front door lock . . . 
1 set Hash bolts .... 






tent by being turned in the center, or if 
not turned they might be bored out with 
a bit to take away the plainness in looks 
The cresting may be scroll sawed work 
cut from good solid atock about H inches 
thick and finished with a short turned 
post at the ends as shown. The tinial 
which surmounts the top of the gable 
should he niide of galvanised iron. 

The brackets supporting the cornice 
should show a face of 3} or 4 inches and 
should he 2 feet long by about 12 inches 
wide. The cornice over the gable should 
be 2 or 3 inches wider than the other 
cornice and the brackets widened pro- 
portionately. The general appearance 
of this design may be somewhat improved 
by laying two or three courses of stone 
above the I beam, thus making the front 
from 10 to 24 inches higher. 

109 — 148 10|3fl9--50 40 


CUTS for hip, rilJej 
principal, jack ana 

^KS. 4. TOPP ft CO., 

Seta instantly. Ask , UI ,,. U1 _, ' 
our Htidwirt IWDlANAPOUf. 

Ill 34 80 

113 75 65 

US 8 00 

114 26 SO 

US 17 10 

118 II 10 

111 44 00 

121 11 00 

123 87 10 

8 10 
41 70 

130 8 70 

131 5 70 

182 15 SO 

134 16 20 

180 — IB 00 

187 1* 60 

130 8 10 

140- 7 Sr I 

141 41 31. 

1*3 45 m 

143 1 1 7,-. 

144 8 » 

146 9 8C 

147 20 

149 II 01! 

no- -S3 80 

278 8 80 

374 21 30 

275 5 90 

370 1 40 

277 20 50 

37V 3 80 

280 7 70 

381 40 60 


264 31 00 

37 70 

237 32 O0 

288- -23 75 

10 40 

17 50 

3 no 

261 8 30 148 8 60 

363 4 10 448-- 89 TO 

263 8 00 449 28 90 

— t 50 450 7 0" 

8 fitl 4fll 47 20 

267 8 00 453 61 40 

368 18 70 458 fl 00 

467 41 00 

159 9 '0 

460 <!■> 80 

iKI 1ft 00 

404 11 or 

1*8 7" »* 

469 TO 50 

470 M 00 

471 87 20 

478 46 

174 *2 00 

47* 2" 8" 

479 18 60 

431 B4 10 

4*2 2« »*• 

16 00 
-20 50 
— 9 40 

487 60 

TO 3 00 490 38 «r 

m 41 10 498 3 40 

M 13 60 407 — 8' *t 

'tOS 7 20 iuo__i2 V 

»fl 16 90 Mn 8 60 

WS 6 III vii ft 61< 

109 — 140 40 foi 7 IO 

314 8 50 *07- - r, 


181 E8 40 315 5 00 Rfq_ _iib 10 

IS* 14 40 3IS 5 20 Mn 9 40 

1B6 11 80 117 44 10 m, « rc 

167 8 00 819 8 00 n*_ _ 77 no 

158 10 BO 323 5 00 41 « m: 41 

160 29 40 33* 7 DO fl]* 40 90 

■ ' ■ - 


28 IO 

661 4 60 

663 8 60 

064-- S«0 

601 16 16 

6*7 26 40 

t-70 7 60 

678- -81 30 

079 10 00 

881 31 80 

(83 20 00 

688 17 60 

087 16 00 

889 II SO 

090 1 40 

892 !3 30 

698 16 00 

698 87 80 

699 31 10 

701 7 80 

708 7 10 

70* 19 CO 

705 10 60 

707 21 SO 

712 2t 60 

714- 24 00 

716 06 50 

710 86 20 

717 11 10 

719 1 60 

723 3 40 

720 2 66 

720 2B 50 

728 1 80 

730 01 30 

781 30 

731 4 SO 

788 8 70 

738— -12 05 

788 14 80 

741- -93 20 

742, 6 30 

748 6 60 

746 It SO 

750 — re 60 

TAJ 5 !0 

758 4 00 

717 10 60 

758 7 70 

700 8 60 

TOO 8 60 

767 6 80 

T7S-- 13 IJO 
778-- 4 1i) 

788 tl 00 

785- - 12 60 
788 10 50 

n» — t « 

806 I 60 

110,203 08 


. 4,781 60 

Total for Tu *nd Supplies 36,4*2 18 

««». II. Chaiidlee. II. V. Chiuidlee. 

Tradtt'Mmrks. Cmveats, Etc. 


Eioctric«l and Mechanic*.! Expert*. 
York, P*. WMhinflon, O. C. 





a ltorwi 


M iin;i;i,i:. 


thkkk CBNTCBJgx or skckkt ORG AS IZ A.- 


friksdi^ Bocttnn. 


HE diBCOVery of a mari- 
time route to India in 
the last years of the 
fifteenth century is too 
important an event to 
ha pMBe.il over here, 
not only because the 
search for that route 
led to the discovery and colonization of 
America and the consequent extension 
of the West, hut also because ite imme- 
diate result was to change the track of 
the world's commerce, to the serious 
injury of the Italian commonwealths, 
and, in a lesser degree, of the free cities 
of Belgium and the Rhine. Having been 
specially induced to make this note in 
consequence of the prevalence of certain 
erroneous opinions as to the cause of the 
decay ot Italian prosperity, we resume 
the main thread of our subject. 

Beginning oftfie Modem Vu ion.— By the 
middle of the sixteenth century the 
separation of the trade union into two 
opposing hodies of emplovers and em- 
ployed had taken place in the most ad- 
vanced countries of the West, and in 
every industry in which any considerable 
amount of capital could be profitably 
invested. While engagedin the difficult 
task of tracing the dissolution of the 
medieval system, we have confined the 
field of observation mainly to England, 
because it was in that country where the 
social revolution was most thoroughly 
achieved at an early date ; and because 
the sharp contrast, between the pros- 
perity of the fifteenth century and the 
misery of the sixteenth, there seen, is 
the best illustration of the nature and 
extent of that revolution. Bat now that 
we are tree to direct our attention to the 
process of the reconstitution of the trade 
union ; to the formation of the third 
and modern phase ot the voluntary 
organisation ot labor, we must turn again 
to France. 

The similarity and the aimuHaneous- 
ness of the successive Bteps in the disso- 
lution of the medieval industrial system 
in England and France, notwithstanding 
the difference of the meass by which 
those steps were effected, should be con- 
clusive proof that the several countries 
of the Weet form one common whole. In 
France, the monarchy having succeeded 
in breaking the independent power of 
the aristocracy and in centralizing the 
whole power of the Slate in its own 
hands, the journeymen were excluded 
from the trade union by the sole force ot 
royal decrees ; but in England, the ark 
tocracy, by forcing the monarchs to 
respect the provisions of the Magna 
Charter, prevented such centralization, 
therefore, the monarchs were obliged to 
conspire with the richer citizens to 
effect that end. In France, the corpora- 
tions and the brotherhoods were dis- 
solved at one and the same time, and 
afterward, royal charters were granted to 
corporations of masters only, while tbe 
clergy were forbidden to allow any 
Journeymen brotherhoods to meet in the 
chapes, cloisters, or other places of their 
establishment* ; in England, however, 

the corporations were continued without 
any break, but minus the journeymen, 
and the brotherhoods were prevented 
from meeting in chapels, etc., by the 
con fie cation of those chapelB, etc., and 
all the property of the brotherhoods, 
together with that ot the regular clergy. 

As to dates it is well to notice that in 
1350, John, King of France, issued an 
ordinance forbidding workmen to de- 
mand and employers to pay, more thun 
one-third greater wages than the rate 
paid before the Black Heath; and, in 
1019, 1850-51, the English parliament 
forbade tbe demanding and paying of 
more than tbe same rate of wages which 
prevailed before that calamity. In 1377, 
a City Ordinance deprived the maBB of 
the London workers of the municipal and 
national electoral franchiee; and, in 
1383, Charles VI, deprived the city of 
Paris of its municipal government. 
Thenceforward, Louis XI, by his ordi- 
nance of June, 1407, Franc is I, by Mb 
edict of August, 1589, Francie II, by bis 
edict of July, 1559, and Henry 111, by 
his edict of December, 1581, accomplished 
the same result in France as was accom- 
plished in England during the period 
between the passing of tbe acts of parlia- 
ments known as .'ird Henry VI, in 1425, 
and the 5th Elizabeth, in l.M',2. 

Coming, at length, to the visible pro- 
cess of the reconstruction of the trade 
union, we are struck at the outset by the 
greater precociousnees and energy ot 
France, The English journeymen, Bore 
dismayed by the robbery of their ac- 
cumulated savings of many centuries, 
finally consummated by the Lord Pro- 
tector Somerset in iri51, proceeded with 
great caution in the work ot reconstruc- 
tion. They supplied the corporation 
feature of the union by the adoption of 
"houses of call," where employers 
might find workmen when help was 
needed, and where workmen could dis- 
cuss trade affairs over a " friendly pint 
of porter," without exciting suspicion ot 
illfgal combination ; and they met the 
brotherhood feature by the establish- 
ment of friendly societies, with more or 
lees eccentric titles and ceremonies, care 
being taken not to exhibit any special 
craft feature in connection therewith, in 
order to guard against further robbery 
by the State. The French journeymen, 
however, from the date ot their exclu- 
sion from the corporations, continued 
and developed the custom of travelling 
from city to city and meeting in certain 
tavernB or "houses of call ; " and, when 
excluded as brotherhoods from meeting 
in chapels, they elaborated a ritual or 
rituals of their own. In this way, by 
the middle of the sixteenth century, 
there had arisen in t rance a form or 
trade union organisation widely different 
from that which bad prevailed in pre- 
vious centuries. This organization was 
known as the Companionship (compag- 
nonnage), and it is our present purpose 
to reveal something of its form and 
method of working ; although many of 
its legends, ceremonies, piens and tokens 
are enshrouded in deepest mjitery. 

Tk$ Companionship.— That the Com- 
panionBbip wan the original form of the 
modern trade union is sufficiently clear 
from three of its characteristic features ; 
first, it was strictly confined to journey- 
men ; secondly, it united the workmen 
of the same trade disseminated through- 
out a territory extending over Bix de- 
grees or latitude and longitude; and 
thirdly, it united tbe functions of tbe 
corporation and of the brotherhood in 
one general craft organization, and thus 
formed the protective and benevolent 
trade union as it practically exists to-day 
Citita of the lour of /'ranee —Toward the 
close of the previous system, a young 
man having completed his apprentice- 
ship waB supposed, before competing for 

tbe mastership, to successively viBit and 
work Id certain cities where his craft was 
carried on in the most approved manner ; 
but, when tbe workmen could no longer 
hope to become masters, this migration, 
which iiad previously been only a tem- 
porary phase in the life of a workman, 
hecame, in nioBt cases, a life long habit. 
In course of time the tour, thus de- 
veloped, included eome sixteen to twenty 
principal cities, Bituate between the 
Mediterranean and the Seine ; beside 
a nnmber of so-called " baBtard towna " 
in which few or no branches of tbe Com- 
panionship existed. 

The Mother.- -This was the peculiar 
name given to the " house of call" of 
each trade in the several cities, the pro- 
prietor of which and Mb wife were called 
Father and Mother ; but they also Btyled 
the houBe itself the Mother (la naVe), 
A companion arriving in a city of tbe 
tour did not look for work himself; he 
went direct to the Mother, here he would 
make himself known by the proper sign, 
and, although he might be a complete 
stranger in the place, he was greeted as 
an old friend. No matter it be had 
money or not, he had a plate on tbe 
table, a seat by tbe fire and a good bed, 
until work waB found for him, and if he 
fell sick the Mother nursed him as a son. 
As the Companionship was responsible 
for the legitimate expenses ot any par- 
ticular member in such cases, the Mother 
suffered no pecuniary loss by thiB gener- 
oub hospitality. It was at the Mother 
that a young man was admitted as an 
"aspirant;" it was here he entered into 
the serious questione of trade policy as 
a "companion;" it was here he voted, 
feasted and trod "the light fantastic 
toe " at the annual election of officers, 
banquet and ball, and it was here when 
his life-work was done the companions 
assembled to carry him to the great 
Mother of us all. 

The Ofscert —General conferences of 
officers or delegates were doubtless held 
when Borne great special necessity arose, 
but there does not appear to have ever 
been any kind of general executive body 
connected with the Companionship. If 
a branch fell into financial difficulties, 
the sister branches of the same craft, or 
those of tbe same duty, came to its asei st- 
ance. Despite the confusing variety of 
figurative terms and special names used 
by the Companionship, the system of 
government was direct and very simple- 
The of 15 cere of each branch rarely ex- 
ceeded three in nnmber, and, although 
in the course of three centuries the titles 
of these officers changed somewhat, the 
functions performed by them varied but 
little. Each branch may be said to have 
had a premier, a vice-gerant, for the 
membereof the firet degree, and a sec- 

A business agent (rovleur) was ap- 
pointed by tbe premier each week, as 
was also a sick-committee. Tbs duties 
of the agent were both numerous and 
onerous. The agent received all new 
comers at the Mother, and informed 
them of the state of trade, rate ol wages, 
and of any boycott or strike that 
might exist. If a new comer elected to 
continue bis journey, and was destitute 
of funds, tbe agent saw that he waB 
relieved, and if he elected to remain, the 
agent found him work. If no vacancy 
existed it was the agent's daty to find 
eome one willing to leave the city, or to 
notify those employed to work less time, 
in order to give the new comer room for 
employment. In introducing a journey- 
man to an employer, the employer was 
required to advance one day's wages. 
ThiB advance the agent retained. Before 
bis week's term of ollice expired, the 
agent called a meeting of those whom 
he had thus placed, and returned the 
advance money to each, less a certain 
proportion for the branch treasury, and 

with the money thus returned the mem- 
bers paid for a banquet, in which the 
agent shared < ■<■ ijh do. He fore a com- 
panion quitted the city the agent was 
reqnired to see that the accounts between 
the companion and his employer, ami 
between tbe companion and the branch 
were settled, also all obligation toward 
bis fellow-workmen. The agent then 
called a special meeting to bid the de- 
parting member farewell. 

7 he Constitution.— It ie impossible to 
decide to which trade the credit is due of 
originating the Companionship. The 
masons make a strong claim to that 
honor; but after many years study of 
this and cognate questions we would be 
inclined to claim the honor of thus 
founding the modern trade union for the 
carpenters, were we not convinced that 
the Companionship was a long and 
gradnnl evolution. In tbe course of its 
development, the Companionship was 
constituted of the masons, plasterers, 
carpenters, joiners, roofers, glaziere, gild- 
ers, locksmiths, turners, coopers, sabot- 
makers, wagon-makers, smiths, horse 
shocrg, cutlers, nail makers, tanners, 
curriere, saddlers, shoemakers, hatters, 
weavers, tailors, rope-makers, bakers, 
and printers. Regarded from the stand- 
point of trade anatomy, we Bee a numher 
of widely-extended institutions ol 
mutual insurance, credit and education, 
and from tbe standpoint of working-clasn 
solidarity, a powerful federation which 
energetically defended by tbe boycott 
(rihttrdit), the strike {In frht), and oft- 
times by physical force, the interests of 
its affiliated unionB. 

The Duty,— Wo muBt know something 
of the obligation, charge or duty (It 
devoir) in order to understand the real 
nature, the Btrength and aspirations of 
the Companionship. Unfortunately, as 
some are inclined to think, there was 
not one duty, but three duties, to which 
the several unions held allegiance. The ne 
duties were known as those of tbe 
Children of Father Kouhise ; of the 
Children of Master Jacques; and of the 
Children of King Solomon. Many of 
tbe mason's local unions held to the duty 
of Solomon, but other of their unions 
held to that of Jacques. The joiners' 
unions were thuB divided, and so also 
were thoee ot the locksmiths. It is 
probable that all carpenters originally 
held allegiance to the duty of Boubiee ; 
but, in Paris, some unions seceded and 
claimed the duty of Solomon. A pro- 
longed and bloody fend, in this case, was 
fortunately averted by a treaty, which 
divided the city of Paris, so far as car- 
penters were concerned, in two nearly 
equal portions, the half of the city on 
tbe left bank of the Seine being conceded 
to the carpenters of Solomon, which 
territory they hold to day. 

The legends which are soppoBed to ac- 
count for the origin of these several 
dutieB, although couched in somewhat 
figurative language, are, at all events, 
useful in revealing the long cherished 
aspiration for working class solidarity; 
and, as such, must he taken into account 
by the historians of the future- We 
gather from* the legend ot Jacques that 
the founder of that duly was the sod of" 
one J ai quin, who wss probably a mem- 
ber ot one of tbe few fragments of the 
mason's union (collegium urchiieetiit, 
which in the in vat ion of the barbarians, 
escaped the general wreck of Roman in- 
stitutions. Jacques was born in the 
small town of Carte in Gaul, now known 
as Kt- Romili, France ; and appears to 
have been possessed with the idea of re- 
uniting the workers of the world in * 
federated system of trade unions, as they 
existed before the fall ot Rome ; but, ot 
course, without slavery or State patron- 
age and control. On his death, the 
legend states, be devised his hat to the 
hatters; his tunic to the masons; hii 




aandaln to the locksmiths ; his cloak t( 
the joiner i J^hi a belt to the carpei 
and hia^^g|*^^^^^£ jwagonaij 



trade TnmViiiiOD 

craft, in particular. The duty of Solo- 
mon see ma to have been a special at- 
tempt at each organization on the part 
of the masons, and it is probable that 
it is from this latter duty that specula- 
tive freemasonry has derived its main 

7he Mtu<tl.— Notwithstanding the great 
variety of special names used by the 
several trades to designate the degrees 
in the different dutieB, there never were 
more than two legitimate degrees in the 

A young man having served fa is appren- 
ticeship, to the carpenter trade for in- 
stance, would come to the Mother and ask 
to be received as a member. Me was ques- 
tioned in order to ascertain if his inten- 
tions were serious. It the interview was 
satisfactory, he was engaged {embauche), 
and told to come to the next general 
assembly ; invariably held on the first 
Sunday ot each month. The candidate, 
having presented himself at the time 
specified, was conducted into the pres- 
ence of all the members ; the rules were 
read to him, and he was asked if he 
could and would conform thereto. If be 
answers! " Yes ! " he was conducted to a 
seat and farther instructed. He was 
then required to choose a name by which 
he would thereafter be known in the 
Companionship. Having so chosen a 
name he was from that time forth no 
more addressed by the title of citizen, 
or brother, or Mr., but always as 
Country lie pay»). This custom doubt- 
less arose from the recognition that the 
Companionship was superior to the 
medieval trade union in the fact that it 
was not bounded by the walls of any 
one city, but was extended as widely as 
the language or the country extended, 
regardless of any political frontiers, In 
ceasing to be an apprentice he had also 
ceased to be, in the terms peculiar to the 
carpenters, a rabbit (iapin) ; he bad 
now become a lox (rtnard), and, if found 
a* intelligent and active as hie name- 
sake, be might in time become an ape 
{ringe) ; that is to say, be would become 
a regular companion ; or, in other words, 
a good fellow {bon-iirUlu), and be eligible 
to office. But as yet, while a fox, he 
could not wear the square and compasses, 
or the knot ot red, white and green rib- 
bon in his left button hole, or wear the 
white gloves, which with the travelling 
cane, were the symbols ot the Carpen- 
ters' Union. 

If a companion was found guilty of dis- 
graceful conduct he was expelled by a 
ceremony called the Convoy of Grenoble. 
In tull meeting the condemned was 
forced to his knees , the companions then 
est up a peculiar chant, similar to the 
Celtic "keening"; his glass was shat- 
tered into fragments ; his colors were 
torn from his button-hole and burner); 
the agent then led him by the hand 
around the room and each companion in 
turn slapped his face ; the door was then 
opened, and, finally, the agent kicked 
him oat. 

When a companion died, the branch 
buried him. On the colli n were placed 
two traveling canes crossed, the square 
and compasses, and the ribbons of the 
cratt. Each companion wore crape on 
his left arm, on his colors, and on his 
cane. They carried the coffin by groupB 
ot four or six, changing from time to 
time, until all had borne a share of the 
burden. Arrived at the grave, they placed 
the coffin on the ground and formed 

as the tiuilhri tU 


around it the "living circle." One of the 
en-il an address, and all 
ami chanted while the 
nto the grave. Two 
aced crosswiee on the 
ninns placed their 
I hatnl, 
in "ne an- 
arTem brace known 
Tit retiring they knelt 
a^ain on the edge <>f the grave and threw 
three clods of earth on the coffin. All 
performed these operations in turn ; and, 
then reforming ranks, returned to the 

'1 he Comoy.—k companion about to 
leave a city to resume hia travels, was 
honored with a convoy {coruluile en rtyU) 
beyond the walls. Quitting work at the 
week's end, a special assembly would be 
called on Saturday evening. On Sunday 
morning he took a parting glass with the 
Mother; the companions donned their 
ribbons, the music at ruck up and the 
convoy then started. Passing thiougb 
the city gates, they marched along, sing- 
ing in chorus the songs of the duty, until, 
arriving at some wood or other secluded 
spot, they raised the peculiar chant of the 
Companionship, and, finally, givj 
guilbrttte to the departing compa 
convoy retraced its steps to the 

ForHthd by Per*?ndion. — We 
deavored in the foregoing to 
eral view of the form and of 
tions of this organization, 
in this country. It must not however be 
supposed that this organization attained 
its full power without repeated attempts 
of the State to repress it. Indeed, it is 
by the very multiplicity and ferocity of 
the royal and judicial decrees and ordi- 
nances, levelled against the companion- 
ship, that we are chiefly enabled to real- 
ize its power and to trace its continued 
working during three centuries. 

An edict of December 28, 1541, pro- 
hibited the companion printers of Lyons 
making agreement to delay work, to 
choose olficers among themselves, or to 
assemble at the doors of master printers 
in greater number than five persons. 

An ordinance of May 15, 157ft, forbid 
the companion bakers of Paris, who were 
then on strike for an increase of wages, 
to work under less than a six months 
engagement ; it also forbid master bakers 
to employ any journeyman without a 
written discharge from his previous 

An edict of January 10, 1601, prohib- 
ited the companion shoemakers of Paris 
accosting any journeyman of that craft, 
or to serve as agents in procuring work 
for others ; or to assemble in greater 
number than three, under pain of ban- 
ishment or worse. 

AfotLacy of the Criipins.— The first gen- 
eral official investigation of the cere- 
monies of the companionship took place 
between 1648 and 1650. It appears that 
a companion shoemaker took olIenBe at 
the ceremony of initiation and abjured 
his membership. Not resting here, he 
organized a body named the Brothers of 
Crispin, and obtained legal sanction for 
its existence. In consequence of this 
application, information was obtained 
from the secede rs, which resulted in the 
indictment of the Companionship by the 
municipality of Paris, in 164H. At length, 
on March 23, 1051, the shoemakers were 
induced to disclose the secrets of the r 
cratt ; and on May lfl following they sol. 
emnly foreswore the duty of Master Jac- 
ques. In the excitement which followed, 
disclosures were also made concerning 
the ceremony ot the saddlers, tailors, cut- 
ters and hatters, some portion of which 
were printed and published. Upon the 
strength of these revelations, the faculty 
of the Sorbonne wae asked for an 
opinion. This opinion in writing was 
delivered March 14, 1665 


of condemnation which 
examination was co nfirm ed 
ernment, May 30, ^fR, and 

posted throughout France. 

'f'riumphanf Labor. — The companion- 
ship was too deeply rootsd, however, to 
be destroyed by judicial verdicts, decrees 
or anathemas, and twenty years later we 
see it carrying on the work of organiza- 
tion more vigorously than ever. On May 
5, 1883, the master locksmith's corpora- 
tion of Toulouse asked for protection 
against the Companionship which had 
beaten and driven out of that city all 
who did not belong to the duty. On 
October, 3, Kiss, the maeter tailors' cor- 
poration of Lyons bear testimony as to 
the power of the companion tailors, who, 
in the Mothers of the Silver < lock, the 
White Cross, the Scissors, and seven 
others named, make their cabals, rais- 
ing over many other such appeals for 
protection made during a whole century, 
we will only refer to that of the maBter 
joiners of Toulouse, in January, 1783, 
which declares that the Companionship 
braves the authority of the police and has 
become formidable to the troops that 
the magistrates send to disperse them. 
Effect of tht He- iimion. — France was 
r, indeed, in the early throes of a 
st ^ilitical revolution. Under the 
fluence of the new-born doctrine of the 
alternate " rights of man," the royal 
finance minister, ^r^ot, had decreed on 
March 12, 1776, tH jeuppreBBion of the 
maBtere' corporations. Bat how far 
that suppression and the succeeding vig- 
orous attempt to realize those "inalien- 
able rights," affected the Companion- 
ship we have yet to see. 

A Hiciti JtsES decision is that of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois, that the 
Eight-Hour law ot that State, or the 
"sweatshop law" as it is commonly 
called, 18 unconstitutional, and that the 
appropriation for factory inspectors is 
illegal. The law was exclusively for the 
protection of women. Yet Massachu- 
setts has a ten hour law on a similar 
basis and it is not yet ruled out, nor is 
the law of New York and other States as 
to factory inspection considered uncon- 


Is ft list of the 

• rule to work 

A 1 bin ft, Ore(. 
Alluton, Mami. 
Aniesburv. Mam. 
Atlantic City, N.J. 
Arlington, Mama, 
ArmniM Harbor, Te- 
Anacortee, Wash. 
Anbury Park, N. J. 
Aston*, Orea, 
Ashevllle N.O. 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Auburn, Me. 
Akron, O. 
A I too ii a. Pa, 
Apollo, Pft. 
Anderson, I ml. 
Allegheny Ctty, Pft. 
Albany, N. Y, 
A mil n . Tel. 
Bakemneld, Oal. 
Bay Oily. Midi. 
Bar Harbor, Me. 
Baltimore, Md 
Belle Vernon. Pft. 
Bath (teach. N. Y. 
Buffalo, N, V. 
Bry n Mawr, Pft, 
Butler, Pft. 
Bevonne, N. I. 
Botae Clt?, Idaho, 
Burlington, Iowa. 
Blaine, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Ohio. 
Bradford Mam. 
Brunswick. Me, 
Brad dock, Pa. 
Hallalre, Ohio, 
Belleville, III. 
Belleville, Can. 
Bollevue, Pa. 
Hon tori. Mam. 
Bridgeport. Conn. 
Brockton. Mam. 
Beaver Fells Pft. 
Brookllne, Mara. 
Butte Mont, 
Carrol 1 Ion, «a. 
Cairo, IK, 
Oalgary, i 

Meriden, Conn. 
Mollne, 111. 
Mobile, Ala, 
Muncle, "lid. 
Moundsvllle W. V». 
Muskegon, Mich. 
McKeoH|>ort, Pa. 
Mt Pleasant, Pa. 
New Britain. Conn. 
Nelnotiville, O. 
North Br* ton. Mum. 
New Remington, Pft. 
Norfolk, V». 
New Orleans, I, a. 
Newpott, It. I 
Newport, Ky 
Newport News, Va» 
Newtown, N. Y. 
Newbury port. Mans. 
Kaimliiio, Brit. Col. 
Nyaok, N. Y. 
Norwood. Mul. 
N. I -a Crosse, Wto. 
Natch ex, Miss. 
New Cumberland, W.V 
New Oastlo, Pft. 
New Haven, Conn, 

Hew Rochelte, N. Y. 
New Westminster, B, O. 
Nyaek N. Y, 
Newark, N. J. 
NaMck, Mam. 
Newton, Mam, 
Newburgh, N. Y. 
New Bedford, Mam, 
New Albany, Ind, 
New Brighton, N. Y. 
New Rrunnwiek, N. J. 
Northampton, I " 
Norwich, Conn, 
Norwalk. Conn. 
Oceanic, N. J. 
Oswego, N. Y. 
Ogden Utah. 
Olean, N. Y. 
Ottawa. Oan. 
Ottumwft, I« 
Ottawa, 111 

t Iowa. 

(The. sea, Mul. 
Charlnrol, I'a. 
Charleston, W. Va, 
Oharbntown, W.Vft, 

Cheater, Pa. 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Cerona. N, Y. 
Covington, Ky. 
Col urn oils, Qa. 
Columbus, Ind. 
Camden. N. J. 
Concordia, Kan. 
Columbia. 9 O. 
ColIltiBvltle, III. 
Oohoes, N. Y. 
Oorslcana, Ten. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Cambridge, Mam. 
Charlestown, Mam. 
Chattanooga, Tern. 
Coraopolta, Pa. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Colorado City, CoL 
Colorado Spring*, ' 
Cormwkll, N. V 
Corryville, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ky. 
Dee Moines, Iowa. 
Da ven port.Iowa 
Dover, N H 
Decatur, 111, _ 
Detroit, Ml oh. 
Dedham, M 
Dorchester, ™. 
D 110,11*0 no, Pft. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
Dallas, Tex. 
El Paso, Tel. 
East Liverpool, Ohio. 
Ea*t Saginaw, Mich. 
Rant Orange, N J. 
Kan I Portland, Oreg. 
East Boston, Mans. 
Kan ton. Pa. 
Elizabeth, N, J. 
El wood, Ind. 
El wood. Pft. 
Erie, Pft. 

Englewood, N. J. 
Evansvllle, Ind. 
Everett. Mam. 
Exeter, N. H. 
Eureka, Oal. 
Pair Haven, Wash. 
Pall Rtvsr Mann. 
Find lay, Ohio. 
Fltobburg, Hull. 
Fret no. Cat. 
Frank ford. Pft. 
Franklin, Pa, 
Fort Worth, Tex- 
Fort Wayne, Ind, 
Foetorla, Ohio. 
Franklin, Mam, 
Galr.xburg. 111. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Urand Rapids, Mich. 
Greet rails, Mont. 
Ureensbarg, Pa. 
(Ireenflehl, Ind. 
Gloucester, Mass. 
Greenville, Pa. 
German low n , Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn, 
Grove Olxy, Pa. 
Glan Care, N, Y. 
Hot Spriftjrs, Ark. 
Hamilton Can, 
Hartford, Conn. 
Halifax, N. B. 
Hampton, Va. 
Haverhill, Mass. 
Hackensack, N. J. 
Harrtman, Tenn. 
Hftrrtaburg, Pft. 
Henderson, Ky. 
Hudson, Mean. 
Herkimer, N. Y. _ 
Hooslck Palls, N. Y. 
Hyd rVk Mw. 
Hoboken , N J. 
HcJyoke. Mass. 
Houston , Tex. 
■•oaten Halshta, 
HI ogham. Mam. 
Irvington, N. Yi 
Ithaca, N, Y. 
Jacksonville, Til. 
Jackson. Mich. 
Jacksonville, (1*. 
Jeannette, Pa, 
Jersey City, N. J. 
Kearney, Neb. 
Knoxvllle. Tenn. 

Kingston, J». Y. 
Ijmslngburg, N. Y, 
Lawrence, Maen. 
I a Crome, Wis. 
La Junta, Col, 
I/Ognimpnrt, Ind. 
Lowell, Mam. 
Lynn, Mann. 
Leecbh.irg, Pa. 
Iieomlnnter, Mass. 
Lafayette, Ind. 
I aii caster, Pft. 
I^swlnton, Me. 
Lincoln, Neb. 
Ijondon, Canada. 
Lock land, O. 
l.ong Island City, N. 
Loiik Branch, N. J. 
Inmlivlllr. Ky. 
Manchester. N. II. 
Marlboro, Mam. 
Marion, Ind. 
Morrlntown, N, J. 
Ma in. , -link , Pft. 
Maiden, Mam. 
MlllvtllA, M.J. 
Media, Pa. 
Mealvllle, Pft, 
Med ford, Mann. 
Mar hie head. Mam. 
Mayneld, Ky. 
Motintigjalienv Pa. 

Mem plils, Tenn 

Martin's Fen 

N. Y. 



Mt. Vernon, 

i Perry, 
Mwipeth, N. Y. 
M 1 1 ford, O. 
Mamftroneck, N. Y. 
Mercer, Pft. 
Mlddlcsborough, Ky. 
Southampton, N. Y. 

Conshohooken, Pa. 
Cortland, N Y. 
Ottumwa, la. 
Hlll8b<,ro, Tex. 
Han go r, Pft, 
Haughvllle. Ind 

Omaha, Neb. 
Orange, N J. 
Olympla. Wash 
PftWtm fcet, R. I 
Port i 'In-liter 
Port rownaeu 
Pannaie, N. J. 
Plymouth, Mann 
Pomeroy, O. 
Portland, Mi 
Port A 

PoHbllo, Itlahl_ 

■jcisie, N . Y. 

ita. Pa. 

j N.J. 
rh Pa. 

kembtirgh, W. Va. 
Paris, TexftB, 
Portervllle, CftL 
Peoria, 111. 
Providence, R. I. 
Qulncy, Mam. 
Racine, Wis. 
Rochester, Pa. 
Richmond, Vft. 
Richmond, Ky. 
Richmond, Ind. 
Rock Island, III. 
Kondout, N. Y. 
Ituiljury, Mans. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Hosed ale, Ind. 
Revere, Mass. 
Riverside. CaL 
Red Bank, N.J, 
Rudlands, Cal. 
Rock ford. III. 
Rutherford, N. J.. 
B. Pram Ingham, 
Springfield. Mam. 
Ht. Augustine, FJ». 
ho nth Omaha, Neb. 
Month Norwalk, C 
Bouth Bend, Ind. 
Sat em. Mass, 
Btoneham, Mam. 
Bomervllle, Mam, 
Bomervtlle, N. J, 
Baltsburg, Pft. 
Salt Lake City. 
Ban Angelo, Tex, 
Sandusky, Ohio. 
Bhreveport, Lft. 
Htamford, Conn, 
BsaOlllT, N, Y. 
Springfield, 111. 
Springfield, Me. 
Springfield, Ohio, 
San Leandro, Oal. 
Bteubenville, Ohio, 
Banta Anna, Cal. ■ 
Santa Rosa, Oal. 
Seattle, Wash. 
St. John's, N. B, 
Sax on vi He, Mam. 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Boottdftle, Pa. 
Spokane, Wan U. 
Sharon, Pa 
Sheffield, Ala. 
Stftten Island, N. Y. 
sweater, Gf. 
Stougbton, Mam. 
S. Abingdon. Mass. 
8t Oatkerine. Ont. 
Ran Antonio. Tex. 
Ban Bernardino, Cal. 
Scran ton. Pa. 
Sharps rllle, Pft. 
Sharpeburg, Pa. 
SI Paul, Minn. 
BftntaOrux CaL 
Saginaw City. Mian. 
Slonx City, lows. 

kd Bay. Pi, Y 


Tamps, Ylft. 
Taunton, Mass. 
TawasClly, Miob. 
Tarry town, N. Y. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
The Dalles, Orea. 
TlfUn, Ohio. 
Toronto, Ohio. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Tomato , Out,, 10 hra, 
Trenton, N. J. 
Trinidad, CoL 
Troy, N, Y. 
Tarcntum, Pft. 
Turtle Creek, Pft. 
Union Hill, N. J. 
BMc», N. Y. 
Unlontown, Pft, 
Vancouver, B. CL 
Victoria, R C. 
Vlncennea, Ind. 
VlmJIa, CaJ. 
Waxahatchie, Tex. 
Wellslmrg, W. Va. 
West Moboken, N.J, 
WeslDuliith, Minn. 
Warren. Ohio. 
Y, Winchester. Ky. 
Wlutlirnp, Mam, 
Windsor. Can. (Ont.) 
Weymouth, Mam. 
Wabash, Ind. 
Waltham, I 
Waco, Tex. 
W. Newton, » 
Worcester, Uu . 
Washlagton, Pm. 
Wilmington Del, 
Whitman Mass. 
Wobnrn, Mam, 
WlacbcHter, Muss. 
Wheeling, W. Va. 
WllklBRburg, Pft. 
Winnipeg, Man. 
Woodnlde. N. Y. 
Wlnfleld, N. Y. 
V oakum, Tex. 
Vonkem, N. Y. 
Ynungstewn. Ohio. 
Zanftsvllle, Ohio. . 
College Point. N. Y. 

WlUifttnatKldge. V. T. 

I A Salle, 111. 
Rockland, Me. 
Battle Creek, Mich. 
Flushing, N.Y. 
Dover, N. J. 
Mliburn, N.J. 
Mt. Washington, O, 

llle.O. Peru, 111. 

%Jtei ^sz^* -* 



Tin* Ft»rlsc*i« 

We dnip and driiim itiul li t 1 1 it- worM K" ••>" 
Shut up nn 1b thi nystir in bta rtwM, 
And fntlt'M Biciilr-BH ii|mn tilt rlinic 

And dot« of tiling-, until tit Im< torn forth, 

PnltiuivrlnR hnw <>r why nur futc i» wrnnnlil. 
And then Htwl Bp, u dninly di»h fur dialli 

Wr fmiry we work nnd move Itie «ur!d, 

Stmply because w* pita up psaiftr B*to». 
Make revtatn profit* and Inwenaf our stow, 

t'ntniiidfiil c.f tin- many |miirniid weak 

Wliu loM their lHb->r, a« Ike? Rl'Bib iiiu-l low, 

That Wt may win. Mid H*t mid liiive. Mid keep. 

Wi- hIiui nur«elven witliin nur uarrmv liouii'f. 
And tlnri- we QvMtkt Hiul lit v undr Mil ItaiM, 
Our wtv« and little em- besMa M lln-rc. 
And nil i- nlactd, M»«-cl. Mrelt* itnd r-tlin 

W> i : l t nut-atl*** upon our atuphi hr**al» 

And nay; '* Reliuld I OhartM what wr liavr 
iftMH! ! 

Tin- rich t. ward nf a iiiiinI VtrtWlIM life. 
And all in ouih, nnd we luivr earned it M ell " 

Home rawtMM tool Iihb Hat tlio door njrti : 

Tile cold wind roafteS In and there w Ithoul 

Ih lalmr. pate and weary, weak and wnrn. 

His worried wife and starve! i ni; ehlldren there 

And liall inquiring, half reliellinu- eye- 

Deiuaud : " Who net* in> -hart- of tbif »orld'n 

wnrk '■" 

Itnw xixin weerusli aii'UHliiK eimwienea down, 
Hhul nut Ilic mid and tluit dhrtretafttl tight, 
Urn iv o|o«e to utour wives and little on en. 
And e< in lit with can- nur petty Imard Ogata, 

Tiiankful timt wr an- not** other men. 

Howard Wii.i.et. 

The Laltor Question. 


E here Rive a synopsis 
of a very exhaustive 
and instructive lec- 
ture delivered by Al- 
fred F. Jury, of To- 
ronto, Canada, before 
the Political Science 
Club and Students of Toronto Univer- 
sity, January 26, 1805. The faculty of 
the University refused to allow the 
use of the gymnasium hall for the lec- 
ture, notwithstanding the Political Sci- 
ence Ciub had arranged and printed a 
programme for a series of lectures on 
which Mr. Jury's lecture was announced. 
The objection of the faculty to Mr. 
Jury and to Mr. Phillips Thompson, a 
labor man, who was booked for a lecture 
the same night with Mr. Jury, it is 
alleged, rests on the fact that neither of 
the gentlemen had been educated in an 
orthodox college or university and were 
simply workingmen. 

Mr. A 11 red F. Jury is a working tailor, 
an old time, true-spirited, progressive 
trade unionist, a confrere of George 
Kecarius, the noted London tailor and 
labor writer. Mr. Jury, by his practical 
experience and ardent labors in Eng- 
land in his youth and in this country for a 
score or more years, well qualifies: bim to 
advise the working people, and his views 
are the result of mature, ripe thought 
and sturdy bold investigation. In his 
address to the Toronto students he said i 
I wish to bs distinctly understood at 
the outset that I do not appear here as a 
teacher of political acience. I am here 
most willingly, at your request, to aflord 
the members or your club an opportu- 
nity or hearing a labor man of the old 
school give bis views on this most im- 
portant subject. 

Society may go for a time by the govern- 
ing classes bribing this element, cajoling 
that, coercing the other; but the fruits 
of injustice will in time be as surely 
visited on the community practicing it 
as will the fruits of immorality on the 

The architect of society must be gov- 
erned by the same laws as the architect 
of a building—he must have a solid 
foundation for his superstructure, and, 
in my opinion, the only solid and safe 
fouudaUon tor human society is the well- 
being of the whole people. 

Why need we talk about a civil is alio" 
" passing away" while the conditions 
of nature are Bitch that man can live 
upon this earth V The llrst law of eMtt- 
Ration should be like the first law of 
nature— self-preservation. The peoples 
who in the past neglected this primary 
law, though they may have luid the 
linest language, literature, Rlatnes and 
pictures the world has ever seen, wore 
only partially civilized. A real civiliza- 
tion does not depend upon literature 
and art, but upon a high standard of 
living and intelligence among the com- 
mon people, What interests have the, 
industrious and I.oneBt poor in preserv- 
ing a state of Bsciety which takes from 
them a large part of the products of 
their labor in order to create a few mil- 
lionaires, and then taxes them on the 
remainder to keep soldiers and police to 
protect these millions from the tramps 
and thieves which those very conditions 
of society bad produced ? For with the 
centralisation of wealth by legislation 
on this part of the American continent 
weeee a corresponding increase of crime. 
When the people see the State give the 
few the legal power to rob the many 
their reBpect for law and property is 

But no donbt by this time many of 
yon are saying: We have heard all this 
before. What is your remedy? To 
paraphrase Carlyle, I have no Pink Pill 
that will cure all the, ills that society is 
heir to. The causes are many, and many 
remedies will have to be applied ; moat 
of them to ourselves— the workers. 

The first is the real desire on our part 
to improve the condition of the workers, 
on the broad ground of humanity rather 
than the narrow ground of self-interest. 
Then the eflort will be continuous, in- 
stead of spasmodic, as it generally is at 
present. We must become organized, 
that we may be able to understand our 
mutual wants and to have power to en- 
force our mutual demands. We must 
have intelligence, eo that our demands 
will be reasonable and attainable. We 
must have courage, that we may be 
ready to make sacrifices in the cause of 
justice. We mint educate ourselves, 
organize, agitate and co-operate. 

I am not one of those who believe that 
trades unions have either failed in, or 
fulfilled their mission- I do not believe 
that the day of the successful strike is 
past, and I think that those who make 
such statements, whether they be single 
tax era or socialists, are asserting what 
they know very little about, and doing 
harm to the cause of labor. 

Trades unionists seldom etrike until 
they have exhausted every other honor- 
able means to obtain their righto. The 
best way to prevent strikes is to be 
thoroughly organized. If a trade is 
thoroughly organized, and wages through- 
out are uniform, the employers have no 
excuse for lowering wages on the gronnd 
that bo me of their competitors are get- 
ting labor cheaper than themselves. 
There is an old saying that the best way 
to preserve peace ie to be prepared for 
war. I believe that by thorough combi- 
nation among the workers they could 
get the full results of their labor, less 
interest on capital and reasonable wages 
of superintendence. But I ehall be told 
that It is impossible to get thorough 
combination. It it is, then eo much the 
worse tor my socialist brother ; because 
to make Socialism a success you require 
just as thorough combination as for 
trades unions, together with intelligence 
of a higher order and a greater practice 
of altruism. 

The reason why trades unions have 
not been in the past the success we could 
wish, is the lack of the very principle 
necessary to build up socialism, namely, 
altruism. The hogs and quitters and 
scabs from within have done more to re- 

tard the success of unionism than all the 
enemies on the outside. Even if we had 
the single tax on land values— a consum- 
mation most devoutly to be wished— we 
should have to he organized in order to 
take the 'full advantage of its effects. 
Mill says: 

" I do not hesitate to say that associa- 
tions of laborers, of a nature Bimilar to 
trades unions, far from being a hin- 
drance to a free market lor labor, are the 
necessary instrumentality of that lree 
market— the indispensable means of 
enabling the sellers ot labor to take due 
care or their own interest tinder a system 
of competition." 

As we should still have competition 
tinder the single tax, we should still 
need unions. Trades unions are, I think, 
eminently suited to our elate of mental 
and social development— rather ahead 
than behind. The fact that we have not 
used them for half their worth is Btifli- 
cient proof to me that we have not out- 
grown them. 

If it were desirable (which I dispute) 
to carry on the production ami distribu- 
tion of the country in our collective 
capacity, we are not eapubtt of doing so. 
It we cannot half use the simple, we 
would he sure to bungle the complex. 
None are bo loud an the Socialists in their 
complaints against the laws which govern 
society to day : yet all these laws have 
been put upon the statute books by the 
people in their collective capacity as 
law-makers. And those laws which 
have done the moat to centralize wealth 
and spread poverty have been passed 
during our own time— passed since the 
great preponderance of voting power 
has been with the producing classes. I 
refer to the giving away of the public 
landB, the monopolization of transporta- 
tion, the restriction of exchange of the 
products of labor, and the fencing-in of 
capitalists from that competition which 
the laborers have to submit to ; and the 
giving of close corporations by act of 
legislation to the lawyers, doctors, and 
other professional classes. The remedy 
lies more in repealing bad laws than in 
enacting new ones. 

Carlyle says ! " Alas, by no reform 
bill, ballot box, five-point charter, by no 
boxes of bills or charters can you per- 
form this alchemy ; Given a world of 
knaves to produce an honesty from their 
united action." And I do not think we 
can perform the alchemy of carrying on 
collectivism by a people who must have 
been badly fooled in the past or we 
would never be in the position we are in. 
We have a country exceedingly blessed 
by Nature and exceedingly cursed by 
government. If not, how is it that bo 
many are to-night without the means of 
reasonably enjoying life ? Are we 
idlers, shiftless, drunken, incompetent 7 
Are our people without ambition or 
energy ? Has there been a year during 
the last twenty that there have not been 
plenty of willing and competent hands 
to do all the labor required to supply our 
wants ; has there been a time when as a 
people we have not produced enough by 
that labor to supply those wants V I say, 
"No." Then how is it that in a country 
so blessed, and with Buch a population, 
one in every seventeen of the population 
of Toronto receive charity ? I repeat, 
the people have been fooled—their 
ignorance of politics has made them a 
ready prey to the demagogues. And 
yet, forsooth, our socialist friends would 
have us extend the sphere of govern- 
ment bo as to give the political fakirs a 
wider field of action— they have done 
so well In the past? Let us show, by 
making this country a better country to 
live in, that we can intelligently use the 
power we have. More government ma- 
chinery would befog as instead of edu- 
cating us, when we have taken eo little 
advantage of the bounties of Nature as 

not to be able to supply the necessities or 
all, while we can produce in ahundance. 

You, young men of the Political Science 
Club, of Toronto University, know whai 
acomplicated piece of mechanism modem 
society is. I feel you must realize whm 
a cnlamity it would he for government 
as we know them to he entrusted with 
such gigantic powers ; as having in their 
hands the machinery of production am! 
distribution, and it is waste ot time In 
speculate about or build upon what gov 
crnntents will he able to do until we Bee 
them and know what they are like 
You know from the leseone of history 
that society will not he revolutionized 
it can he reformed, it will evolve ii 
never remains stationary. The princi- 
ples of government can never for loiu- 
he lower or higher than the average 
elector understands and approves. Crom- 
well in Kiigland and the Revolutionist- 
in France tried to go beyond the people. 
Both failed, but they proved that the 
sun would shine even if monarehe lose 
their heads. 

A Blight knowledge of the law of supply 
and demand would soon teach the work 
ing class that while they keep within Un- 
productiveness or their labor, the Rhorter 
hours they work the higher their wages 
will be. And we know by the million- 
aires in our midst ami by the rapid 
accumulation or wealth since the era of 
legal robbery and confiscation net in 
that there is a large margin upon which 
workin>;meii could encroach before atleet 
ing legitimate capital. 

I said just now that trades unions 
could secure to the workera the full re- 
sultn of their labor, less interest on 
capital and wages of superintendence 
Under our present system that is all we 
are entitled to. If we want the balance 
we must do the superintending and own 
the capital. The way to this is dear. 

Co-operation will go a long way to- 
ward settling the industrial part of the 
labor '1'ieetion at least ho far as pro- 
duction and local distribution are con- 
cerned. There are few industries in this 
country that have in their nature any 
thing to prevent the woikinginen from 
managing them and having in return all 
that their labor will produce. But they 
must have the capital to start them and 
the ability to conduct them. It is un- 
reasonable to expect to get all the pro- 
ducts of our labor if we do not own or 
control all the factors of production. 

I think the difficulties in the way of 
co-operation are more those of character 
than of capital. Men are too jealous, 
selfish and mistrustful of one smother, 
and sometimes do not respect the confi 
dence of their fellowB when they are 
entrusted with it. 

They are ready to take umbrage or 
insult at a smsll thing said by one of 
their fellows whom they have elected to 
manage them and their work. Yet the 
same men will take the vilest abuse from 
the boBB, the manager or the foreman. 
They lack the power to discipline them- 
selves, but will stand any amount of 
discipline from others. In spite of these 
drawbacke the success of the co-operative 
societies in Ureat Britain 1b phenomenal. 
Their business has grown from a cipher 
in 1H48 to fifty millions of pounds ster- 
ling in 1893, and all this from twelve 
workingmen first meeting in the old 
town of Bochdale and putting down one 
Bbilling each. When such a email 
beginning can grow in forty- four years 
to nearly b'ix tiineB the national income 
of this country, eurely what has beendone 
there could be done here and now, if we 
only had the necessary qualities. 

Some Socialists in England and Canada 
have belittled and even calumniated this 
co operative movement, but I want to 
tell all such that the men who can 
accomplish this under existing condi- 
tions might be able to elect a govern- 


ment that would do it for them, but the 
men who have never shown enough 
ability to manage a co-operative grocery 
store, could not. Ta'lk o f tiHing the ballet 
to select the captains of industry. Yon 
might m well talk of using the ballot to 
select the highest jumper, the fastest 
runner, or the heat foot-ball team. 

Co-operation, I repeat, will give the 
laborera the wages of labor, the waged of 
superintendence, the interest on capital 
and the profits. That would go a long 
way towards (settling the industrial 
phase of the labor question. If we do 
not know enough to do it ourselves, we 
do not know enough to elect a govern- 
ment that can do it successfully for us. 
1 turn now to the municipal and national 
ownership or control of monopolies. 
The principle is one which, were I in 
Kngland, 1 would nupporl. Hut in 
Toronto 1 shall oppose it, so loDg as the 
people elect councils like the present, 
the members of which take a narrow 
view of their public duties. 

There are other sides to the ureal labor 
ipieetion, at which time will permit of 
only a passing glance, hut which never- 
theless are of the greatest importance. 

First among these is the land question, 
which I believe would be settled for a 
long time to come by levying a tax on 
ground rents and land values to their 
full extent. Bat considering the way in 
which a large amount of oar tund had 
been acquired, thiB should be done 

The matter of transportation mutt 
also be dealt with, or else, with our sys- 
tem of division of labor and centraliza- 
tion of industries in localities distant 
from their markets, the railways will 
levy greater tribute on the people than 
ever did barons or monarchs of old. 
They can in some cases deprive the pro- 
ducers of all but a bare living, in return 
for carrying their product to market. If 
it comes to a choice of evils, that is, 
either to allow the nrpat soulless corpo- 
rations to grind the fates of the pro- 
ducers by excessive rates, or to have 
state ownership or control of transporta- 
tion, even with the jobbery that would 
nt tend it whilst the public remains in its 
present lethargic state, I ehould choose 
the tatter, because under state regu'a 
tion it would rest with the people every 
lew years at least to have a voice in the 

Hut because it might be good policy to 
do this under ail the circumstances, it 
does not follow by any means that it 
would be equally good policy to hand 
over to the State things which are differ- 
ent in their nature and surrounded by 
altogether different circumstances. The 
ordinary aflairs of production and distri- 
bution can take care or themselves with- 
out the aid of the ballot-box. 

My quarrel with Sjcialism is that it is 
entirely unsuited to our state of develop- 
ment. By the Socialists' own admission 
the laws that we do make are not well 
math' or equitably administered. If 
not, why not ? It can only be because 
the people are either ignorant, dishonest, 
careless or selfish, caring more for a job 
(or themselves than for the well-being of 
society or the principles of self-govern- 
ment. If this be true— and the Socialists 
admit that it is— would it not be better 
to clear the Btatute books of the laws 
which favor one class at the expense of 
I others, and give the people a chance to 
Bee what they could do for themselves if 
they had a fair show .' Oar friends might 
lind all their anxiety wasted it this were 
done- If they could not do for them- 
selves then in their individual capacity, 
they could not in their collective. 

I think the Socialist agitation, so far as 
it applies to the collective ownership of 
all the means of production and distri- 
bution, is a great waste of splendid 
energy and sentiment ; because no one 

who knows Socialists can deny that they 
are men of great energy and that they 
are actuated by the highest motives, the 
loftiest sentiments— in fact, too lofty for 
this mundane sphere. The attempt to 
accomplish the bappineBs of mankind by 
Socialism in any country, and especially 
in Canada, is about as reasonable as it 
would be for men in England who were 
going to buy a bush farm in this conn try, 
to spend years in Kngland in discussing 
what thev would grow on the land they 
had never seen, to Bay nothing of cleared. 
We cannot tell in what direction society 
will progress when these legal inequali- 
ties are wiped away. 

The effect of any movement that depre- 
cates self-help and self-reliance is injuri- 
ous to the workers, I have known men 
who were gocd active members of trades 
unionB, but who, when they became con- 
vinced that the salvation ol society de- 
pended on Single Tax or Socialism, at 
once ceased to take any interest in their 
anion. But, as I have already pointed 
out, combination will bB necessary after 
the Single Tax, and the man that is a bad 
tradee unionist will not make a very good 

I have now stated, as briefly and clearly 
as I am able in the time at my disposal, 
my views on tht; questions exciting the 
labor world to-day. There are two dis- 
tinct phases of Hocial and political thought 
to-day : one rests more and more on the 
State j the other repels its interference ; 
bat they are equally honest and desirous 
of the good of mankind. Progress will 
follow the line of least resistance, and 
whichever of these views is best suited 
to the want* at mankind will survive. 
All we can do is to add our mite to the 
(jreat sum of inlluence that will determine 
which shall have a trial. 

I have made my election for the pres- 
ent Changes of condition may alter 
Borne details; but on the great question 
of the foundation of society it is my firm 
convict ten that the only practical aa well 
aa the only sure basis of society ie the 
liberty of the individual to pursue wealth 
and happiness in any way he sees lit 
while not interfering with the like liberty 
of his neighbor. 

I am in favor of all kind of voluntary 
associations for mutual improvement and 
protection, which have the advantage of 
educating and elevating mankind as well 
as improving his material condition ; and 
I know of no better training to make 
what I may term good practical Socialists 
on the voluntary basis, than the training 
that men get in trades unions and co- op- 
erative societiee. 

To Frame a (Jul hie Tower Roof or Four 
Centre Section. 


«^rWjfr is my intention to carry these 
jvjllj^ roof framing articles to a 
■Wl point heretofore unreached 
by previous authors, I this 
/ month set before readers of 

Trix Cabi'KNTich, a form of 
roof which is fast becoming 
popular on account of its 
uniform en rves 
As the section of the roof ia a combi 
nation of curves, we must first, proceed to 
lay it out. On a large Door or platform 
draw the spring line. AB, Fig 1. Divide 
this line AB into 4 equal parts as 1, U, '•> 
and 4 ; aleo from A and B, draw AC and 
BI_> square to AB. Now with A as center 
and A'i as radios strike the curve 2C, cut- 
ting AC at point C, likewise strike the 
curve 2D cutting BJj at I>. This pro- 
cess locates the deBired centers for the 
different curvfs ol the dome or tower 

The Bakers Moving Forward for Better 

The Journeymen Bakers and Confec- 
tioners International Union has 
recently issued a pamphlet describ- 
ing the horrible pestiferous condi- 
tions of many of the bake Bhops 
in New York and Brooklyn. It 
reveals an abominable state of af- 
fairs, giving pictures of many filthy 
dens where bread ia made, the 
squalid steeping rooms, the de- 
graded surroundinge, the inbect 
infested and sewer perfumed un- 
derground quarters where the 
bakers live and work 16 to 18 hours 
per day. These evils might largely 
be remedied if union men would 
make a demand for union label 
bread. The Bakers' Unions of 
New York State, with the help 
of organised labor, have been 
successful last month in securing 
the passage of a law through the 
State Legislature providing a limit 
of ten hours' work per day, or 
sixty hours per week, tietter sani 
tary bake Bhops and the appoint* N 
ment of foor bnke-shop inspectors. 

Fin. I. 

With 1 as center and 1 A length of 
radius, strike the short curve, or arc A K 
and with 3 as center and same radius 
strike curve B F. This gives two arcs, 
next with C as center, and allowing the 
trammell pencil to he just tangent to to B F 
at F, describe the arc F G. In a similar 
manner describe the arc E G on the left. 
This process carefully followed out will 
give the exact four center gothic section, 
but it must not be followed in every 
plan where a roof of this section is 
shown, aa the position of the center may 
not be placed or divided off as is shown 
above, and a detail or layout of the root 
may be necessary to determine their 
position. The foregoing description, 
however, will make the work familiar 
and easy. 

In order to lay out the rafters for this 
roof, proceed to Fig.2,and lay out the plan 
full size A B C D, also draw the diagonals 
A D and B C, the Beats of the hips, with 
the jacks ab c d e f gh i j t against the hip 
seat c X. On the line B D, divided in 
half at K. raise up the gothic section 
line, and from this section make a paper 
or wood pattern rafter to the curve B 
13, in the manner shown in the engrav- 
ing. Divide B 12, into twelve equal parts, 
aa 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and from each division 
point draw a tine fqnare to the line B K 
l», and produce these lines to the hip seat 

Fni. :;. 

B 12, will, of course, be the common 
rafter standing over K X, and each jack 
will, becanee the hip rafter is on a mitre 
or angle of 15 degrees, be shorter as they 
go down from X to C, and their lengths 
will be ae K 11, h 10, M 9, N 7, and bo on 
down to B. 

At Fig, 3, readers will see a compara- 
tively simple method which may be fol- 
lowed to obtain the top side bevel of the 
jack rafters. A B, is the common, show- 
ing its tipper edge. Set of! rafter No. 
10 from A to C, C D, being the vertical 
or plumb cut, Square across from the 
upper edge corner, from ( i to C, as C F, 
and from C D, set off the thickness of 
the fack rafter, 2 inches, 3 inches, or 
what ever it may be. The bevel will be 
ae shown in the engraving. 
BX. Krom the paints where thesedotted 
lines cut B X, draw up square to B X, 
lines of an indefinite length. Now, com- 
mencing from B, on line B K, take the 
first division 1, and set oS the height 
from the line to 1, on the first line on the 
hip seat, also height at 2, 3, 4, 5, and so 
on up to 12. To be explicit I would say 
transfer theae heights from pfrpendicu- 
lars on B E, to perpendiculars on B X. 
Next trace the carve, F B, through the 
points 12, 11, 10, etc., and the 
outline of hip rafter will be found. 

Eight-Honr Cities. 

ta ft list of tin 
eke It • 
hours* day : 

Alameda, Cat. 

Ashland, Wis, 

Austin, 111. 

Berkeley, Cal. 

Bessemer. Col. 

Brighton Park, III. 

Brooklyn, N. V. 

Oa rondel el. Mo. 

Chicago, III. 

Chicago Heights, 111. 

Denver, Col, 

Bast 8t Louis, III. 

Englewood, III. 

BTanston, 111. 

Fremont, Ool. 
i Orand Crossing, 111. 
" ' Highland Park, 111, 

H,d* Park. 111. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Kensington, III. 

L*s Ingeles, Cal. 

Mftaoi Station, Pa, 

M.y wood, III, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Ht r *raoo, In J. 

KttttOIl, MllPN. 

Moisiaiid 111. 
Lynn Mass. 

Total M 

rule to 

towns where 
only eight 

Murphyshoro, Til. 
New York, N. Y. 
Oakland, Cal. 
Oak Park, III. 
Pasadena, Cal. 
Pueblo, Colo. 
Roger* Park, 111. 
St. Ijoufs, Mo. 
Sacramento, Cal. 
Santa Barbara, Cal. 
San Kra.,cl*co, Cel. " 
San Joee.CaL 
Ban Rafael, Cel. 
Sheboygan, Wis. 
South Chicago, III, 
South Denver, Cot. 
South Evanston, 111. 
Stockton, Cal. 
Town of Lake, Hi. ' 
Verona, Pa, 
Venice, III. 
Washington, D. O, 
Whatcom, Wash. 
West Troy, N, T. 

Uiiiaha. Neb, 
Hi. Joiwpb. Mo 


Fid. 2. 

How to Join Mouldings; or. The Arts of 
Milrtng utid Coping. Hy Owen D. Mnginni*. 
Hum, cl7. TM |>|i., 40 II., }H9i. St. 00. A standard 
work on Mitring. Address. 

359 W. 124-th St., New Vork City, 





United Brotherhood of Carpenters knd 
Joiners of America. 

fSMUhtd Monthly, cm Iht Fifteenth of each 

1*4 N. Ninth St., I'll l la., Pa. 

P. J. McGuike, Editor and Pub1ti*«r. 


i Post-Offlee at Philadelphia, Pa., 
i second- class mutter. 

SrMCEiFTioN Pek'R j— Fifty cents a year, In 
advance, postpaid. 

Address all letters and money to 

P. J, MctJrlHK, 
Box H8t, Philadelphia, Fa. 



Union Working-men and work injr women ami 
sympathizers with labor have refused to pur- 
chase articles produced by the following tlrius. 
I^alior jiapors please copy : 




btudebakeb rros, man f*g oo. s CAR- 







CAGO. "Blackhawk," "Crescent," 
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Some Dangers of the MoTement. 

Mr. John Bur tie. M.P., speaking at a 
crowded meeting convened by the Bat- 
tergea Labor League, held early last 
month, at the Washington Manic Hall, 
Batteraea, on the subject of " Some Dan- 
gers ot the Labor Movement, " said that 
at the present moment there was every- 
where a tendency to depreciate what was 
being done in the labor movement . There 
waa a disposition to ignore the past of onr 
labor movement, and many of the symp- 
toms and causes which wrecked the Char- 
tist movement were evident not only in 
the labor movement generally, hat in its 
parliamentary and municipal phases. 
He was compelled to admit that labor 
generally was too optimistic for the 
futnre and too pessimistic for the present. 
The latter view of the labor movement— 
the helpless despair, the anarchy of mel- 
ancholy that was apparent in some quar- 
ter! — waa not justified by existing things 
and in no sense warranted many of thai 
alarmist predictions that were too often 
made. At the last meeting of the Lon- 
don Trades Council a large number of the 
members talked a lot of rubbish and 
nonsense about the Eight-Hoar Day 
movement. It was stated that there waa 
absolutely nothing in it, and that it waa 
useless for the unemployed, and that the 
time had arrived far a universal four-hour 
day. The time had come, he thought, 
when auch nonsense must be severely crit- 
icised. During the last two years he had 

found on going through the reconle that 
upwards of 200, ClOO workmen hail secured 
the eight- hour day. There were also 
40,000 government workers who had been 
conceded this eight- hour day, and from 
18S9 to 189"). including this 240,000, over 
half a million workmen had had their 
hours redut-ed through the direct aprertcy 
of the eight-hour movement, which he 
hoped would always continue to exist. 
He found that too frequently, especially 
during the late winter, throughout the 
whole metropolis, men who bad been 
elected to public positions, had in many 
cases yielded to the demands of the 
laziest, noisiest and most disorganize! 
section, and that the raw recruit of the 
labor movement had dictated to elected 
veterans ot labor what to do and how to 
doitonlyin theirownway. AlmoBtevery 
sincere leader of the labor movement had 
had his acts misconstrued, with the 
result that much harm bad been done to 
the labor movement ; and, if continued, 
this would permanently wreck it, and 
reduce responsible, elected men to the 
mere level of jobbers and gamblers. He 
hoped these new mushroom leaders of 
the labor movement would take warning, 

Times Improving. 

The reports reaching this office the 
past month are vastly more encouraging 
than any we have had in two years back. 
Carpenter work ie improving, principally 
in the smaller towns and cities— the 
larger cities show only very slight change 
for the better, not sufficient to boast of. 
Boston, New York, Brooklyn, Phila- 
delphia, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Cincinnati, 
St. Louis and San Francisco, are par- 
ticularly dull and overcrowded with car- 
penters. Of course the large cities will 
be the last to experience any great per- 
ceptible revival. 

Wheat, - orn, beef, cotton, iron, copper 
and silver— seven very important etaple 
products— have gone up in price. This 
has had a healthy and stifiening influence 
on the pricea of numerous other pro- 
ducts. Markets for goods are opening up 
and business men are regaining confi- 
dence. The mercantile agencies present 
more hopeful reports, while manufact- 
urers have opened np shops, factories and 
mills on lull time. 

Wages have been voluntarily advanced 
to avert strikes, even by Frick of villain- 
ous Homestead fame, and again by the 
mill owners in Fall River, New Bedford, 
Lowell, and in many cotton centres of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island, also in several woolen mills of 
New Hampshire. The Amalgamated 
Association of Iron and Steel Workers, 
for the first time in years, was able last 
month to secure a favorable Bcale of 
wages from the Iron and Steel Manufact- 
urers' Association of the Mahoning Val- 
ley, with headquarters at Youngstown, 
Ohio. The Amalgamated Association is 
growinn rapidly, according to its reports 
the paBt two months. It has been suc- 
cessful in thoroughly organising the Car- 
negie plant at Homestead, I 'a., and they 
have thousands of union men there where 
they only had hand reds before the mem- 
orable strike of 1892. Theae advances in 
wages, it ie estimate. I, affect over 250,000 

The Iron Moulders' Union of North 
America, from reports of President Mar- 
tin Fox and Vice-President Joe. Valen- 
tine, are securing advances in wages and 
concessions ail along the line- Only a 
few weeks ago 600 of their members 
went on strike in Cleveland, O.,for a 
ten per cent, advance, were out half a 
day and won. The Union Ore Trimmers 
at Marquette, Mich., have just been 
successful in dispensing with the boss 

contractors, and have taken the work on 
their own terms direct, thus eliminating 
the middlemen. In over two score cases 
the past month, working people have 
been successful in strikes. Surely this 
could not occur were not times improv- 

Now it remains with the members of 
the U. B, in each locality, in every town 
and city to stir themselves and make 
strenuous Efforts to push ahead their 
LocalB. Where the members are doing so, 
the membership is growing. By public 
meeting? , private individual efforts of 
the members, by personal persuasion 
and zealous active efforts the non-union 
men can be converted, ex-members can 
be brought back to the fold, and the 
ranks strengthened. 

Onward, everywhere to make the 
eight-hour day the rule ! Rest not con- 
tent to work long hours for low wages, 
while others sutler in idleness. Move 
on everywhere for better wages, shorter 
hours ot toil and better, nobler ami 
more manly conditions. 

A BtattrkaMe Piece of Work. 

A table about a yard square which 
has just been completed by Charles F. 
Adam, Bridgeport, t'onn., carpenter, is 
according to report a remarkable piece 
of work. It is said to contain no lees 
than 800,000 separate piecee of wood 
and 3364 hours of labor were expended 
on it by Mr, Adam. It was begun in 
1891 and was intended for exhibition at 
the World's Fair, but could not be 
completed in time. The table is thus 
described in a letter to the New York 
Ttmes; In the center of the revolving 
top is a good representation of the 
White House, at Washington, surround- 
ed by the Stars and Stripes. The 
border of the top is a handsome piece 
of mosaic work, and on the four sideB 
are shown Washington's birthplace, in 
Virginia, his familiar Mount Vernon 
home; the birthplace of Grant, in Ohio, 
and the place where Grant attended 
school as a boy. Tastefully interspersed 
with these are many quaint designs that, 
taken as a whole, make up a pattern 
which much resembles the production 
of the weavers' art. The supports con- 
sist of two pieces of oak placed 
together in the form of a letter "X," 
placed upright, cut out in scroll and 
with a graceful column after the Corin 
thian order of things. On each face of 
these oak supports are two panels, mak- 
ing 10 in all, on which are shown trees, 
birds, leaves of different kinds, and alt 
varieties of plant growth . On th e lo w er 
part is shown an American eagle, with 
out -spread wings, clutching a cluster of 
arrows in its talons; a deer's head, stork, 
sparrow and two roosters ; Washing- 
ton's Valley Forge headquarters; the 
birthplace of Lincoln, in Kentucky, and 
Ford's Theater, where he was shot, and 
the house near by where he died ; the 
birthplace of Colambus at Genoa, Italy, 
on a back ground of dark rosewood \ a 
cloister in Spain, viBi ted by ('ol urn bus; 
the ship " Constitution," Libby Pr ison, 
a cluster of lilies and daisies, SO varieties 
of leaves, with ferns, fruits, etc. There 
is nothing in the nature of a paint, dye 
or stain of any sort in the whole work 
the various effects, which are very 
beautiful, being brought out by the 
natural colors of the woods, of which 
there are 76 different varieties. Some of 
the woods are ancient and of special 
historic intereat. There are piecee from 
India, and a mahogany snuff box that 
was make from the timbers of the ship 
"Constitution." There is also wood 
from the Johnstown flood worked into 
the table. 

of Eighth General Convention 
of the U. B., held at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., are now ready. 
Price, five cents. Send orders 
to P, J. McGUIRE, 

P. O. Box, 884, 
Phila., Pa. 

Appeals and Agitation Cards. 
Good reading for Non-Union 

Furnished Locals free. Let 
your R. S. write the Gen. Sec. 
for them. 


Jtaofwl, That we an a hi sly thoroughly an 

prove <>X tho ohjcctwor the American Federal! ui 
of Labor arid plcdjrn ourselve*) to aire ll 01 - 
earnest and hearty support. 

AVj-i/iri/, That members or this orgnnlzathi* 
should make it a rule, when pun-hashix go.,,!.' 
to mil for those Which bear tin- Inulf-nmrkH ci 
organized labor, and when any individual, tirrr 
or corporation shall strike a Mow ai tabor urjraid 
cation, lliey arr eamcwllv rtMiUeeted to irlv* 
that individual, firm or to rpo rat lull llit-tr mrer.u 
annsideraliun. No ttuud uniuii man urn hi** Ui» 
•od that whip* him. w 

kurtoim or labok. 

Pnohrd, That wo must emphatically die 

courage iiir|>cntcrsnhil Joiners fr orjranUln* 

Mnrpcntcrs under the Knights of Ijitior ^ „" 
belie vu each trade should l„ organized under | U 
own trade head in a trade union. Thin olocs n,.i 
debar our members from Joining ml ltd aawm- 

Reinttrit, That it U Ot tin- greatest Important 
that member* should vole intelligently, hew* 

the iiu ioI.it* of [his Urnthcrh I shall strive to 

secure legislation in favor of those who produce 
the wealth of Hie country, nod nil dim u-«.[,in*aic! 
resolutions In (hat direction shall if in order at 

excluded Wt ' l ' ti " K ' but 1 * rlJ ' P "" 1 * bs 

Senntrfd, That while we welcome lo our •horn 
all who c-nme uith the honrat Intention of bp- 
coming lawful citizens, we at the panic time etui 
iletiin the present !->>t«.|ii which allow h the 
lni|Mirtuti<in of deetltUttu lalMirt'iK, and we llr K f 
orjoinizi d lalmr every when- to endeavor to ne. 
cure the eiiaeluient of more atrhiu-cnt iuimliri* 
lion laws. 

Xftfrrd, That we hold H tut a sacred prim-hilt 
that Trade Union men, above all others, tdmiiM 
seta Komi example an k'xmI and faithful work 
mtn, performliin their ducks to their employer! 
Willi honor to thcniM-lven and tiit ir orKHiiizalloE. 
aniiKTEB Horns OF la bob. 
We hold a ri-rfm tlon of hours for a day's work 
",'™ IM the Intel I (k< nee and happiness of Hi* 
laborer, and also Increases the demand for labor 
and the price of a day's work. 


We recognize that the Interest* of all el asses nt 
labor are identical, rejoin I lens of ooeiijiatlon, 
nationality, rclljrlon or color, for a wroni dons 
to one Is a wronjc done to all. 
We object to prison contra 
uts the criminal In comi>ctitliiii with" honorable 

We object to prison contract labor, because II 
uta the criminal In competition with 1 
labor for the purpose of cutting down wagea 
and also because It helps to overstock tic labor 

Retotrrd. Thai we most earnestly condemn 

the practice In vogue in many ctllee, but mors 
especially in the Went, that of advertising 
fletltloue hiiihlftig homns, as It has a tendency to 
— the trade In such localities. 


Wewlt Pat— Weekly pay men bare the moat 
convenient for members or this 

atari where practicable should be adopted. 

OOSTKT l.A bob, — Wo will not use any mill or 
Other work manufactured In* penal Institution, 
or brought Troiu any town or city where cheap 
labor prevails. 

Ldtaoa'a Holiday.— We faeor the adoption »f 
the .1rs« Monday In Heptrmlicr as Labor's Holi- 
day, and we recommend that our L> U. "a shall 
endeavor to olwcrve the same. 

Right Horas.— Our T>. U,'a shall do all In their 
power to make the Kljtht hour rule unlvcraal 
and to sustain thow- unions that have now estab 
Itahed the Highl hour system. 

AatCA BL« ITsDnasTA kdiho— TfeeO. K. B. shoul rl 
do all In lln power lo disco uruve strikes, ami 
adopt such means as will tend to urtnji alsiut aa 
amicable undcndaudhitf between Loom) Union* 
and em ploy ere 

Lias Lava.— We desire uniform Hen tawi 
throughout the United suites am) Canada*, mak- 
ing a mechanic's Hen the llrst mortfoure on real 
estate !to secure the wages of lalsir Unit, and 
material second. Huch liens should be granted 
without long stays of execution or oilier un- 
necessary delays. 

BriLniN'i Tbaofs I.faoi tj» — Each L. V. shaM 
strive to form a l^eajfue coiuimmmiI of delejcalm 
from the various unions of the builillng trades In 
tte respective dty, and by this means an employ- 
ment bureau for these trades en Ihj created. 

OBADisii Win is. -We are opposed to any sys- 
tem of grading wage* In the Loeal Unions, a* we 
deem the same demoralizing to the trade, and a 
further Incentive t» reckless competition, hevina 
the ultimate tendenoy when work la aearee. to 
allow first-class men to offer their labor at third 
class price*. We bold that the plan of fixing a 
minimum price for a day * work to be the safe** 
and b.«. and let the employer, grade th* wao* 



General Officers 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa 

General President - Oiaa K. Owens .West-dies.- 
tor, Weak-heater Co., N. V. 

Oennnl Secretary- Treasurer— P. 
OJ mi, flillft.lt,] phia, fa. 



First VI ce-Preat dent— Henry Gale, 130 W. Ver- 
mont nt , Indianapolis, tnd. 

Second Vice-President— Louis B. Toneey, HOI 
Lamed St., Rasi,— Detroit, Mich. 


(All corre*|>ondonce for the O. E. H must be 
mailed to the (leueral Secretary.) 

W.J. Hhlclda. 10 Cheshire at., Jamaica Plain, 

S. J. Kent, 2010 H. at., Lincoln, Neb. 

J. Wllllama, 31 Spring St., Utlea, N. Y. 

A. Catlermull, 8914 & Halatead st„ Chicago. III. 

Joe. 0. tlernet, 161 Foot Ave., Bollevue, Ky. 

TIip New Met'lianics* Ltetl Law of the 
Slate of New Jersey. 

Sub joined is a copy of a supple-nenta! 
Lien law passed by the legislature oi 
Sew Jersey and signed by the Governor 
last March : 

Whenever any building shall be 
erected in whole or in part by contract 
in writing;, such building and the land 
whereon it stands shall be liable to the 
contractor alone for work done or 
mate rials furnished in pursuance of such 
contract; provided, said contract or a 
duplicate thereof, together with the 
specifications accompanying the same or 
a copy or copies thereof, he filed in the 
nfUfp of the clerk of the county in which 
such building ie situate before such work 
done or materials furnished. 

Whenever any master-workman or 
contractor shall, upon demand, refuse to 
pay any person who may have furnished 
materials used in the erection of any 
Bach house or other building, or any 
journeyman or laborer employed by him 
in the erecting or constructing any 
building, the money or wages due to him, 
it shall be the duty of such journeyman 
or laborer or material man to give notice 
in writing to the owner or owners of such 
building of such refusal, and the amount 
dne to him or them and so demanded, 
and the owner orownora of h u . h building 
shall thereupon be authorised to retain 
the amount so due and claimed by any 
men journeyman, laborer or material 
man out of the amount owing by him or 
them to such master-workman or con- 
tractor, or that may thereafter become 
due from him or them to such master- 
workman or contractor for labor or 
materials used in the erection of such 
building, giving him written notice of 
such notice and demand; and if the 
aaine be not paid or settled by said 
master- work man or contractor, such 
owner or owners on being siitisfled of 
the correctness of said demand shall pay 
the same, and the receipt of such journey- 
many, laborer or material man for the 
same shall entitle such owner or owners 
to an allowance therefor in the settle- 
ment of accounts between him and such 
muter-workman or contractor as so 
much paid on account. 

When a notice or notices shall he 
served upon such owner or owners by 
any journeyman, laborer or material man, 
and notice thereof shall have been given 
by such owner or owners to the master- 
workman or contractor, said master- 
workman or contractor shall, within live 
days after receiving the notice aforesaid, 
notily In writing the journeyman, laborer 
or person who has furnished materials 
that he disputes bis or their claim and 

requests him or them to establish tbe 
same by judgment- The owner shall not 
pay the claim nntil it is bo established ; 
fntUbd, the master-workman or con- 
tractor shall notify him in writing that 
he has given the aforesaid notice to 
said journeyman, laborer or material 

No debt shall be a lien by virtue of 
this act unless a claim is filed as herein- 
before provided within four months from 
the date of the last work done or ma- 
terials furnished for which such debt is 
due; nor shall any lien be enforced by 
virtue of this act unless the summons in 
the Buit for that parpose shall be issued 
within four months from the date of the 
last work done or materials furnished in 
such claim ; and the time of issuing such 
summons shall he endorsed on the claim 
by the clerk upon the sealing thereof, 
and if no auch entry be made within four 
months from such last date, or if such 
claimant shall fail to prosecute bis claim 
diligently within one year from the date 
of the issuing of such summons or such 
further time as the court may by order 
direct, such lien Bhall be discharged; 
provided, that the time in which such lien 
may be enforced by summons may be ex- 
tended for any further period, not ex- 
ceeding ninety days, by a written agree- 
ment for that purpose, signed by said 
land owner and Baid claimant and an- 
nexed to said claim on file before such 
time herein limited therefor shall have 
expired, in which case the county clerk 
shall enter the word "extended" on 
the margin of the lien docket opposite 
such claim, and any claimant upon re- 
ceiving written notice from the owner of 
the landB or building requiring him to 
commence suit on such claim within 
thirty daya from the receipt of such 
notice, shall only enforce such lien by 
suit to be commenced within said thirty 

If the owner or owners of any building 
or other property which, by the act to 
which this is a supplement or the various 
supplements or amendments thereto, Is 
made the subject of liens for or toward 
the construction, altering, repair or im- 
provement of which labor or services 
have been performed or materials fur- 
nished by contract, duly filed, shall, for 
the purpose of avoiding tbe provisions of 
the act to which this is a supplement, or 
the various supplements and amend- 
ments thereto, or in advance of the terms 
of such contract, pay any money or other 
valuable thing on such contract, and the 
amount still due to the contractor, after 
such payment has been made, shall be 
insufficient to satisfy the notices served 
in conformity with the provisions of the 
act to which this is a supplement, or the 
various supplements or amendments 
thereto, such owner or owners shall be 
liable in the same, manner as it no such 
payment had been made. 

Kvery mortgage upon lands in this 
State shall have priority over any claim 
which may be he Hied in pursuance of 
the act to which this is a supplement, or 
the various supplements or amendments 
thereto, to the extent of the money actu 
ally advanced and paid by the mortgagee 
and applied to the erection of any new 
building upon the mortgaged lands, or 
any alterations, repairs or additions 
to any building on said lands pro- 
vided such mortgage be recorded or 
registered before the filing of any such 

In all cases journeymen or laborers 
shall have priority and preference over 
any employers of labor, contractors or 
material men for the payment of wages, 
without reference to tbe date when said 
journeymen or laborers Bhall have filed 
the Hen or served the notices provided 
for in the act to which this act is a sup- 
plement or the several supplements or 
amendments thereto. 

Affairs Itefore the l'anlc. 

At the Denver Convention of the A. 
F. of L. the Hon. I. N. Stevens, of Den- 
ver, delivered a masterly address. Here 
are a few excerpts: 

At the beginning of 1894 tbe American 
people bad this condition of affairs to 
face: For thirty years we had been 
engaged in the business of borrowing 
money. Nearly every one who held a 
prima facie title to a home borrowed all be 
could upon it. Nearly every farmer bor- 
rowed all he could upon his farm. Great 
railroad companies without number were 
organized, their stocks watered and 
loans in the shape of bonds were nego- 
tiated for much more than it cost to 
build them, The tame was true of tele- 
graph companies, ofBtreet car companies, 
of light companies, of water companies, 
of innumerable companies in cities and 

Thousands of cities and towns sprung 
np all over the land and immediately 
negotiated as big loans as they could 
get. Counties borrowed, States bor- 
rowed, individuals borrowed, until at 
the beginning of 1894 the people oi 
the United States owed in all kinds of 
debtB something like 140,000,000,001). 
The interest upon this enormous debt 
averages 8 per cent, per annum, or $2,- 
400,000,000. When yon recollect that 
the total amount of circulating medium 
of tbe United States, including all forms 
ot money, gold, silver, greenbacks, 
na'ional bank notes, paper money ot all 
kinds amounts to but $1,000,000,000, or 
only enough to pay eight months' in 
tereet upon our debts, you may begin to 
realize, partially, what you have got to 

And when yon realize that under 
present legislation gold is the only real 
money we have, all the others being de- 
pendent upon gold, aod redeemable in 
gold, and that tbe total of all gold money 
in circulation in the United Btates is a 
little leas than $700,000,000 or less than 
enough to pay the interest upon our 
debts for four months, you may realize 
still more what the harvest is to be. 


Origin of the Word « Itoss 

Even the dread name of " boss " is an 
inheritance from the Dutch period. It 
is derived from baas, meaning foreman 
or master. A hundred years after Eng- 
lish became the official language, men of 
wealth and character, like " Boas " Wal- 
ton of the famous Walton House, in 
Franklin Square, received the appella- 
tion from persons who wished to be defer 
ential. And to-day a workingman may 
use (he title in its original sense when 
addressing hiB employer or accosting a 

Ten Sew Unions. 

Si nee ou r 1 ast repor t c barters b ave been 
granted to ten new unions and a number 
have been reorganized. The new unions 
are: No. --'98, Highland Park, 111.; 401, 
Franklin, Fa.; 4$), Atlanta, (la.; 447, 
New York City (Cabinet Makers) ; 454, 
Fort Brook, Fla ; 47H, New York, N,Y. 
(Machine Wood Workers and Turnnrs) ; 
m, Kockford, III.; 500, Olneyville, IU., 
and 020, Lexington, Ky. 


Improved Patent Self-Locking and 

Adjustable Shoulder plane. 

Patented April 20, 1*93 Hitnpleatid I nexjtenslva. 

iio-ho Eliza Street, 


New Yob*, April 27, 1S95. 
Union 609, New York Oily, atlo)>ted the follow- 

WBIBUN, It has pleased the Aim Ik My to take 
from our midst brother William J. AianlMa, 
to our deep regret anil sorrow, therefore be 11 

Bttohfd, that we tender our heat tfelt sympathy 
to the bereaved family. 

Matt. Mcllin, Taos W. Hi t-row, 
Prteidtnl, tee. Bte. 

Jah. T. HaVHTy, ) 
Cms. R. Taylor, 
Thoh. Hh kim ni N. 



Nau Yoke, April Sr. ISM. 
Union 509, New York City, adopted tbe follow 

WBKRKAa, It pleased kind Providence to 
remove from our ranks brother Gzo. E Toe- 
HACK.to our deep regret and sorrow, therefore 
be It 

tr.yolrrtl that we tend our henrtfelt ayrupathy 
to the bereaved family. 

Matt Mi i.i. rk, Thoh. W. Hcttoh. 

/'resident, tee. Sec. 

Jas-T. Havbbiv, 
Chab. IC, Tavi.ok. 
Thoh. Hni -.an, a n, 
Robert Thomfhok. 

- Committee. 

Toronto, Ontario, April 28, 1896. 
Whk* bah death baa removed from among ua 
our cHleemed brother, Tiioiii Htjsbt, wtio waa 
a consistent Union carpenter In Toronto for 36 
years, and was a charter member or Union 
No. 27. 

Smolrtii, that we tender our heartfelt sympa- 
thy to the He reeved widow and family of our 
01-n-aned brother. 

Hetniird , that a copy of tb la reaol u Hon be placed 
on the Minutes of our Union and alao published 
In our oltlclal journal, Tn K C* ri km i re. 

Ai.h. RtifiAs, J. CoLi.ix, 

JYi'Atiffaf. Secrtlttry. 
'.'won 17, Tmunto, Ontario. 

CHI' AOO. ill.. 

At a regular meeting of Onion No. 28, United 
Brotherhood or Carpenters and Joiners of Amer- 
ica, held on December 11, IKH the following re' 
aolutlone were duly presented and adopted : 

Wuebkah, the Great and Supreme Itular of 
the Unlverae haa permitted the hand of the 
tutsans! n by the aid of hla murderuua ballets, to 
remove our worthy and esteemed Brother, 
UoRALsGacaa, and 

W nam ab, the long and Intimate relation held 
with him In tbi- faithful discharge of hla duties, 
makea It eminently befitting that we record our 
appreciation of him; therefore 

RrtiAetil, that tbe audden removal of such a 
life, In such a manner, from our mldal leaves a 
vacancy and a shallow that will be deeply real- 
ized by all Hie members and friends of Uulo.. 
No. 28, and will prove a serious loaa to our organ 

Rttohrd, that In deep sympathy with the I e 
reeved relative! of the deceased we ei press our- 
hupe that even so g rent a loaa to ua all, may be 
subservient to our future good, 

Kennhtd, that our Charter be draped In mourn- 
ing for a period of thirty daya, that this our testl 
■nony to hla worth bespread upon the record*, 
of our Union, a copy transmuted to the be- 
reaved family, and also published In our official 
journal, The Oasi'Sirra*. 

It b Ham., ) 

W. M. Walks. ). Committee. 

W. ft Ho wax J 

All Trade* Unionist* are requested to aak for 
the label of the Journeymen Tailor** Union, and 
Insist on having It when, they order any clothing 
from a merchant tailor. It Is to be found in tb* 
Inside breast pocket of tb* coat, on the 
side of the buckle strap of the vest, and on 
waistband lining of the panto. It is printed 
black Ink on white linen, with tb* words " J« 

iraaao Tailors' Union of . 
In tbe 



Song of Labor. 


iTraunli»U'il fruin tin' 0«*HUa*J hy Prpf, Sink 

N,m flint want and iliMrcK" doth lataWoppre**, 

W 1 1 lit wlml I \\t- wing fur l.nhi.r's hoi it; " 

W i hi slitil) we |> I i-mxt itgain»t mammon's greed, 

Ham- BelftthiMM and Rfiavou* *>runa ' 

" ' • 'lose Die m n k s via** tlir r«nk«, still ili.ser 

I ,ot Huion i»e yatn hlgli 0W*lt*»v©r. fM 

t'ui the n'rtl and "H earth's depth-, ynu 
r»|.lnri , 

YniirhtriniK atHI Mi4 « Mt* unite fruitful tin- 

•■. | «, ii. romt ail. w In n king i.hIhu di.ih .nil. 

Ami wlutl reward haV* vim fur nil yi.nr Ml ' * 

Mammon "II freenwn 6law6 •TOttM make , 
Tin ii unite unite, fur freed sinke' " 

In \tini church's preaching, in vain rlirlslinii 

n manhood hs nothing, mm! gold ail in nil . 

\ nd liuutmlt) '** < Imin hi n»ii|;lit Lint h inline, 

ir uhiii hfiipiiiK up wealth «!• inn brother 

O, brother* I O. i-liler.-' li t speed Hit- good B*IUN», 
Ami inscribe on "'I' *K " Bettor life, belter 

I II iV H I' 1 

l.iil>t >r - heroes, i> ne'er In lifts** battle, despair, 
Kur yoiircarcs and. ytuirtnil behold victory Digit: 

Together Wtd 1 • steadfast in right ; 

lie rcsily In live and be icady lo die ! 

He read) hi n I steady In I mil It- life's wrong, 

And "union for trtrer!" be Labor's song ! 

Pift.,/.«r./'i. /'J. 

fi. nrijil KM'iiithf lUmril I'mcmllng!*. 

I ibs t usv'e bK*i*ion.— April 1,16111, 

R. H. met tit ollhe uf U, B-T., H A 
M , t'lmlrman Shields presiding. 

Pllll liiiitl ] |H i Ht-n L 

Column nl<»tluh. Union 257, St. 
I^mls, relating to adoption by U. 
B. <if system known as " initiative 
kikI Hi- fern n (til m." CI. B. I . hereby 
reklH m« Iti riirmer decision of Jan. UU>, but 
woulil recommend the Oolutan* uf uur ufllclul 
journal he unci I for a gum?™) iIIscuhhIuii of thin 
Important Hiiliji'i't Hint Locals can instruct their 
d elevates in the tieit IJeucral Convention on 
the matter. 

Communication, Unions 431 and 718. Chicago, 
appealing from action of < Uiuimitlee appointed 
by UtdUtMpOlta (Jon viinUun to revise mucin! - 
ini'titM lo I 'otiHlllilltoil . Haid 1 'tjiiilnittett duclili d 
tbpit HUiiMidiiiimt (o Hei'lion 47, un nubtuitted hy 
Dnfnnn 434 »iid 7AM, wan not iulu|ited, mid fur- 
Ot»t ili-oidod lliu word ' adopted" folluwiiiK 
aforrHald amttiirTitient lo Hvetbm V in fiinltxi 
HMmeilliiKa. in a tlerieml error. Krom Ibelr 
liernoiuil ri'i-nlleit Uiiim. mid tj vide net lieforu 
UMWi Ibtt <i. K H Imn-liy dctddu that tb« Com- 
IdUlaa OH Kevinion wan uirrei't In IU riacbliOR, 
and lilt: anieiidiiienl to Heiliuti 47 wan not 
adnjili'il. A* to Hiientloii mlmid liy paid Ijil-*Iii, 
wlielber or not the Coimtiluiltui Hbonlit liave 
baM vi 1 1*< I on mm a wlin)«, U I .. H. ilutliltj tlmt 
only aurb partit an wi re aiueuded by Conveo- 
llou ware nubjci'l lo vtil« lij lli« member*. 

<i. H T uibiniUad aMtaaMnl turn Uie New 

York P.O. of money* eipt^uded in xtrike atjatnnl 
I ii in |il iik ayMtein , almi t<irri-«|M>iideiu i of Q. H-T. 
demanding of New York l>, C. tlial lialanee of 
lit It lie refunded wldib Hboiild be in tlieir tianda, 
rroni annroiirliifiiin of 11500 made by (t, 
K li for aald atrike. It *p]>eara Treaa irer 
Harllell of tbe New York D. O baa been in- 
atnieftd lo forward naiii Mtnni totlia ueneral 
ofltce, linl lia» failed Ul do no, or In atiNwer any 
niuiniiiiilialluni.aiid Hie wberealmtiui of aald 
TrwaatlfM are iiiiknnwii. Heme Ilia <J, B. H 
b. reliy |da. i » tin colieetl on of Hit- luilaiiee of 
|HIB in tbe hand* of the U. H-T. Willi full ,„,wer 
lo mi and ink, aaa* tttpt a» In In. jiidKineut 
be ileetned n >in a * a a r>. 

(J.MT. aiilaUltuteil €H>|ilei of leltera He ut Hitt^ 
liuritb I r«i|Ue»lhig return of balance* of 
■uoueya nnea|»iiided from a|*|irourIal lima niwje 
by U K H for i>i M » niln M and ei|>utiMtn of 
l'ill*l..ir||b KI K bt Hour Con van II on, lm. Bald 
II, a tin* not alluded aatd ba]atiL«n or re. 
milled tl- iiint, tbe «. H-T. U bereby iiielriieted 

to at oliuu anal n demand of tbe 1'ltlaburnb II. 

CJ. lo at tid lo Hilt often tbe amount of tlOS S6, 

iiiiiuui tM linneaountad for. 
ApjK-al, Union In*, I.ynn, MaM,, M K ain-i ra- 

fiiMtl of O. H T. li aurrender an auoiiymoiiH cum 

■uuulealiou from a member of naid Iah-»L U. 

K B. decide Ibey do mil i-ouaider II nweaaary 

to oidtr the (t .H-T. In return any i<ominunica. 

tlon* from l.ytni, Mane., uivliiK tbe coiiillilun of 

ntfalrn lb are. 
U IT laid liefore tbe <J. B, B. tbe entire 

correajioiideaci- liclween bliuaelf and iln-Hr.fr- 

taiy of tlie American IJinlrta of Uie Atnalica- 

mated Society. It relate* to tbe controverey 
between tbe two nr^an I ration*, which h*i been 
aRRravatcd by the strike on the Mar.jiielte 
BMIdlng, Chleano. where members of tbe Amal- 
gamated timk our members' places. Mt. Bnll™- 
Hn«, Hecretary of tbe AnielKamiUed, propnae* 
the a. K. B appoint a Committee to meet a like 
Committee Aront the Amalgamated in Nnv York. 
Q, E B. decided t.. accept Invitation, and 0- S- 
I' bi>triul.-d In Inr.irm Mr. Ballenttoc tlirtt a 
Commtttee of U B. would meet Committee of 
\tual|f«miited April 7th at New York, Folluw- 
l i.K Comrulttee wna named by Chairman Shield*, 
Bran, Kent, CattertnuH and Mctlulre. 

(,. ST. lulled attention of U K B. lo fait 
Union IB*, I.ynn. Mans., had atwolulely refnwd 
to pay lomeHnmentii Utely levied by U K B The 
Board autborl/cd tbe O. M T lo proceed »l once 
to collect said BMaaeDienlN. 

MK*-ONti IIAV'H H1HHION — April 3. 

a. H-T. laid before the C. E. B. ai-Ltiunt of 
nioneyM nipcndud in slrlke on Marntielte Bulld- 
liiK in Chicago. Heine were ciaaiincd. O. S T, 
In hereby Inalructed to forward Chicago lhe|. r >0(l 
Mmdnltlll of the 11503 appropriated, and to re 
quire that Kinanee ('oliimltlee of the Chlengo 
It. C. beteafler cerlify to eorrcctneaa of the 
Hti-otitita aetil (lencral Offlee. 

Applicntlon, Cbltago 1). I',, for aauetloii of 
general atrike with tlnancitil aid. laid over 
until mi Id D. U carries nut the provinionn of Con- 
Rtltutiun relating to Htrikea, and properly lllln 
out schedule of Inquiries. 

Diaapiirnvi'd death claim of P. T. Harmon, 
Union So, Jackson, Mich. Bvideuce, cash book, 
etc., Uioronghly eiamlned. Action of O. S T. 
ei incurred In. 

Disapproved death claim of Mr*. M.J. Kelly, 
Union I7 r \ Brooklyn, N. Y Kyidence ei 
amlned, and declsiun of G. H-T. concurred in. 

Disapproved death claim of Wm. A. Dunn, 
Union 3'4, Buffalo, N. Y. Kvidencc examined, 
and deeision nf C4, H-T* tiistatned. 

Disapproved death claim Mrs. A. I. Wilson, 
Union 711, Doga lis port, ln<l. Kvlilcnce ex- 
amined. Decision of U. ST. concurred In, as 
tin- (I K. B. Ilud the member waa In arrears. 

Application Union 263, Halt Lake City, Utah, 
for donation of 1300 lo prosecute claims of mem- 
bers In Suit Luke City fur overtime worked in 
violation of tbe Klgbt Hour haw of Utah. O, 
H-T. Instructed to obtain copy of law, and all 
Information as lo .tens taken hy other trader- in 
prosecution of any claims they may have. U. 
E. H are of opinion the case should be placed 
liefore Executive Gunnel I of A, P. of I.. 

Application of Indianapolis D. C. for dona* 
tlon of it. OOn to assist In the enforcement uf 
trade demands. The O. H-T., having In visit 
Indianapolis April 13, to attend meeting of 
Executive Council of the A. W, ftft*. the U. K B. 
hereby decide to refer the matter to him, with 
InatruCtkms to report to the Board bis reeein- 
ineudatloiis aa early aa possible. 

The U. ST. submitted bills of Brulher Wyatl, 
organizer, also correspondence between the CI. 
H-T. and Brother Wyatl In relation to organizing 
iu Newark. Orange, Houth Orange and Montclatr. 
Brother Wyatl claims to have ample authority 
to Incur the bills now before the Board. O. H-T. 
Is Instructed to request Brother Wjratt Ui for- 
ward Immediately lo Ihfa Board all such evi- 
dence duly certified, 

TFJIMO DAV'a aaniiom- April 8. 

Rnllre morning and part of afternoon con. 
sumed In audit uf books and accounts of (J. H-T. 

Consideration of report of llrutberCaltermull, 
referee In disapproved death claim of Mrs. Jane 
Clspperton, Union SS9, Chicago. Report re 
ferred back to Brother Callermull with Inatruc- 
tbins lo make fun her Investigation. 

of report of Brother Callermull, 
In case of appeal or Union 1*2 against 
ofChiongoD. C , In case of Union 7U 
vs. Union 162, Union T88 claimed certain Initia- 
tion fees collected by Union 161. Report ac- 
cepted and case further reviewed. Decision of 
Chicago D C. notauitatned. 

Appeal J. H. Murray, Unloo 340, New York, 
sustained by appeal* of Unions 61, 64, 840, Ml 
mid 60S, against aeliun of New York D. O, in 
eon ii ting the voice of Union 876, In election of 
business agents. Kvldence reviewed and decis- 
ion of Ibe New York li. 0. sustained. 

Communications, Unions S8 and 56, Boston, 
Mass , rcountroversy now existing over settle- 
inenl of certain ludebtedueaa incurred by the 
Boston 1>. O,, and dlepoaal of certain property 
belonging to that body. Bald unions appeal to 
the U, K. B. to lake action toward settlement 
of thla uontroveray. U.K. B. hereby authorize 
and empower Brother W. J Hbieida to acta* 
agent of Ibis Board In settling Ibe pending diffi- 
culty, and if necessary lo lake charge of all 
properly formerly held by lapsed 11 ft, of 

oar'a aawsion-gprll f . 

Appeal, Union 464, New York, against decision 
uf Grievance Committee of New York D O. 
This appeal relate* to case of Union 464 vs. I^ouls 
Darner, one of Its members. Evldenoa re- 
viewed Ded'toii of New York U. V 
currad in. 

Further consideration of application of Unions 
526 and 111, Galveston, Tex , for sanction to 
atrike with financial aid I. aid over and Brother 
Kent of U. B. B. instructed lo proceed to Gal- 
veston and make full investigation, and send 
report lo G H-T. to he submitted lo U. K. B. 

Continuation of audit of books and aii-otinls. 

Communication from Kings County D. C, 
accepting terms proposed by G. K. B. at last 
meeliug, for support lit resisting violations of 
trade rules hy the contractors. 

Consideration of rei|iie.t from Chicago D, C. 
for paid organiier to be put in the field to organ- 
ise unliving districts of Chicago. Laid uver 
until G. K It. perfects plans now under ronsld 
eratlon for organizing the ttilleretit sections of 
the l oiinlry . 

Communications, Milwaukee D. C. and Union 
180. Madison, Wis,, for appropriations for orgiin- 
Izlng, Same aeliun aa in Chicago case. 

I -11.1111 Of Union 160, Kasl HI Louis, 111., for 
legal cupenses paid out In suit of Mrs. E Kid da 
▼a. V. B. G. B-T is hereby instructed to ascer- 
tain tf tltta Is the entire expense covering the case, 
and, If so, he will credit Union 169 on his hook, 
for the HI .80 claimed. 

Communication Peter Morch, I'nlon 381, 
Brooklyn, N. Y , requesting tl K. B to reu|i*ti 
hisapiiaalvs Kings County D. C. Additional 
evitleuce examined and G. E B hereby re 
aJUrtna Its former decision. 

Appeal Union 162, Chicago, against actum of 
Union 6a, New York, In refusing to remit M-« 
collected from Peter Crowley, a former menilier 
of Union 162. Evident-* examined. The V. H, 
of Union 68 makes allidavil to having scut the 
amount In question lit Union 161 In an ordinary 
letter, and P. H of Union 162 In torn makes ait) 
davit he did not receive said remittance G K 
B. hereby decide Union tU Is responsible for 
official acts of its officer., and orders Union 63 
to remit to Union 162 the amount of claim 
13 VS. 

Claim of Peter Carson, Union 41, Shrcvepnrt 
Li. , for balance of funeral benefit on dea'b of 
H.Bcbaeftcr, G. K. B eiamined new evidaac* 
submitted, but see no reason to change tbulr 
former deeision of July IS, IS'Jl. 

Kit-Til BAV'g 

April I. 

Con tin a at tun of audit of books, etc. 

Appeal W. J, Hboekley, representative of 
Union 146 on Executive Committee, appointed 
to settle indebtedness «f ls|ised D- 0. of Indian 
spoils, against Union HO of said city, In ratling 
to comply with decision of Indianapolis Con 
veritlun, page, 16, printed proi-eedi ug. Keferre. 
to 1 1 H T . to I ovestigate when be visits Indian 
ajtolls, and report to G. K, B. 

G. E. B. decided that when they adjourn they 
adjourn to meet Monday. July 16, 1695. 

Disability claim W, H Musser, Union 661, 
Omaha. Neb. r i 'd over until next meeting, un I 
G. ST InstruiLeil to rci|uesl Union 661 for Its 
statement of the cane 

tkmUnuallon of audit of books, vouebera and 

sixth in v s 

iKHStOit, April 6. 

Q. B. B. went Into consultation 
mailers of general Interest lo the 

G. H-T 

U. B 

Telegram from Hr.-relary of Amalgamated Ho- 
eiely, giiiug lime and place of meeting of the 
representing the two organlxa- 

hVply reeeiveil from Brother T. P. J. Cole 
man. Trustee of of the New York District, slat- 
ing Brother Meadowcraft, i r.-sideut of D. C, 
holds tbe bond of the missing Treasurer of Ibe 
Ne w York D. O. 

Completion of audit of books and account* of 
G. H-T,, from which the following 
are drawn : 

I 647 87 

i hand Jan. 1 

Beoalptt Jan., Peb 

Received from special ■ 

•18,78° S» 
smeut* . . 6,806 20 

Total . . 
Expenses for said period 

.... 130,046 IS 

- * t 

Balance on baud April 1. 1696 

Balance on baud Jan. 1, 
Receipts Jan., Kcb and Man b 

M.T** 76 

. . 17,041 26 
. . 8,321 66 

Total 110,366 U 

Expanded on strikes and lockout* for 

period ending April 1, 1HH . .... 1,400 00 

Balance on hand April 1, 18*6 16,666 11 

Kent and Calleruiull were Instructed 
to go to Newark, N J , and Investigate claim of 

P.M. to meet again July II, Java. 

H J. Ka»T, 

StcrtUtry (J. h. ft 

y, J. MuGliks, 

Unieral BMS-ctsry TVaosurer. 

KtMlut* Uie Hours of Man mil Toll. 

Mr. Kditoii; — 

The ahorteninn of the work day in u,,. 
only conBietent w»y by which the libor- 
iog man can realise the benefit ef labor* 
savinR machinery, which is conetatuly 
reducing tbe amount of labor that i H 
required to provide the necessarian at 
life. If machinery haa taken the place 
of labor, then leaa labor Ib necessary, 
and bow can this benefit be justly dta* 
tributed amonfrst the people other tlian 
by shorteninK the work-day. There ars 
many who contend that a shorter work- 
day and an advance in wages would in- 
crease the living expenses sa that ws 
could realize no benefit. lint I think 
inch men are only the friends of the 
money kings, or are influenced hy them. 
It is clear that a shorter work-day will 
cause an advance in wa^ee, and that tin- 
rich will have to pay more money for 
less work. They will also have to hear 
their share of the advance in the living 
expenses Thia would give the work Hu- 
man decidedly the advantage. If the 
shortening of the work-day can he con- 
tinued then it will eventually exhaust 
the wealth of every plutocrat, and oblige 
them to labor in order to live. The full 
benefit of an eight-hour work -day will 
not he realised until it is extended lo 
every class of labor throughout the entire 
country. For whenever there is a de- 
mand for mechanics the common laborern 
will turn their hand to the trade and 
prevent the advance in wage* that would 
otherwise come. 

An t-ilort to advance the wages with- 
out shortening the work-day is like try 
ing to stop the flow ol a river hy hoild 
Ing a dam across it. The minimum wage 
system is the principal reason why to 
many men drop out of the union during 
dull times. They must remain idle or 
violate the trade rules. It also prevent a 
mechanics from coming into the uni-- ; 
through fear that they cannot get work 
at the minimum wage- It tends to create 
lumpers and rushers. Freedom shoul I 
be extended aa far aa possible. The mot- 1 
expert mechanics seldom stick up for 
more than the minimum wage, and when 
times are dull they only can get work, 
and tin y delight to vilify those who are 
less agile for violating the trade rules, 
and after all they can accomplish very 
little of themselves. 

The power of a onion consists in num- 
bers. If an out-of-work benefit were in- 
stituted it would tend to bring this ele- 
ment to their reckoning. We think thai 
when an effort is made to establish.* uni 
versa! eight- hour day it will he infinite!;, 
better for mechanics to continns to work 
at the same rate of wages per hour than 
to low the cause. It will certainly he 
a radical anti-laborite that will oppose 

8. K. Hkvoik, 
Local Union 478, N. Y. 

A Heljilng ^Ililitl^Jack." 

The Coast Beam an 'a Union, with the 
help of the American Federation of I k 
hor, has done noble work lor their crad 
daring the last session of (Jongreas, The) 
have had laws enacted that place a sea 
an on the same plana with the rest of 
humanity ; they have relieved him to 6 
•mall extent from tbe brutal treatment 
usually accorded sailors, Imprisonitiehi 
for refusal to join a ship or for desertloK 
daring voyage ii abolished. No boarding 
master or other person can seise the 
clothing of a seaman, etc. Of course, 
Congress has jurisdiction only on trade 
between ports of the United titat** 
Every local, national and international 
trade union and the old-line Ilrotherboo l 
of Railway men— all gave a helping hand 
to "Jack," by sending vigorous petltlonri 
to Congress demanding the oAasase of 
the laws in behalf of the i 


(Kraft problems* 

(7/iw th^xirtiunU U fur crUicitm and 
Btfrntpamtt net /rum ovr tkuIiti im mfchani- 
ml tllkjccU in Cnr/mitry, and idea* ax to 

rrutt urjfartisoiioft. 

IVruV OH our *vlt of the j^ijht only- All 
Hrttclix nhmtlit hi- kk/hkI 

tftftor far tin* ptpartoneni mwu u m thin 
ogk* hn Uu tsth ni tlx memtk.) 

\n Rani Way U* Make Wimhm Vnwm 

A (i'ixmI 1'I<m»v flump. 

Khituii Oari'KNTIM : — IVrliaps Home of 
the readera of Tim OAWJtNTKH wonlil 
like to know it way of making wimlow 
frameB by bud, cHKitr and famer than 

II Ill way of making with tlia try 

square bevel mid gau^e. I have made 
mill patterns tor window stiles or 

jambs time : 

Km. i. 

Take u | inch board jo'nt., M}OMa 
the ex«el width of jamb, bevel lower 
end and brad on etriu j x I inch. 
.Measure length of window, t»w square 
1 inch inoyl and brad on strip 1 
hu ll wide projecting as shown. Then 
tirad on 4 blocks 1 1 indie: long, squarely 
on edges to project i inch on either Bide. 
We now have a reversible pattern. 
I 'lace on utile, and tack hrml tlin.ugh 
pattern ami into ttite to keep it from 
slipping endwise, the blocks keeji it 
Hmd'i Then with a gauge dado it is 
only a moment's work la dado the stile, 
ami by reversing pattern it makes the 
opposite stile exactly the reverse. If 
Home of your naders will try this way 1 
think they will he pleased witb the 

Km ~. 

I have also used a Moor clamp of my 
own make to (food advantage. Take a 
pice of good tall plank,!] inches thick, 
made 2 inches, wide at one cm!, am! lj 
inches at the other, and U feet long, 
round the small end, vet a piece of steel 
;xl) inches, and inched long, upset one 
end and draw to a point, pinch bar 

Km. :;. 

shape. I'm. h 'J boles ) inch through 
11*1 purl aud bolt on to lever Vtilh | 
inch bolls. N. st take a piece of 1) 
spruce, IS inches wide and I'i or I I inches 
long. (Jilt slot in one end I 1 1 ■> inches, 
Hore |'| or | inch hole through Blot end as 
shown in Kig (hen bolt to lever as 
shown in Pig. 8. and clamp is ready 
for use. By taking lever in one band 
and treadle in the other, and plunge 
spur into the lloor lining or joist, eo 
I hat the end of treadle, will come near 
edge of floor. Stand one foot on treadle 
and the operator will be surprised witb 
the purchase lie has In this lever to bear 
against the board be wishes to squeeze 
up. Hoping these suggestion e may be 
of some benefit to some fellow workman, 
I remain, very respectfully, 

H. F- Mokkhkao. 
l/num W, Hm Britain, LI. 

Squaring the Circle. 

The following interesting solution of 
this somewhat paradoxical problem ib 
submitted ; 

if the radius of a circle is lignrsd, 
as 1 or unity, the area ot the circle will 
be according to the following formula. 
Area (R > 1.7725)". 

Referring to the engraving we find a 
circle of one inch radius. Divide the 
diameter A B into 3 equal parts in 
points M and N. From point M draw 
the Situ M E, Take B as center and 
M K as radius ami describe the curve 
D it, cutting in i> and K. Join A and 
1». The area of the square on chord 
A l> is equal to area of the circle. As 
line A 1) squared is to the square lines 
of the large and small circles an radius 
A O in full circle A K \L HI); is to the 
large and small radii. Ab the square 
tine in a circle of 1 inch radinB iaequal 
to 1,7725 so is the area of circle equal to 
(ft • 1.7725)'. 

Mao sus (!. TgNiiKR. 

llultand, [ t. 

'I'o Coiistrucl mi Osal Flom-r Stand 
From Cfrenlar Table. 

I )ORr|| ksT KH, NKH. 

RtMToa Oarpimtm : — 

I iiave been reading your paper for 
time an.) think any carpenier could 
take no paper that would fill its place 
for the money. 

I will give you a problem which will 
puzzle a great many. 

A man has a centre table with a round 
top, also two daughters who each want 
the talde. In order to satisfy both girls, 
be took the table top to a mechanic and 
told him to make two oval flower stands, 
with an oval hole in the centre of each, 
and to make three cuts and waste no 
more material than the saw kerf. 

I will send a drawing showing the 
cuts, it waB given me by an old mechanic. 
1 studied it several months at odd times 
and anally solved it. 

A. Z. WllITMKV. 

Koitoh's Norii —The solution of above 
problem Kill appear in our June num- 
ber. Bros. F. Ei Welton, Union 7-2, 
Kocbeeter, N. Y. ; aud B. A. (ieisler, 
Union «2, Chicago; Sam'l Thornhill, 
Union iitm, Dover, If, J., sent us similar 
problems and solutions. 

A Ship I'arpenler'i* Problem. 

The follow ing problem has been re- 
ceived and the solution of same will 
appear In our June number. 

A wrecked ship carpenter found in 
the bottom ot the only boat save- 1 , a 
bole which measured 8 i lM inches 
On investigation be found the only 
board he had to fill it wee one 12 x 12 
inches. How did be cut this piece so as 

to till up the hole and make the boat 

A Steady Header. 
Kiutor'h Notk — A problem similar to 
the above and solution was sent us by 
Bro. A. J. liOhr, Altoona, I'a. 

Advocating uu Insurance Feature. 


As 1 never noiiced a communication 
in reference to instituting an insurance 
feature in our < )rder, I thought 1 would 
occupy some space in a diaciiseion of the 
<iuestion. 1 have been a member of the 
U. B., witb the exception of a couple of 
years when 1 was away where there were 
no unions, since the year 1W. I have 
noticed that there have only been an 
average of aboat 75 to 100 deaths per 
year in our Order. 

(KoiToarii, Nijtic.— our cofrropotufofit ll ill 

ei'mr. HiM tlentli rule Cur lnt~n.h«r n it\\t\ mriiil.taV 
WtttM M\'-r«Ki-K «.\i-r rwKI .l.utli- |MM your. Bci 
ii H.-T Bvpwti.) 

Now with an insurance assessment of 
25 cents per month from each member, 
and this money to be used for no other 
pur|K>se, we would realize from our pres- 
ent members about $17">,f)00 per annum 
The expense per member would be the 
small premium ot $3,00 per year— just 
about one -eighth of the cost of regular 
insurance. Suppose that for a six nSOdthf 
n le ruber f250 be allowed at death or 
total disability, |SO0 for one year, 1 1,0(10 
for a two year member, and $2,000 for 
all over two years a member. Take the 
past ten years as an average, this wonhl 
leave in the treasury the sum ol about 
180,000, to pay treasurers' and other sal- 
aries, and have a surplus besides. 

There are thousands who are now pay- 
ing their dues into the union merely for 
the sake of the small insurance we are 
now offering our members, and I think 
we could with the additional incentive of 
the increase of the insurance not only 
bring back many thousands or those who 
have dropped out from the U, B., but 
siIpo would be enabled to UBfnnfM nearly 
every small village and town In the 
United States. In connection with the 
bylaws governing the Order, there should 
be a strict understanding that all mem- 
bers, to be entitled to the insurance, 
ibould be Btrictly square with their local 
unions, or within one month of it, any- 

There are too many that, when they 
get three or four months behind, rather 
than pay np will let their names drop 
from the rolls. They are not much good 
as onion men anyhow. But I think will 
abetter incentive there would be man> 
less who would lag behind in dues. 

W. P. D, 



This ( >r K « i 1 ' at Ion shall 
Council of Uia 

u the , 

Tied tii 

Ev.a. ft. ThlsMunril shall beaompoeed of deley 
gates duly choien fr. .hi all •octet leu In the bulid 
tag trades, who shall, before being admitted, 
(iroduce credentials signed by the president arid 
recording secretary of their Society, and 
have the seal of their union attached, 

flea S. In case of m secret soi li.,/, the i 
their lud fro attached shall be a euffldeiji guaran- 
tee of their genuineness. 

Rta i Thsofflcersoflhlasoctetysliallconslal 
of a chairman, vice-chairman aud recording sec- 
retary, corresponding secretary, financial secre- 
tary, treasurer and sergeant-aUamifi. 

6*0.0. Tbechulrmanandvl c^chal nn&n shall 
be elected at eacb meeting, and shall bo nomi- 
nated from cVleniiU-s of different societies, nor 
•hall any chairman sit In J 
affect! tig- the union be belongs to. 

Tberscordl ngsccrctaty ,t 

secrttary, treasurer aud si r- 
be elected fpmrterlyj the re- 
cording secretary slmll rtci Ive sucb 

Samoa 1. Tlio eiecuttvo functions of Ibis 
oniincll shall be vested In the officers anil dele- 
gHtes while tn nessluU|aviid In such com minees as 
ttila council may Snd neoessary to conduct Its 
bualuexa umler Ihla outihlltulton. 

Sk: 2. The objects of this council rhall be to 
centralize the united ctTiirts and experience of 
the various node tics ei gaaed In thee recti on and 
alteration of bulldlngn, snd tbul Ihry may form 
one common Council, and with conmion Interest 
to prevent that Which may be tnjurloua. and 

Koperly perfect and carry Into effect that which 
ey may deem advai'Ugeous to the mse Ives. and 
for the common Rood of all. 

Bkc 3. All trade and labor societies representee 
In this council, wben deiilruus of making » t(« 
iiiand for etlher at) advance of wages or ao 
abrld^enienl iri the bourn of luhor, shall, through 
their delegates, report the same to this council, 
prior to Uis demand being made, whm, If con- 
curred In by a l wo- thirds vote of all the soete ties 
present, at any stated meeting, the action Hhall ba 
binding. This section ahull not prevent An) 

ABTICLK lift, 

Rectiom 1. No trade ahull be entitled to mora 
than Uiree votes on any question that directly 
aJfecli tbe material interest* of any trade society. 

M' -. 2. Alltmdesorsocielicsrc^reseiKed .-hall 
be entitled to thre« delegates. 

Any iwxlcty having three or mora 
es shall be entitled to one * legate fo. 

Anim iv. 

BtrTtoit l. 

tills council that may desire male; 
state (helrcaso to this council, and, if approved 
by the delegates, shall bring the matter before 
liieif nop* elite «igun|juttiuiui fur 

Any trade society represented in 
nrial aid, I 

The Dhtmeter of u Circle. 

Tu Tim K in to it of tiik Cakikntkb : 

In the March number of Tiia CAKriiv- 
tkr, I see "I'hilo" asks -** How to tind 
arithmeticelly, the diameter of a circle, 
when the cord line or width and rise of 
a segment is given. As 1 have not seen 
any answer U> this problem, I here send 
you a solution for publication. 

aBTicxa v. * 

flE.-i n in 1. It p I hi II be the Special duty of this 
coumfl to i i-e the muled strength of all lh* 
societies reprexei i ted lite rein, to compel all no it- 
union men and "c^nhn " to conform to, and ohey 
the laws of, the Society that theyshoula properly 
belong to. 

Bhu, 2. It shall be the duty of any trade or 
labor society tu uae every lawful means to In- 
duce all miu-unlon men or acatie to become 
men 1 1» ra of tin ir respective unions and any 
traile society fiiiling In tlictr Just eirorta, shall 
bring the matter before this council through 
their delegate*, with all th« far IS In the eaao, 
with the nmues of the men, 11 possible, where 
employed, aud the name of the employer, the 
same to b*i presented In writing wllb tliu signa- 
ture of ttie president of the eoch ty affected, 
when this council shall take I mmwflata action In 
the matter, and, tf deemed advisable, this council 
may, by a two-thlrda V0U9 of the delcitHtea then 
present, forming • quorum. order a withdrawal 
or snrer sll trades or societies who may be on 
any building where said non-union men or 
•calm may Im employed. This order shall be 
carried Into effect through tbu agency of the 
walking delegates of the various I 

flm-mm L 

council i 

ABTIri.fi VU, 

SfCTIOW 1, On demand of * on km represented, 
a general strike shall lie ordered to reinstate a 
member or members who have at ruck and ere 
refused employment on that lob that waa struck. 

Apsnme the given chord to he 4o' 0" 
and the rise 8' <i", ami proceed at fol- 
lows: The cord 4iC i 2 l'ii"; 80' > 
20" or ctpaared dMH):- KKKJ H.'t 
17.65: 47ii.-, f h.:, :,l.:.r, which is the 
diameter retmireil. Diameter 55.53 : "A 

radius 27 77 or S' H" approjtimatelv. 

This will be eiiHicienlly close for all 
working purposes. 

Yours fraternally, 
.Vf. J M im, Mo. Kawodht. 

Haw. 2. Any walking delegate or <l« lenau a <4 
. ny society erdsrlng » strike williout tiie cum- 
sent of tills council, the trade bureprr set) Is shall 

be held rcs|KHiHlble for the w>t« of the men on 
strike. This shall not prevent a delegate from 
ordering a strike of the n am bets of the I 
be represents to adjust its own Internal 
with out tlie assistance of this cotiiiell. 

HBO. 8 Members of a union seceding from a 
parent orgHtil ml Ion and forming a se|Mtrateunloo 
shall be excluded from this council. 
Hbo. 4, All brwnefaaaof a union shall demand 
hours of labor. 


Bbttiob 1. When 0k« uiembcrs or two unions 
represented In this counctl work, at the same 
trade, it shall be unlawful for one to take the 

ABTlt-UI 1ft. 

Smrrlog I. No society or branch of 8 
■hall bo allowed to stdke more 
ptoyer at at time, unless there are 
employers ou the same job. 

t. Twu-thlrds of wit (he trades 
•ented In thlsoouiicll shall fvrm Bnuorum 
It shall take two weeks' noUoeof 



The Workman is Only a Slave. 

The workman, though lienrlng Hie linage 

Of God, Ills crciitnr ami friend, 
And made to enjoy Die full right* nf s HHi 

Ih crue'ly robbed oT Ills etui; 
His ilsiin of asserting hln freedom 

Is HniM'nei) under lyraimv n wiive, 
Ami Capital's r»u nlensiice Htnlles hh 1! -ayn 

The workman Is only a slave. 

Wi homd of mir civilization, 

Ami fling uf (hi' progreM* of ritfhl, 
While Hlltrljl wee| ih Iji the darkness of grief 

Ami prays foi the dawn <>f the i gin ; 

OpprenNinn Ih rti^iifK In m a 1 1 r 1 e hs 
Aim) vow- it u ill dig a deep nrup, 

Wbaretn shall be butted worfclit^mBn's 
rlgl'ls — 

The work man is Onlf 11 sUve. 

When master* combine in a iialau 
Proud Wealth loudly shouts t'Uh right ' " 

Bui when «iml)iii»iltnii the workman attempts 

11 Irrtatau Capital'* vlgtiti - 

Anil forthwith the sward from the scabbard 
la drawn, With the might ot the brave, 

The organisation t.. smite In the ground— 
The work man in only n slave. 

It lot out from the page of our country 
The name of Alie Lincoln, who died 

A martyr to " freedom for all men an aim;' 
The sou of America's pride ; 

Hit bones must be shaking with anger, 
Though lying lo day in the grave. 

Ami threaten deep vengeance ngaiiiHt the false 

The workman is only a slave. 

The Statue of I.ilsrly blushes 

Ami preys (hat It ipilckly may die — 
That stands on the step of America*** door, 

Because it proclaims a foul He : 
I f Heaven would answer the prayer 

That's heard within > .mini of the wave, 
The hi -in id uli >! ih libel would ueane to cilsl— 

The workman tit only a slave. 

The tongue of divine retribution 

Though •lleut, will speak before long. 
In words that will scatter the worktngiuan's 

And tubslltute right for the wrong; 
The forces of justice are waking, 

The workliigman'B freedom 10 nave. 
And soon will proclaim In unipicsUoiiing ton 

The workman Is more than a slave 

FiiUburgh, Pa. J- Tv, VHON lOSEB. 



(VERY army in its 
line of battle reata 
on a key , a certain 
position which, if 
lost, necessitates the 
formation ot a new 
line. That implies 
an army with some- 
thing of a good gen- 
eral at it* head. 
That does not apply to an army of crude 
savages, nor to a mob or in ass of people 
la Hidden revolt againet oppression etc. 
Well, we reformers are lighting against 
the beat organized army that ever existed 
under the solar disk, and commanded by 
the shrewdest general that ia possible to 
conceive. The name of that general la— 
Monopoly. The army ia composed of 
people of all claaaea, in all social condi- 
tion!, rich and poor, wise and ignorant, 
good and wicked,— all united by eel- 
flahneas and greed in thia or that form, 
open or masked, unconsciously some- 
times, but not the lees effectual on that 

Monopoly Itself Is nothing but greed 
and selfishness embodied In human laws, 
and to clothed with a mask of righteous 
nesa or respect ability. Monopoly is then 
organised aln, aogar coated iniquity, 
made palatable to a great many people 
who would otherwise reject it with the 
utmost indignation. Few men are fond 
of sin when left naked with all ita natural 
repulsi veness. It Is therefore the hidden 
tine which are moat fatal, because dim- 
cult to 

We are then face to face with a big job, 
face to face with an army magnificently 
intrenched, organized and led. That 
army can only he crushed, or seriously 
defeated, like every other, by a careful 
analysis of its line, so as to tint! the 
key on which it rests- This should be 
the preliminary Btep before a general 
attack is undertaken. Once the key has 
been discovered, then we should proceed 
with our general arrangements, lliey all 
to he centered on the capture of that key. 
That is we should pour upon that key all 
the elements and strength at our com- 
mand, and not to waBte our time or 
powers of attack against any secondary 
position hut in so far ae more or lesa 
intimately connected with the key, or for 
the purpose of keeping the enemy at bay 
along the line of battle. F.ven the latter 
predicament may he unnecessary in onr 
caee, because, ae we said, the army and 
general against which we are fighting are 
excellent in shrewd neps and skill. They 
already know the only process by which 
they can he defeated, and will defend 
their key to the bitter end with the cour- 
age of despair. 

The key in ijiiestion is embodied in the 
answer that Cain gave to Hod when 
asked,— It here k Abel thy Brother.' We 
know what the answer was— Am I m?/ 
Brother' a h-e/ier t 

By those words Cain asserted that he 
did not consider himself his brother's 
keeper or in any way conducive to the in- 
timate relations with which brothers 
should live, if their social compact is to 
rise above that of wild beasts in the 
jangle. God seems to have viewed the 
matter somewhat differently from Cain. 

That question of God, " where is Abel 
thy brother," ie no doubt replete with 
significance. It is the question that God 
has been asking ever since to men and 
nations. And the answer of nations and 
men lias always been the same — "Am I 
my Brother's keeper?" We refer of 
course to the fundamentals of human 
existence. Take for instance the utmost 
universal fact that we have always said, 
and say to-day : Why should we, the 
elder brothers, the Bret comers, the wisest 
of the lot, why should we make laws of 
e>|iial justice and equal freedom giving 
to all men and all generations equal rights 
to the possession of the earth? Why 
should we not keep the earth to our- 
selves, the beet portions anj how, since 
we came flnt, or happen to have a little 
more talent than some of our brethren? 
Why should we not have those brethren 
under tribute, ae long as we let them re- 
tain enough, out ot what tbey produce, 
to keep body and soul together, for 

Let us remember that Cain was the 
lirat born, the elder brother, and be was 
just the one who killed the younger 
brother, the second comer ; jealous of 
Abel for using the land as pasture for 
hie (lucks, and in being unconscious 
that he should have to buy the land from 
Cain, or pay any laud rent lo him for 
the privilege of using the planet '<> make 
a living from. 

Of course God could not accept ( gin's 
offering, the frnite of the land, when he 
considered himself The Land Lord, and 
waa jealous of Abel, unwilling to deal 
with him ae a brother, and hence un- 
willing to let him have equal right to 
the landa from which all human needs 
and comforts are to come ! Of course no 
real brotherhood is possible aa long as 
we condemn so tie men to live and die 
according to the conditions that other 
men may fix, because claiming to be 
landlords, and with power to say how 
much they shall receive from land rents 
or land sales. 

You can therefore notice that every 
civilisation resting on land monopoly is 
a proclamation of the words of Cain, and 
it repudiates the conception of 

human brotherhood as emphatically as 
Cain did after he had killed Abel. The 
form with which we now assert that we 
are not our brother's keeper, may be 
less open than that of Cain. But, if any 
thing it is far more criminal, because 
carried by wholesale in its general fatal 
results over millions ot brothers in all 
our so called Christian nations, century 
after century, just as if human history 
was not intsnded to teach us any higher 
duties towards each other, just as if 
human life, in the mind of Gad, was to 
be but a mere struggle of despair ; some 
men forever preying on the rest through 
the legislation of land robbery ! 

Look at the objections by most men 
presented to any fundamental reform, 
and the inevitable results through 
which some people always manage 
to become very wealthy, while others 
are forever sank into poverty. That 
is but Cain's modern presentation of— 
"Am 1 my brother's keeper?" Why 
ehould I bother my eel f shout laws of 
equal rights, when laws ot privilege suit 
me very well, and keep me in clover 7 
That is the monopolist point of view in 
life, or that of the fellows who expect yet 
to become wealthy through laws of mon 
opoly and privilege, For such people 
the divine conception of ho man brother- 
hood is never to be au actual fact, never 
to be interlinked with our social, politi- 
cal or industrial relations. It must 
remain a mere sentiment, to be preached 
on Sundays, but never to be realized on 
week days. 

Human brotherhood means— />/<'"' 
Right*, it it means anything ; just the 
kind of rights repudiated by class legisla- 
tion and laws of monopoly, to-day more 
than ever before. 

Kqual Ktgfata is then the motto under 
which we must march, and with which 
we must attack and capture the key ol 
the enemy in front, that army under 
monopoly rule we have been talking 
about, that civilization which pretends 
to have realized all divine ideals becauee, 
possibly, we are not quite as bad as men 
may have been 3,000 years ago in the 
worst periods of human history. And 
yet, we should remember that sin is 
nothing but a relation between what we 
may do and what God expects as to do, 
because of the gifts and inspirations He 
may send us. Hence, for all we know, 
perhaps we are to day, in God'a eyea, 
the most ainful set of men that ever 
lived I 

Be that ae it may, our redemption and 
manhood can only come from a s n cial 
status asserting that each one of us is bis 
brother's keeper, individually and col- 
lectively. Hence each one of us should 
work for »ocial righteousness, and pro- 
claim the need of systems of taxation 
and monetary methods respecting Kqual 
Freedom and Equal Juatice ; thus repu. 
diating all special privileges to individ- 
uals and corporations. As a matter of 
fact, we should not have any other cor- 
porations hut 'the Nation and V» Uwci 
t«Uit}t. l ather that, or a » iovurnment by 
corporations as we now have in tbeae 
days more than ever In the history of 
h u man it v, relatively and absolutely, In 
all forme and respects. We don't see 
how that can be disproved. 

Things to be 

Turn worlo waa not made that the 
rich might enjoy themselves while the 
poor toiled and suffered. On each terms 
society was not allowed to exist. The 
film of habit on which it rested would 
burst through, and hangar and tary 
would rise up and bring to judgment 
the unhappy ones whose business it had 
been to guide and govern, bat who had 
not guided and had not governed.— 

Tnaicie months In arrears subjects a member te 
loss of bcnclllM. 

Rtkaiiy at tendance nl the meetings (riven Uf, 
and I ulcn -i lo the Union. 

MkmiieKb goltijr otr lo another city should |„, 
provided with a clearance eitrd. 

Ai.r, local treasurers should tie tinder bonds and 
the bonds li let with tho president of the I.. It, 

Tikibtkrh' rcporlH should lie prepared «, ln \. 
annually ami forwarded lo the (». M. til»tik« „ rc 
rurtttattod free fur that pur|Hiee, 

Auh ehanges tn Hecretartaa should Iks promptly 
reported h> the U. H., and imme and addle* uf 
be new Secretary should bo fur warded. 

OaOiN-r^K the rtanw-nlers In the ttitoqptnlir^ 
towuM in jour vicinity, or wherever you ma; go! 

Hold publli 'ctlngn or socliil fiwltvals at Mbitcij 

oceanlouB ; they will add lo the strength of y.,ui 

T.RTTKRJt fur the fieneral Oflb* nliouhl I* 
wrliteu on oltleal note piiper itnd bear tin- «, ■„! 
of the lj«al I'nloii. Don't write letter* to Hig 
U H, on monthly re|n>rt blanks, as such cum iuu- 
tilcaltoiiH are nut In proper shape 

Alt. Monrt* received by the O. ft one miit.tli 
are publlnlici| in the neit month's journal 
Moneys received can not lie puhllHhcd In I Mi 
Itiiimal tint name mouth they are reee-ived. |{ 
takes mime lime to make up the report and put 
It Into lyjw. 

Turn only nnfi. way to send money is by p t ^t 
Office Money Order or by Blank Cheek or I (raft 
as required by the Const! lull on. The O. ft tn 
nut re | n> null lie for money sent In any oilier way 
IXin't send loose cash or postage stamps In uavi 
meal oftai or for any bill due Ore U.». 

i sys- 


At the Detroit Convention ot the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of Am»r- 
l.», held Aug. 6-1 1, IB**, the following rules t D 
relation to apprentices were approved, and tht 
Looal Unions are urged to secure their enforce- 

rTherenj The rapid Influx of unskilled and tn- 
competent men In Uie carpenter trade has bad, 
of late years, a very depressing and Injurtoui 
effect upon the rueeliaiibs hi the business, and 
has a tendency to degrade the standard of skill 
and to give no encouragement to young men to 
become apprentices ami lo master the trad* 
lnoruugh.lv; therefore. In the lies! 1 n terrsts of the 
craft, we declare ourselves In favor of the follow- 
lug rulea: 

BSLTtox I. The Indenturing of apprentices ta 
UielHwt means (ntculated to give that efficiency 
which it Is desintble a mrfieuler fchuiihi jk^wm-ms, 
ami also to give the nei^-wsary guarantee lo ih* 
employers that if ime return w if I lie made to them 
forapropcr i ttVift to turn out competent work- 
men ; therefore, we direct lliat all Cooal Uulnm 
under our jurisdiction shall 'ise every |m>hhII ilt 
means, wherever practical, lo introduce the sj 
tern ol Indenturing apprentices. 

BBC. 3. Any hoy or person hereafter engaging 
himself to learn the trade of carpentry, shall ■■«> 
lequired lo serve a regular apprenticeship of four 
consecutive yearn, and shall not u> considered a 
Journeyman unless he bus complied with thtt 
rule, ami Is twenty-one years of age at the com- 
pletion uf his apprenticeship. 

Hm-. 3. Al, ho) a entering the ■ sr| »■ ntcr trad* 
with the intention or learning the huHjuc«e shall 
be held by agreement, indenture or written con- 
tract for a term of four years. 

Bac, 4. When a ls»y shall have contracted with 
an employer to serve a certain term of years, ha 
shall on no pretence whatever, leave aaid em- 
ployer and contract with another, without ths 
full and free consent of said first employer, un- 
less there Is just cause or that such change li 
made In cousuiuewe of the death or relimpitsti- 
ment of bust n i -Ha by the Hrst employer , any ap- 
prentice so leaving shall not lie permitted to 
work under the jurisdiction of any Iax-sI UiiIoB 
In our Brotherhood, hot shall he renulrcd lore- 
turn to bis "uiployer and serve out his appran- 

B«o. It Is 1 1 lined upon each IjoohI Union to 
make regit In tit is limiting the number of ap- 
prentices to be employed III each shop or mill to 
one for such numlier of journey men as may 
seem lo them lust; ami »JI I'n Inns are recom- 
mended to admit to membership apprentices ts 
the last year of tbetr apprenticeship, to the «Mi 
that, upon the eiplrallon of their terms of ap- 
prenticeship, they may )>ecoine acquainted with 
the working* of the Unions, and he belter tilted 
to appreciate Its privilege, and obllgaUuoa upe* 
wmnix fid" WsT.t* 

ail oLsaajr uiil 

This la a fao-»l mil* ot 
the badge warn by all 
members of the Retail 
Clerka'Natlorjal Protect 
iva Aaioetatton of the 
United States. Baa thai 
al) salesmen and clerk* 
wear this badge and yea 
may h 


Promptly •scored. Trade-! 
and Labels red stored. Twi 
perl os. * 



Stiitf*)! S u$ » ru<f «r . I a ML 

Steftl £otd Mr* tad 
aBtn 3c!tungt* unV *»» 
btrtn Drudarbrltin ber< 
rtxnttt, totldje In tact* 
ftfcfTt Union • Dnnftidti 
%cr£s«flrlit tut r bin. 

(For Our Herman Members.) 
«u9 Buffalo. 

Buffalo, 91. ?).,7. KfCil 1895. 
SBettb,et »tubet 9Jlc®uite t 

fcietnut fenbe id) 3&nen einen fleinen 33e< 
rid)t Abet unfete £aae im Catpenter'(Sefd)fift 
in Buffalo, raeldjen ©ie roobi fo aut fein roer* 
ben unb im n5d)ften „Garpentet" ceroffrnt* 

$i« in Buffalo ifl unfer ©efajftf t fo fdjledjt 
unb bie S6lfiu fo niebtifl, baft nut nod) 18— 
18 gents bie Slunbe bt&a^It roitb, unb ba. 
6ei finb bie i!eute fo bumm unb feben nidjt 
ein, baft fie nut in einer fttammtn Dtaanifa* 
tion t,re Sage petbiffetn fonntn. Unfete 
Union 9lo. 355 agttitt immet ftott toea. So 
b,aben rate roiebec am SRontaa. ben 1. Hpril 
eine ato&e SJtaffenoerfammlur a. oeranflattet, 
meld)e fe&t nut befuojt wot, benn rotr fatten 
btefe Meeting eine 2Bod)e sorter burdj fltofje 
^tatate befannt aemadjt unb gute Mebnet 
roaten anroefenb. 

(Henoffe % 0[fifi Don bet eigarrenmadjet- 
Union befntadj bie ttautige 2a«e bet (Sat- 
pentet. Untet anbetem fa ate ERebnet, rote 
es tomme, baft bte Earpenler fo fd)Ced)te 
C6f)ne fcfttten gegen anbete otgamftrteSlrbei. 
ter unb ob fie nid)t flerabe fo oute Sledjantfer 
roaten aid bie anbeten. 3"t felben 3*\t fot« 
beite Stebner aHe btejentgen am', n>elti)e nod) 
nidjt jtut Union gotten, fta) berfelben anju< 
fdjliefjen. 2)ann etgtiff SSrubet forbad) bus 
SQort, roeldjet fi°$ fetner ©ad)e jut 3uftie» 
benefit etlebigte unb teia>en SeifaH etntete. 

$ierauf fat) id) mid) oetanlafjt, ale ^rafi* 
bent bet Union 3.15, etnifte fflotte an bte 
Itnroefenben gu tid)ten. Suetft forberte 
Stebnet aHe biejenigen auf, fid) )u etljeben, 
toelcbe niajt gut Union ge^otten, road fie be- 
teitrotKigft ibaten. (58 roaten etroa 10 9ltd)t* 
Union-fieute anaiefenb. fcietauf erflarte 
Sebnet, bafj eS am 1. Knul 188!), fomit ge. 
tabe fee}* 3ab,re feien, roo bie ©atpentft 
Buffalo * einfaljen unb fit, ftatf genug fu,I> 
ten, ibte ttautige Cage etroa* ju beffetn, an 
©tttfe flingen unb bie iiftttnoiae Mtbeitdjeit 
crlangten. Da& bie £eute abet glaubten, 
SSUes ju fiuben unb bet Union ben Stfiden 
(e,tten, fo baft e* folglidj i$te eigene Sd)utb 
ffi, baft augenblttttia) fo fd)leo>te Sbbne be - 
gabjt rofitben. Ste Ibnnten eS abet roieber 
gut mad)en, roenn fte fid) bet Union roiebet 
anfdjltefien ntfitben, 

3um @d)Iuffe fann id) betid)ten, bag bte 
Meeting ein gtoler Gtfolg roar unb fejt ju 
empfe^len todre fur unfete 6a)roefter> Union*, 
lumal diet in Buffalo. ®S roare iefrt «Jeit, 
com IDintetfdjlaf aufjuroadjen. 

©e djo Mann maa)ten gum ©djluft Simu- 
lation gut J.ifitgliebfdjaft. 

3eid)net aa)tung*oolI 

©ba*. SB. It 1 1 r i a). 
Bt&ftbent Union 855 

Unionen gegenilbet t6,eilnabmto* unb ableb> 
nenb oetbaHen, fo tft bie* oetfebttet, (tan!« 
Rafter ®goi*mu8, bet roebet gum ^eil bet 
«tbeitetfad)e, nod) jum Sottfteil bet belief « 
fenben Union getetdjt. Sttrben benn bie 
betteffenben Unionen bie Bottb^eile, bie Tie 
ettungen,— Mtjete KrbettSjeit unb h^Efere 
fiij^ne— geniefjen, roenn nid)t biei3Haa)tbet 
^tefammlarbeitetfdjaft Winter i^t geftanben 
btttte ? BJiitben bie 5Jlitgliebet bet bettef. 
fenben Union nid)t beute roiebet in ibt ftUf)e» 
te* 9ttd)t* gutfidftnlen, roenn f« ifolitt bai 
fleb,en rofitben? Eie* ifl nut ein Betfpiel 
au* Bie ten. S)te IBadjt bet ©olibatitat, bie 
3nteteffengemeinfdjaft, bet tUeift bet tntet' 
nationalen Btfibetlid)teit, ettingen ben Br> 
beitetn Bortb^eile in bet ftegenroatt, fldjetn 
ibnen ben ©ieg in bet 3utunft. (B.-M -3 ) 


Tt In »n old, weti-eatabllshed principle of the 
rjoltod Brotherhood of Cftrpentera for roembori 
to buy Union Label Goods In preference to 
other articles. And why not? If we ask fsii 
wsRes for our lsbor, why should we buy goodr 
msde at unfatr wages by others. 

The Union Label In every Industry Is a guar 
antee of fair wages, decent working conditions 
and union labor employed. * 

We here give a facsimile of the Union I*bek 
so our members may know Union Label good/ 
and make It a point to ask for them. 


Unfet nationals Bureau fut «rbeitfl> 
©tattftif inSBafE)inflton tritb mitBeginn be* 
nadjflen 3t*caljabte* ein alle groei Konate 
etfd)einenbe* M BuBetin ffir 3ttbeiter«*ngf 
legenViten" berau*geben, fut roeldjen Rroed 
ber jungfte Ber. ©taaten Gongrep $.5000 
ja^rlid) beroifiigt 6at. Eiefeo BuQetin roitb 
100 Dftao-©eiten flat! fein unb fad)Iid)e 
Berta)te fiber bie Cage b«r Ktbeitet in alien 
©taaten unb canbetn ent&alten. Melinlidje 
BuBetin roetben bereit* son ben Megierun. 
gen in (Snglanb. gtatifteid) unb 9leufeelanb 

This Label Is used on aU 
goods made by Union men 
connected with Unions 
AffllUlcd with the Amerl 
can Federation of Labor 
where such unions ha». 
no distinctive trade labe' 
| of their own. This labe 
la printed on white 

This la the label of 


S Journeymen 
Confectioners, undo* 
international Union, 
printed on white 


thai i 
It li 


'} black Ink and Is pasted or 
■ each loaf of bread, Itmeanv 
(BiaUTEBUV dealh to lonK hours and low 
In bakers' slave pens underground. 

Ketne regierenbe, etlojenbe 3bee ifl 
gleid) fettig unb gerooppnet au* bem 3d)oop« 
ber 3ett entfprungen; aUt Mtfotmatoten 
baben fur »uftfl,rer t atufroieglet, 4>e,et, ffit 
ffimpotet gegolten. ©* ifl nid)t neu, bag 
man aud) ^eutjutage 3Renfd)en petleumbet, 
roela)e bie furd)tbaten 9Bibetfpttta)e unfetet 
3uftfinbe aufbetfen unb batnad) ftteben, fte 
gu oerbeffern. G« giebt eben immet nod) 
tfeute, bie Ttdj butd) ftembe* Urtbetl ober 
fagen rotr Beeinfluffunfl, itte madjen laffen 
unb baoot etfwretfen, frei unb unentroegt 
auijuFjatten im Jlampfe ffit SBal)rb/it unb 
?led)t, tr of} alter Madjtnationen unb 3lnfetn> 
bungen, Kbet foldje ©djroierigleiten unb 
fcinberniffe Ijat nodj 3ebet ertragen unb 
befttmpfen mfiffen, ber ba* Medjt gegen bie 
Ungered)tig»eU, bie 9Ba,rbeit gegen bie ilttge, 
bie JJteibett gegen bie *fied}tfdjaft oett^ei- 
bigle. (Budjbruder.Beitung ) 


Tbll Is th* Jol nt Label of Ik* 
Boot and Shoe Workers' Inter- 
national Union and «f the 
Lasters' Protect! to Union and 
all other union men Id the 
Boot and Iboe trade. It la 
printed In blue Ink and pasted 
oa every boot and shoe made 
by Union men. It guarantees the boot* and 
shoes are not convict or prison 

This Label Is about 

square and la printed 
on buff colored paper. 
It la | 


fore tt leaves) 
If a 

detached labels In his store, do not buy from him 
aa his labels may be counterfeit, and his bats may 

Thaabav* Laba) la issued by the Iron Holders' 
Wolan of Mortb America and cam be found on all 
anion made stove*, range* and Iron castings. It 
la printed In black Ink on white i 
an ail un Ion made stoves, 


Thla Label is 
Issued under 
authority of th* 
Union and of the German Typographic Tka 
label Is used on all newspaper and 
It always bears the name and location of 
th* printing work 1* dona, 


Tie e t ft e Hufgabe bet Unionleute ifl, 
bag in ©bop*, roo OTid)t>Unionleute befd)af- 
tigt flnb, batnad) gu trad) ten, bat biefe fid) 
ibret tefpettioen Dtganifation anfd)tie|en, 
obet im SJeigetung*faHe bafiir eintreten, 
bafc biefelben ben ©bop perlaffen muff en. 
Seiber mfiffen roit conftattten, ba& ba Biele* 
faul ift, unb abetmal* fte(|t man oor ber 
traurtgen Bflid)t, mil bem 21 B B bet ®f 
roerlfd)aft*beroeguNS angufangen. 

AittrrtfTrn folibarifd). 

Xit ^nteteffen aHet Mtbeiter flnb foliba* 
ttfd), bie Wtbeiter flnb gegroungen, seteinigt 
ffit ibre ;)ledjte gu tfimpfen. (Sin Ktbeitet, 
bet fid) bem groften, geroalitgen Gtteben bet 
tntetnationaten Jlrbettetoereinigung gegen' 
fiber ifolttcn mill, auf eigene ftauft ben 
ftampf urn* tDafetn fu T tt, roitb gar ba(b 
erfennen, rote tbotid)t ft f) anbelt. 9tut beti 
ienige P2goi*mu«, bet mit bem ^beatiimu* 
ibentifd) ifl unb bet ba r.utet : „£a« fflilii 
Hnberet ifl mein @lfid, meine Stei,eit fann 
id) nut etlangen, inbem id) ffit bie tfrei&eit 
•Wet roirfe," ifl aHe in naturgemitS unb net 
nunftig. 3}a* @lfid be* arbeiienben Bolte* 
roitb ben ^nttreffen bet UhUionare, ber 
@d)temmcr unb Braffer, ben ©d)roinbtern 
unb ©aunern aEet &ttt, geopfett ; bie Htbei 
tet baben ba* 9ted>t unb bie Bf[id)t, ba* 
tbnen ootentbattene ttebeRltlfid mil alien 
tbnen gu ©ebote ftc^enben SBaffen gu etrim 
gen. SJenn gerolffe Xltbeitetotflanifationen 

The Tack Makers' Union la the oldest 
organization In America. It was founded In 
1824. Above la the label placed by the Society 
" Union i 

This label la printed lu black ink on light hi us 
paper, and la pasted on the cigar -boa. Oon'l 
mix it up with the U. 8. Revenue label oa tha 
box as the latter Is nearly of a similar color. Bet 
that the Cigar Makers' Blue Label appears on lbs 
boa from which you are served. It Insures yon 
against Chinese made cigar* and tenement 

t Tka 

Some tiling: for Carpenters to Read! 

The United Brotherhood of Carpenters ant 
Joiners or America was founded in Convention 
at Chicago, August 12, 18sl, At first It had only 
11 1.oc«l llnloiisand 2012 uiemlwrs. Now, In ten 
yearn, it ha* grown to number over 718 Local 
Unions lu over flJO cities, and M,377 enrolled 
uieiiiWrs. It iBorganli.-.l to protect the Carpen- 
ter Trade from the evils of low prices aud botch 
work } it* aim Is to encourage a higher standard 
of skill anil better wages; to re-catabllnh m 
Apprentice Hysk-iu. and to aid and assist the 
members by mutual protection and hcncyolenl 
means. 11 pays -» Wife Funeral Benefit of from 
|JS to ISO; Mcnilwr'* Funeral Bencllt. JIOO to 
1200; and IMEablltty ltenertt 1100 to »400. In 
Iheee Orneral Benefit* tM.Mt have l>een Ox 
landed the pssl year, and fOT3 MB the pust ten 
years, while OOO more was simiil fof Hick 
Iteni nte by the Local Uidons. riiicb. an orgsni- 
ration Is worthy the attentluit ofevery t^arpenter 
The Brotherhood Is also a Protective Trade 
Union a* well aa a Benevolent Hoeiety. It ba* 
raised the w»H« i II M« cities, and placed Five 
and a Half Million Dollars more wages anaually 
in the pocket* of the Carpenters in those cities. 
It reduced the hour* of labor to 8 hours ft day in 
ftl cities, and 9 hours ft day in 418 cities, not to 
speak of 457 cities which have established the ■ 
or 9-hour system on Saturday s. By this means 
12, 1W more men have gained employment This 
Is the result of thorough organisation. And yet 
very few strikes have occurred, and very little 

money has been spent on strike* by this society 

It Is not a secret oath bound organisation. All 
com potent Carpenters are eligible to join and 

this Is an Invitation to you as an intelligent 

This Label la the only positive 
Beady-made Clothing, Including overalls aud 
Jackets, 1* not made under the dreaded, disease 
Infested tenement bouse and sweating system. 

Ton will find the linen label attached bysaa- 
ahln* stitching to tha inside breast pocket of the 
jcat, or the inside of th* buckle strap of tka vast 

•n page 16, In our German department. 

Then* are labels also for the** 
Cooper*. Journeymen Barbers, Horse 
Makers, Elastlo Web Weavers | InteraaUonftt 
FurnlUirs Worker* and Hardwood 1 

lastzbs' uu 


nv*° lasted**' 

The 1, asters' Protective Union of America ba* 
cop} righted the above trade-mark, which when 
found on the sole or lining of a boot or shoe, Is s 
guarantee that the same is hand lasted by union 
men. On account of the Introduction of so- railed 
lasting machines and "scab" workmen, th* 
I asters deemed It necessary to take this effective 
means to protect themselves and purchasers of 
footwear from unscrupulous 
The band lasted shoes and boots 
cheap a* tbo Inferior lasted article. 

aen. BJenn am iff e Htbeitetotaanifationen ^ ur\X;K°joiu 
fidj ben Befit ebrntaen unb Singen anbetet rulhodjr. 

m eeb ante to send In your application for mem 

Carpenter*' Union 
is a branch of the Brotherhood 

bershlpln the 
Is a bran 
small in 

(therhowl : I lie noes sri 
with the benefits, and 
lu thla growing aud pt 

ofyourcity. It 
the dues are bul 
It 1l 

Save $50 When you Build. 

Hick*' Builder** Guide 

comprising an easy and practical system of esti- 
mating material and labor for Carpenter*, Con- 
tractor* and Builder*. A comprehensive guide to 
those engaged In the various branches of the 
building trade. It saves timu, money and mis- 
takes. 1*0 pages, lit Illustration*, cloth bound. 
Pries, II 00. 

The Building; Budget and 
Everybody'* Assistant 

contains the practical experience of over <0 build- 
ers right to the point on all subjects relating to 
calculations on materials, labor and proper con- 
struction, Price Uoanls, 

Hicks* Vest Pocket Galde, 

A memorandum, time book, price current, and 
bandy reference. It Tick lbs. Bent free for the 
asking. Don't mis* It. 

Boa 3 7, Station A* Omaha, Neb. i£'£s%«l * 



Hntvtiinitoa, io."2 OoveriiNiaataii 

(Col.) W. 44. I*wln, Tftl St. LouIb st. 


44*. Hot! 
US. Pinw 


HAlntHYlLLa>-I. H. Willi*' 
INI.IANAFOUB- (Oar.) II 1\ Brandt, 100 8 
Linden at. 

•' H. K. Tra\ la, .7.' HrooksWe Hire, 
.1 M Prulll IJt Prospect at. 
LafaykTth -H. (I, Cole, W7 Soul ll M 

(Oct ) Jacob Khorle. 1,13 Utllon at 
iAaiAytniHT— J I. Si hrock . 72u Kicvi-nth at. 
Maui. in .1 M Sim. ins. WJ Sherman hi. 
Mi n. ib J. I), Clark. 715 Klrhy «v. 
New ALBANY- A, T. HmtUi. ]>« W Nth at 
Ull'HMONU— Jelt'.TSOI. Cox. 627 N. 19lll-tli'l'l. 
SoiTH ItKNO -lien. I.cshcr. Itox 65M 

Tkiibk Halts s. Hut ton. 312 s. Ml ti at 

VlN( BHNB*-A . C I'tilllltllKliill. 8IH N Hthat 
Wabash II P.Macy. Box HI 2. 

J. K W. 

srarN.ia - 


s. itinv. Rai 

Moore, .US Market at. 
lkcr. 676 H, State st 

833 1/Ofi Anoki.bs S, (Ii»v, Hni 22-1. 
MS PASADKNA -Geo, W. lie, .!. Hoi » ft. 
Wi. KlTKUHIliB— Clia«, Ilniiiiltr.ii 4th anil K « 

lyptm avo. 

Has nunrtMO— Seen Larv of lMst. Coil mil 

.1 k Nehtwender, Hi Turk si. 

23. N. L. Wandd!, 99 Ninth at. sta. B 
9M .t.e. . Win. Jllge Mission street. 

183. Oil* Ijtthrop. US Turk at. 
818. Had .To*»-K. K. Crews, 596 M. 3d si. 

St. Ran Rafael- K. Hoolt. Hoi 873. 

236. HAIfTA liABBAIA-K. A. Hill I til, ]429Coalellu 


99. HALIFAX. N. H.-A. North up, 1W Motrin tl 
18. Hamilton- W. J Frhl. 26 Nelson at. 

194 LoNIion -K. J A usl, 706 DiindaA at. 

1M. MOKTHEAL— (Fr.)S. i aiYcUle, 240 Logan at, 

3d rut. 

■78. " If, T. Holla.. ul. 31 Kent st. 

88. f*» t 'ATHA HI RKh- Henry Haiti. I-onlaaal. 

37. Tobonto— D. It. McNeill, 2aH Haiuhurir ave. 
817. V»m«irti» B. C1.-U O. Uohlge, 231 ll.ii 
ris site I, 

U3. Winhipw., Man.-k. Ball, to Bcliulu st. 

MM). OoLOBAl>oOrTY~». F. Hatnll. 

SIB. ColobadoSPioi.— (1. Hdasler.33 Franklin st. 

88. Dwmtit- U. M. Woods, 2253 Logan ave. 
410. PUBBLO— J. B. Harmer. 626 W, 14th st. 

48 TaiNIDAD— K.C. Pierce 631 N. Commercial 


118. Bbiociepobt— Charles Wat k Inn. Ml A Herat. 
48. Babtfubo—Wui A. Neils., n 32 Wnusierst 
4ft. MBmiiKS- Ooo. J. Stanley. 25H Eti-I Mali. st 
87. Nbw Huitain— Joli n Hlllpoltl. IM) B.-x 90-'. 

TVS, New Haven — (i. K. Chlpioan, 401 WHahli.B- 

UlD Ht, 

1ST. NoBWUta— A. I), I a- wis. 94 Asylniu at, 
7«. NfiHWAIJt — Win, A Kelliori, Box 391, 
110. llocKVIt.LB— Ceo, Diciierlng. 
388. WaTKBBUBY- Joseph Sandlford, 

Box 680. 

40. WiUiiRotON- W, P. Crawford. H lit W ;kl 

190. WaJuHIM.iTOM-L. F. Burner "Jul K at.. N. W 


. JAC.1BMONVII.I.B-- (1 'o! ) M, R LlUlilap 




JclLu'sun A ml Union sis 
MB. Jacbhomvilk.— Win White fi 
mill Laura sis. 
74. Frniurou t*i o MarHe. Box 7J, 
1/7. " «Jn).)A M Hi-tllwHy 318 K tthase at 

IM T»km It Kdeti fluid. Ho* 44 Ft Brook. 
9M. WbsT Pai.b ItKAt'U VV. V. It'islilo*;. 


439. ATI.A8TA -F. W Hit. In ..ek, 92 JetlBl 

IM. AuousTA-fOol.) T. P. Lewis. I low 1'i.tit,, st. 

144. MawjB-J. W. Water lo.nsu, till Ttilrd si.. 

BbLlbtiuji-I.oiiIh (loas, 622 Bilsi.,w st. 
Bbiuhtun H'b- -I*. I'oiiliiit, 2106 .luseidi st. 
Canton— Homer Wlmleti, 348 W.l'waa I'la. -,. 
OH I ha lio— Secretary of lilslrtcl Count) 1, 


W. K. Bowes, 49 \Jt. HavMu at. 
Adolph Mutnnii 120 W. l-akesl, 
(Frenohl I*. II ml,, i.. to Vtrnou Park PI. 
J. II. Htovana, MISH Hearliorn st. 
Wm. Mead, 7 J 04 H, CljIcBuroBTO, 
(BofaMD.) Jolin Bund. Ml.. W. -Mil, st. 
(tier.) AUK. JtoleltB, 4068 Atlantic at 




78. (tier.) Ana;. Hale 
181. IHuand.) K F.ii K l>.>rK. Nit ItoluaM. 
141. (Her I Tlieo. hesel), -i,127 t'nl.m bvo. 
M9. Wt... Ben.ifltu, 1741 N. Clark st 
418 (Her.) Jan. Bell, I31U Van Horn at 
41ft. (tier.) John Hueknut, 32*3 Oakley avo., near 
88d street. 

446. (Hull, I k F. Vanatoenberf . 147-1 i^tiiat. ata. T. 

831, (Hlalrs) (lust, Hansen, 2' Austin ave. 
f Polls].) I. Maslak, IZS W Klaekliuwk It 


(Bohoiii )-.! Si i, Inula, 4MIS Conk at. 
W. H Plillliiis, 1311 W. Polk st. 

(Oer.) (Mill Htineli Haiida) F. U. Uultiueyer 
1126 Mli, at. 
780. H. Fried rich. 20 Heine |, :*.<.,. 
741. F. Ijaraoti, 7SI Jane at, 
'MB. dii I laalf II liB -,i H, Snu.-t 
1*1. IabtHt Ixicot-K WeiifllluK.813 Illinois av 
144 Butuu Bar (tier.) H. rtlolliiB. P. O. Hot 39. 
«2, Khhi.kwh.ii r F. NilKent, 648 t^lieslnnl st 
817 K»AN«To(i-J, F. McFerraii.1428Ktners.in st 
BBS, Fbbnwood — tl. Biihiuan, Jelferson, cor. 103d 
860. UALanHOBU— P. F. Hwaliaon, 731 K. North al 
141. t4Bi>(iBJ»«tBt»-(i.F.AInnjrs,7720UiihHi,nave 
179. HAUVar I) C. Moran 

Hi. HTOl Pabb -H. H Itaker, 7DIN C|tt.*hy ave. 
Mft Jaoehokvillb — M. P darter, 712 K t 'hauila.ra 
4M. K tasi aoT< ipr (Fr.)--M. K«>ii|tfrott, 423 l|:.ih 

at. stn 1*, ChlcHiro, 
MO. Li KB FoliBttT- It W . I ami i, Ibn M 

I.A Hai.i.b F. H Klllott. IIIH tlteve Hour at. 
B-B. F. Po« 627 With at 

I-tleo Neah .6I7H.,. Main st. 
m. M obbxabu— J. T. !l.imB,2*29 Kloale al. 
IM. Oak Pabk-H. Biailti lier, 138 Ma. «-,„:» at, 

881. OTTAWA-John D. Deary, 216 UeLeun at. 

MB Pinna -R w Hhuflh.autiH 

IM. Paac— David n,»,i K „ 

189. QPIBOT-Wm. Ben net, WO N. Front at 
18*. Book I«LABI>-Job Neiifeld, 427 7lh at. 
IN. Sooth Chicago— J. C. Hrantham 

Kd wards ave Hta H., Cliloajro. 
TH, 8. BbolbwooD—I. Tnoinpaoii. 863] Morgan 


' H.Freuml, 1813 H (IrandaT. 

878. Alan nubia — H , W. Klcliman. 
88]. A N dbbbon — A . M, Cooper, 89 K. Butler at. 

90. Joa. F, Wurtti, 9fl2 K, Oolmnhlaat. 
470. ((tor ) P. F. Natt. 1801 Fulton bvo. 
749 (PL Mill. Maob. and 8. H.) O. V. Mann 

L r iU2 K. Missouri at. 
101. Fobt Watbb- A H. Haaa 101 Taylor at. 
738 FaAKK»X)BT— Frank BtroUimau, 1st & Houth 


V>l. BvaLIBOToB - W.u. Ruff, 1115 KlUala-th at 
864 OsVFNroKT— W 0. Meyers. 994 Harrison al 
68. I'l-- MoiNKa - A. Y. Hwayno, 7\l Uak st . 
I,'." fii'i.liH'K M K. Hogan. 299 7th at 

t4H. osKAi.oosA - J. H. Parker. B. 1st st. 

767, Otti bwa- A. Mfllis, 223 N. Itavls si , S. H. 

499 I.BAvBitwoBTH-tl.MeCaullv.llli A Seneca ata. 
IV! Toi-bba -('. U Gardner, 307 Haiieui'k si 


712. CoVlNoTOB— A. CluTriiiRlou, 38 K. Thomas 
7aS. |Oer ) Joe. Ka.uuseii, 211 W. ]2t)i at 

Ml. Dayton Joa IkitiK.M KlutOBfard »4.. Hell.' 
% tic 

442, Hoi-Ktsav.t.l.*- W. O Hall. 
f:iu li\i\.,ri'N <; U Slover,lt8W Main al 
; UJt-isvii.i.K 8, W. ItoWBBNt. 1712 Port- 
land ave. 

103. " H. S Huffman. I'dH Twenty-fourth at 
314. " (Cer.l J Behaeldor, 16;W H m n at. 
739. " (Ob>) Hull it Uaabult, 1716 Hancock at 
698. NkwiiiuT-M, McCaun, Oeu, Delivery. 
201. PAWt AH- W. B, Wllllama. 7117 H. 10th at. 

Jus M. Powell. 

Nl« Ohlbajw -Hecrolary of Dlatrlct tJoun 

dl. K. 6, Welter, J220 Josephine st. 

78, D. C Kesler. 2K|H ConsLani i' st 
249. O, HoeriiiK, 788 Julia st. 
794. T, Uulirkop. 4B3t Annunciation st. 
739. JolinSalaer. 612 Vlllcreat 

40. S BUST kto bt— Peter Car»<,i; Bi. I 831 


407. LwwtHTori— A. M.FlBiric, 94 HprtiiR at. Auburn 
344. PORTLAND— N C. McDonald 161 York at. 
339. Ki>' k 3. a n ii — A. W. Siullli, 6 Willow at. 
WO Watkbvillb— K 8. Hutcntua. 13 PerctTal ci 


». Baj-timohb— W.H.Keeuan.ll37B. Fayettaat 
M. " ((tor.> H. B. Hchroeder, 506 N. Wolf at 


BUO IHatricl Council- 8*erctary W. C. 
DciKle 337 Central Park av,, Hj.li> Park 

33. BOBTOK-W. J. Shields. 10 Cheshire at, 
Jamaica Plain. 

64. " (Jewish.) I.. Itk htcr, 6 .Sheall st 
Mft. " .Shop Hatida) W. H. Jardlue.l Bnrn- 

elde ave., Homervllle. 
138. Cabbbjuob— D. Maloney. 24 Huron ave. 
104. " A. H. McIxhmI. W Mt. Auburn at 
HI Saht Bohtob— J K Pott* 228 I jnidon at 
ME). Fai.i. RlTBB Jah. WalUin, I Branch st 
390. FiTt HBUtm — V. Weatberbee, fl*i Oreon at 
180. vHjODCBtTBB— H.W. Davis. Box 443. 

S3. HATBuaiUU— P. D. Dana, lull Locke at 
•34. HimiHAM— Colin Campbell. Box 113. 
400. Hcoeon-Ceo. K. Bryant Box 125. 
196. HVDB Pabk-B. Daly, 41 Oarliehl at 
111. ! AwitKNi B- .laun s Mt Lare.i. 160 Water at 
370. I.bnox- Jno P. Klrby, Hnx 148 
496. Lowbll — Frank K Appier, 291 Lincoln at 
108. Lynn-M. L. Delano, 103 f«»lsat. 
fJl. Mabblbiibaij — F. Ilanirnoud. Box 100. 
IM. MaBLBOBO— J, O. Do no hue, 31 Hchoul at. 
193 NATICK-H. P. A tl ii la. 1H Oakland at. 
409. Nuw BKuroBD— C. (4 Francla, 14 Hpruce at. 
376. Nbuvtob-C. Conneis. Bux71, 
1 24 NkwtoN (*KNTB»— Fred. Bolnuer. Box 739. 
198. NottTB AbAtta— Job D»ry. I4X Pros|>eel at 
«H. Nobtb K astoh— * '. W Mason, Box 44H 

87. ttoxBDBT-H. M. Taylor, Fe.ilon at., Dor- 

140. Ha ..km — F. A. Rvltla. I Smith ave 
M. Hombbtilij— Ira Doiiahty, 6 rail to., at 

2 JO, So. PUAMINUIIAM-Irwluc Malik, 
98. HpBiN«|ftKU>— (French) I. HaAaettu. Iim 7M 

6M " Ueo. Bluer, 414 Central si. 

474. Taunton- D. o Ktnir. lOUeu. i^ihb. 

318. WALTMAM— John Velio. 

436 Wbht NrwTOb— K. F Kyan, Box 884. 

430. Wbtybouth— B.J. Pratt, Weymouth Helrbta 
K. WoBc»frM-0. D. Flake, 730 Main at. 


431. Dbtsoit— T. B. Jordan, 427 Heaufittt ave. 
BBS. " O H. (llbhlnBa, 177 Heauhieu -I 
760. CBABD RAPtna- AiiB Nelattn, 16 Mai lonsl 

J6 jAOKaON— II. Hohaii. 20H Ili yo at 
S9|. Kalamazoo- II. (Ire* nd vk. Iim N. Park si 
603. l.iititNOTOH— A. H. Dlbld_, PO Hot 896. 
460 MaNImtkk-Wbi Hhslicet, Urn Manle at 
100. M us KM. KIN F R, Rldout, care Brakettmit, 
cor Houafeii uii.l 4th -Is 
mao in aw sec. of |j () . o. B. Cr»lBan, IW 
CcritLinia live. 
IM Oti lH.ivn.on I12S. 10th al K « 
M8 (Mtlt) )., Maler 181 Han.ard at, W H. 
WM. J H . 4-l.arlel.olM.9i3N. Fayette st . W. R 
4M. (Iter.) Win. Tecko.itleu. 131 S. Mil. at , K, H 


Ml. DllXOTH-J. I.. Heaaley, 415 8111 ate. W. 
87. m. PAUL—Auk , J. M«la».>r, f 


88. AajAooltDA-C. W. Starr, Box Ml*. 
136. Basin- John Nelson. 
240. Belt— Wm, B, KtleT, 

(13. Bl'TTK < 'ITV - H. F. I.apter. Hoi 636 

286. Gbeat Fai.M - A. J, Kmiuorton. 

«*). Hbi.kna -Oliaa. Cain, 810 511. ave. 

8|0 Kai.i-I'KI.i.-P. It. Nelson. 


427, Omaha— Thoa. McKav, 2823 Fraukltti at 
Ml. - (Iter.) K. Kuppert, 3016 Martha at 
685. " (Itan ) J. Tolstrup, IH73 S. 16th st 

383. CohdoBO— Hana l.arsen, P.O. Box MS. 

118. MANfBBHTBB-H. T liuiiira , 65 1 ).iinrla*a at 
V». Po bthhoctb — K. O. Frye, 13 School at 

Abbcby PABJC- Henry P Uat.t. B<ii H97 

BATONHia— Steiihen Hluwy, 743 Av it. K. 

BbiuoBTuN— J. H. Keevea, 145 Fayette at. 
Camlikh— T. B. Peterson. 337 Median lo at 
Doybb-I., O. Pott 

K lira heth H. Zimmerman, 347 Fay av. 

So. Kltxahelb. 
EiasuKUTH— (Uer.) John Kuhn.827 Martin al 
KHWt.BWoob— S. L. Wnslervelt, Hoi 326. 
Hon<iKBN-F. HUi Ik letter. 109 Harden at 
IlA. kbnsack - T. 11 eat h , 250 Si ale st. 
Jbbi.by lUTT— U. WtlliMaaam, 999 1 , 9d at 
(J. << Hkh.ii is' John ilitn.lorr. NoVlh si hioI 

Is3NO BaANCH -Cbaa. K Brown. Box 241, 

I.oiik Hranch City. 
M H.8U UN— .1. H. White, sliort Hllla. 
Mh.lv I LUt- Jas. McNeal, 
MuNTi i.AiK- Tlios. Kehoe.O Fulton si , I ' . i 
Hoi 24. 

838. MobbibtoWN— C. V. Deatu. I-otk Box lo3. 

119. Nbwabk - II. O. liotxK. 2;o Norfolk st 

305 " A. I,. Beenk", 3IIH*>raiii:e si. 
733. " Ittor.l U. Arcndt 698 S. 14Ui at. 
OfKANio— Zacti. T. Alan, Bui 7U, 
Obamik - 

Patebson- (Hull ) A I. Haenatt, 85 N Main 

" V. B Van Houteu. 713 B. 17ui 

PAHHAIO— Job.. Wood. Slur in an >t. 
Pn [i.LiiiHBi'au - Wm. Hodge, got. MultH.rry 

and Spring Carden ate., Kaatt.n, Pa, 
L*tAtNrrKt.D— Wm. H. Lunger, 94 Wester velt 
HoMBBYii.Ut- W. W. Pltleuger. 
S. I iium.k Kd. Walsh, Mapl. ii ,.o.|. 
456. Ht'BBlT— Kdward Marfn, Box 618, 
543, Town or Dnion -Joa. Wolilfarth, Weel.aw. 

ken P O. 
81. TBKNTON--L, T. Kccd, 153 Koac at 


Albant.- Secretary of Dlalrlct Council 
D P. Klrwln. 43 Myrtle ay. 
174. Jamea Finn, 337 O.m.i;.. -1. 
669. (Oer.) Alex. Rlckert. 416 Klk at 

6. ABHTKBOAB-Herliert Ciark, Perkins at 
453. Aubcbb-W. W. Cllleaple, 119 K. Ueneaae. 
131. BinohamtuB— C. H. Torrey, Box Vj3. 

Bbookltn— Hecrctary of Dl strict Council 

T, B. LIiu-IjIitkIi, M90 Males ave. 
M. A. Malier 41 IrvliiR PI. 
W. F. Gregory, 1615 Atlantic av. 
K. V Rllfaon, 1103 Put. lain av 
('has. Monroe. 91 st Mark 'a ave. 
M Sponee, 36 Van Ihircn at 
(Ger.) C Thiciiiaeii, 20 l.itwtoi.at 
S K. Klllott K9 Itockauav ave 










461, Win Carroll. 792 Bergen at 
471. Fred. Brandt, 468 6th avo. 
8 r i7. (Mlllwrlghta) W, B Kclk, 12 Butler at 

639. Jaa. Black . Wi 5 <d st 

Burr A no— -Hoereiary of IMatrlcl Douueil, 
W. H. Wrc^tlt 50 Trinity al. 
ft. W. H WreRirtU, 58 Trinity at 
SEA. (tier, I H l.uense, 118 Hose st. 
374. E. O. Yok.j.ii, 19 Ferguaon ave. 
440. J C Welgel, 292 Ilik'h al 
99. Coaoaa— A. Van Ariiam. 33 ttoorge at 

640. COI UaQB PotBT.-C. A. Plckol, Stll ave. 

11th at 

W8. OoBTLAK»-K W, Crandall, 8 Maple avt 
-118. Klmiba— B. M. Snyder. 761 K. Market 
3B. FibHBU^-oN-HoDboB— Jm. Ha. yea 

teawan. N. V. 
714, Flush I no — F, H. Field, IM New Ixicnat at 
500, Olbn Cotb. L. I , John Martin 


il i.Kas Fall* Ira Van Duaeu, »; Han ford al 
IBTIBOTON— Alex. H. Smith. Box 167. 
Ithaca— K. A. Wldilog, h Aul.tin. at. 
KiBUtraoB— J. ItoyoChlpp, 150 Clinton ave 
I .ITT lb FaLl*-T It. Mansan. 629 (lard en al 
Ml. VBBROn-J. HcATdaloy. 131 N. 7th ave. 
Nkwbuboh— I). C. Healy, 46 Johnson at 
43. Ntrw BocsKLLa— T (^.iIi.Ibi. 45 Drake ay. 
MT7. Nrw-r-nwa. L I — I H Wav Cnrnna PO.I.I 
Www Vhkk Be* rotary of Dlatrlct Co Unci 
J. C Doyle, 231 K Ml al 
81. K. A. Itoild. 1346 Cbiaholli. st 
63. las J. Kane, 887 B 36l)i at 
M. J. O. Lounabury, Hudson Bldg . 801 W. 8711 
900. ( lewlab) Jobn Uoldfarh.llSMadlaoii at 
309. (Oer. Cab. Makers) Ism Is Becker, 326 K 
7611. nt 
A. Wall Jr., 103 W, lotUi al 




ak Curtla. 


619 Bbnton Ittatiok-C. Roll. 1718 Arthur ave., 
HI. Louia. 

160. Kabhah Cctt-W. A Loch. nan. 709 M.saty av 
977. BPBiBoriKJ>-J. W. Patrick, 3047 N. B.,.,.,„- 

BT. I <otr m— Secretary of Dlalrli 
V. H. Ijtinb, 6.Hs od.-ll ave. 
I. Geo. J. Hwank. 3114 Alice itb 
B. (Ger, 1 KudoliU. Cloor, 409 Sidney al, 
19. (Ger.) Kdw. kleanllng. 3218 N. Market at 
118, Jamea Hlilne. 4264 Blaine ave. 
140. (Ger.) D. Fluegel. 4011 N 23d at 
197. H. (I. Ferguaon. 617 W. JerTeraon A Ye. 
370. A. N. Wolff. 5325The<sloala by. 
433. ((tor.) Q. Jal.loi.sk y 2630 Clara ave. 
618. (Ger.) Hunrv Tblele, I ,oi. K hliorouKh and 

(Iravola ave. 
878. (Htalr Bldra.) K. F.a.lsh. 4211 Linton av, 
804. (Mill wrlichla) — J, H. Miller, 2920 Kadaav. 
099. O. H. Gulue, 1629 Olive at. 
794. (Gar. Mill) P. A. Laux, 2307 


((ler) C. Kuechele. 2tt«7 2d ave. 
H , Hey mo nr. 1800 2d ave. 


(Hean.) J. Ix> wander, 2S K 1 14th at. 
(Ger. I II Malberger. 632 K. 1661b Ml. 
J U. Doyle, 982 K. 38tii at. 
Wm, Trotter, 918 9th ave. 

478. W. Chamberlain. 687 K 13Hlh at 
«97. (Ger.) II. Raumann, 88 latav. 
«ffll. Palrlek Kavariaah. J4» W 4911. at. 
613. (Gar.) Kichard Kuelinel, 81 Ave. A. 

707. (Fr. Canadian) I.. Bel I mare, 2211 K. 75 111 at. 

719. J. P. Sual.m, 3462 84b ave. 

789. (Gei. Mlllwrlghta and Mlllera) Henry Maak 

619 17th at. Mo Brooklyn. 
578, NtA.tABA FalLm-IC IC Cornell, 446 Kim wood 

474. N T a a — Robt. P. Wool, Box 498. 
101. Oaat aTA A J. Ryan, K K. 
404. Pouk'hbstbb W. H. K Jonea, Kya, N. Y, 
308. PorjuHMBBPeia— (I. K. Raker. Box 89. 
73. UOCBBBTBB-H M. PI oWL.tr 31 Bartletl at, 
17ft. " (Ger.) Frank Hchwlnd. 4 May Pli 

479. HbBbi a FAUa-C. E. Doty, 79 Chapel at 
144. HtiHBBaWrADT— Henry Bain, 316Cralg at, 

Hta TBI laLABO — Secretary of Diet CouoeP, 
O T Hhay, 19 4th ave. New Rrlahton. 
908. Post jti.'HaoND— J. Keen an, 998 Jersey at 

Neii> Brighton. 
B87. Htaplktom-P. J. Klee, Box 497. 

10. Htbaodhb— IGer.) K. K rets ch, 724 Butlernutt. 
814. Tixxnnwa-D. Page, NortJ. Tarry tow u, 
78. T»OT— llobt. Laurie. Box 68. 
139. DTIOA— O. W. Griffitha, 140 Dudley ave. 
680. W ATM-town— P. J, Dorwey, 3 Union Block 

Araane) at 
388. WAVBBLT— A. L. So. Ilh, Box 179. 

Wbht Chkmtbb Codbtt— Hoeretary of Dla- 
trict Council J«mea Cagan, 22 I*wtoa 
at, New Rocbelle, N. V. 
252. Wbht TeoT— Char lea Angua 121 Sd at 
999. Willi A Ha Hbiikjb— John Bdgley, Bob a. 

<rha*. (lord on, 142 Ashh.irlon Ave 
H. W, 


94. AbboB—J. Glaaa. Ill R. Thornton at 
17, BKLLA1BK -Geo. W. I urtls, Box 30. 
170. Bbiihiki'obt— John A. Faanelt. 

501. Bevrarja— J. a Fink 

143. CANTON— Keller Huff. !il ( 'Imiica at. 

8H6, Chilliiuthk IC P. Th psou, 1.17 W S ,i„ 

CINriNNATI- Staieutiy of District Co.,, , 

D P. Rowland, in.' Hyiumea st , Wal uj 


3. W A Kci.yon. UOS.MiniM s st. W. H. 
309, (((or.) AukusI Weiss, i5U Ftt'iioan ave 
324. (Ship I'arp ) J. A. Haiu'llon, PJII K. Front 

337. (Mill ) II. Itlil.kwortll, s6 W Iwu.d st 

til (StHlrnHI. Hokk 127 Mlitonal. 

628. A. Borgcr, 227 Fergus si , .stall,,,. A. 
6M. A J. Halufia 391 IKntaavt., MtaUon C 
667 I' J Jonea, It Kei.lou si , Sla. I . 
676 I.. A Grvll, 313 I. II. rson ave., Sla. K. 
981. F. A. Wagner. 72U Kreciuai. avo. 
6H3. Win. Rthol, HI 1 W. 6U1 si. 
693. ,1. P. I, ...key, 7 Bloota si 

CLKYKLANO Secretary ot District (iouikM 
Vincent fttartn. 158 siiiairlur at, Room 1 J 
11. A M. Blatr. 2KSavlcaat 
89. (Btil.em.) V. Ilhislu 124 I'mnin s(. 
893. (Ger.) The.. Welt.rlch 18 Parker ave. 
449. (Ger.) W, H S. hull/ 35 Conrad st 
461. II J. KI^ks. KMSavics si. 
131. Oollmhk Hill M. Hlinoiis 

Cot.ttMBiia SecretHiy ul Dlstiici OoattclJ 
J. W M. 1/ 218 E s,, r l.i K si 
41. A. C. Welch. 7f2 W llnwl at 

338. John Dalian, 999 I inrd siu. 

IM. DATTtiN— W. r. Hlftth. 4^H K. Hulftuauai, 
346. " (Her. I Jos. Wlrlli. Ill Clover at. 
776. Dklhi - Jamea slattery, Home CHv. 
838. K. LivbhfooL— It li rtloveuaan. Plrawaal >| 
168. FtMt>IJtV--W. Al-l>a<i. M2K Aila.i.s si. 
637. Hamilton -W C Muaeh, Mil Beaton at 
636. Iuoni.in.- A D NeumeyuT 125 It It. sin,. 
187. Lima- J. Vai.swetlniieii. 712H Main at 

708. L.K K1.AM1 -('has. K. H.Ttoi. II., I |H2 
399. MAiiiatisvii.i.K K 1.. Behleii, Hoi 201. 
889. MAitiicjTA J. W. Potreator *10 111. at. 
779 Mabion- .1, K S.nifti. yil) N. state st 

14. Mabtin a Fkbkv - 'I In." V Kallahilry, B01 l.'i 
736. MlOULxrrtiWN- W m. H 1 i 1 . 15 Vandevcre »t, 
746. Hi WawiiiNtoh W, tl Nlitnlsoii. 
738. Nn/msTiux I II. Miller. 

709. Nottw.siL. A.K.Ik-sl lva. hoeav., 

Norwoial (1 ncln null Ol.lu 
4*0. Pobkbot .1 M Fowler, Mas., nCilv W. V. 
437. PoktsboitH -J. P Watih-ss Kox 338, 
107. Hakdi sbv -J, H Rmwn, 918 llnmrak al 
SM. HrBINoriBLU-W. II Knlsh y, 316 1 , 1i.de. 1 a . • 

186. HTBi'mt.iviLi.a— D. H, Vlr.h n, run S flu, »t 
343, Tiffin — A, WcIkIh, 151 Hj ia 1,1 ore al. 

98. T0LK00— .1. W. Mitchell. 49 Vanee st 
198. " (Ger.) A. Nn|.|..-r. H2* Moore at 
171. YofNoHTOWS-C. N. t'ro/.l.-r, 124 Halt! win -i 
714. Ziita"it.LX -Fred. Kaj.is*. Central ava 
10th Ward. 

90. Po tt t lab iv - Da v M Ilonderaoit, Box 948. 


ill. C. U Mohuey. 70 Wilson are. 
837. (Her | Koliert GrAmlairK 21 Delist 
487. Altoofa-II L Si.ilih. 3099 4tli avenue. 
661. BaBoob John Alla.rt, Boi 15U. 
149. HeAVkb Fa lia - A . Burry, Btn 611. New 

VI0. Bbaufobi>-C. Cum inln km. I ( heat nut al 
738, Cabbonualb - Tli.-.i K « tali., 56 Terra, e -1 

107. t'HWrti -Kber H lttghy, 24n K fifth at 
939. Kabton- Frank P. II urn. 911 Butler at 
413. Fbankfouii— J. K. Naoe. M 10 Keyatti.it. si 

4(1 FllA % B 1,1 N— - M . 1 1 Clme. 
123. ObbbanTOWN - J. K. Martin. 58 W, Duval 
462 (iBKKNsBi'Bii-J ||. iti.ea, 289 (<onewtif at. 

187. HABBtMHrBU - (I W Dlehl. IJ2M Herr al. 
Ml. Hombhtbao T. II Wilson, llox 527, 
3R3. Jbanbbttb— J (J.Baker lv..n Station. 

108. AjrrBB-C. H. uaell 31-1 New Hoi land ai 

177. M'-K KMHf'oKT H (I. tlllliert. |ltI0 Itrl. k allej , 
481. Mansfibi.i> -K. If McCuukey, I 'art. eg I e. Pa 

Bok 104. 

338. New KBNarBOTOB - C W Shafi-r Iloi 168 
108. NkwIIaktlb-W. W Mct'liary 138 Harts t 

8. Mat I bias Mmire, 412 N 6(>l At 
137. (Kenalnrton iChaa. L.H|.aii|c1er,2164 Heiaean. 
Vm (Ger.) Joa. IJycn. KiT-i N 411, al, 
W9 lAfllll I lioerlnrsr Jr tfn 't.,,^,, ,i 
PrrrHiii-BitH- Secretary of Dtslrin t .unci) 
W. F. WIII.Kk. Box 216 Ml Oliver. 
i41 H. G. Schomaker, 129 W.dieler at, A ilea 
■ 64. (Ger.) Adolpb Hata I'll 111), at. H S. 
6fl (B. Knd) F A, Ktnoay, 6tul Shak>ii|>«arn a< 
!B«. F. B. Itoblusou, Juliet SI , 14th WamI 
4M. (IJOX.) LudwlK Pauker. 1310 Hreodt at. H. H. 
1*4. Pttbxsiita wbfv— Win Kvana. IUim 137. 
*88 ItKAI)iN<e-T. Klaalnaer. 1113 Orneuwlcb at 
•M Rot'RBwraB— A W (4>.t*Tm.|t'. Row IW 
H4-BAFTOB Secretary Dlmriet Council 
Kolwrt Gould 813 Marlon al. 
M8, fleo. Hbatoback. 90M Oiford at. 
IM. S Hc'KABTON-IGor.) II ltoi.seb.726 Paliual 
87. Hhamobib H. A I.. Suit. ik, 510 K. Oanieror 

•JK, SB A HON - I IV Hmllh, J6 A St 

178. TabBBTITB-T. C. Miller, Hot 367 
797 Taylob Oeorire Wicks. Box 45 

UW ChiontoWB - W. H, K.au.la. 18 Mnrgantowr. 
109 Wii.«bW-Hakbb~M Mal1oy.8tUN Wio.hsi 
M9. WiLt iABaeOKT L F. Irwin . 61 4 Hepburn ai 
191. YOBB Kd Mlekley, 19 N. P.i.n at 



NSW FOBT -P It. Dawle 
pAWTl'i KBT J.J. Let. 


PuOYlI.BNI B - P. ll., fan 

. 611* Thau. m 
mil, Itot 22. 



(iraad view at 

* ^m'hX^ "'' 1 *" A- W " J,l,ln « u " 1 ' 

* ^TaSrt 001 '* " ** Ti,t " atmo *> ,M Ita-1 

m. Kaoxv.ijjj - N ITnrlerwood, 14 Anderaou al 
136 Mabtib -B. K. JeiTreaa 
9M. MaaiFUia-Cliaa. Welner. 3.1 Kronl at. 
788 NAAftviLta— J F. Dunnehacke, 14' A N, Col 




AcanB -H Itoeaaler. 1913 Brerk.it. ridge al 
•DoioiitABA-W. J Foater. 1110 W, Hlb ave 
Dallab-O I, Wiley, Box 299 
Dkn.hob -<J. H. MJIIer, e„i 309. 
Ft. Wobts-J. li lloldoek. 

•• A Krauae, Cor. New York and 

VYUiie nla 

528. Galvbhtob-G H Ballard, B08 399. 

A% and'im eta' ' 1 *'' 1 H " , ' ,ol, N * W °°' 
omrro™ A. Denntoon, 703 Walk.rav. 






WB7. frU* AJTOno-H. L Mitchell, Box WO. 
400. " (Char.) T. Jauernlg, UU. J~ 
717. " A. O. Wtetoel, I 

,L— D. F Ooburn. 


tea. Iliui Lui Orrr-A. Trsoey. 4S8 E.7th B. at. 

A. Thlbaull, II Terrtll at 

D-wm. e. «»ui. em AJba«a*ri« «l 

(Ool.) J. B. Hhod, 7M Olaxk it. 

J. O. Heymer, &!» 8. 11th St. 


ill. Oiiilbioi-J. L. Jones Box Ml, 
IDS. OUUUDM — 3. H RJdenour, Box M. 
111. Bum D B. Martin. Box *» 
IS*. Faiaaoirr-O K. Whll«, Palatine. 
719 HoittiiiotOII— T. It. Ollklson, 18» tlh eve. 
I. WE1IUW»-A.L. Bauer, 1011 Jacob at. 

Bee. District Council Wheeling and. 



Ukhmh BAT— W. Wufner, US N. Madison sh. 

John Lelde. 1808 Adust at. 
HiDiaol-Wn. Moll, 308 Hurray it. 

Standing Decisions of 0. E. B. 


Hurray i 
of District 

John Beltendorf. 7W Tlh av, 
(Oh.) Wro BublHa, 741 18th at, 
(Oer.l Jonn Beltendorf, 7oB7tb 

»0. (Oer.) J. Werner, 1U6 11th at. 

Socialism vs. State Soc 

A correspondent writes the Boston 
iMhor Leader and want! to know why 
that paper is " opposed to socialism." 

The answer is, that it is not opposed 
to Socialism. 

It iB opposed to State Socialism, which 
has, for no good reason, that is evident, 
assumed to itself the generic meaning of 
the term "Socialism." 

The situation in economics is analogous 
to that existing in the theological world 
some generations ago. 

The Duke of Alva said, "I am a 

John Calvin said, " I am a Christian." 

Martin Luther said, " I am a Chris- 

The head of the Catholic Church said, 
"I am a Christian." 

Between the theologians of the differ- 
ing schools, however, there was little or 
no recognition of the Christianity of the 

The modern time has come to acknowl- 
edge that the troth in Christianity is 
not pent up hy a sect or denomination, 
and tolerates where it once gibbetad 
and horned. 

Rut as Christianity has been used as 
a title for bigota and fanatics, aa well as 
by saints and martyrs,— so to-day Social 
ism covers a multitude of economic sins 
aa well as virtaes. 

Properly speaking, every man who 
wants and works for a better social stata 
is a Socialist. 

When ona comes to the consideration 
of the methods by which an improve- 
ment in the social order is to be obtained, 
there is a radical departure between the 
various schools of Socialism. 

State Socialism is compulsory in tar 
ference with private affairs by politi 
dans, or, if the phrase iB objectionable, 
by those who are the administrators ol 
public oltice. 

It means the magnifying ol the gov 
ernment and the .subordination of the 
rights of individuals. 

To tills we are opposed, and ready at 
all times to give reasons for the faith 
that is in us. 

Jitn. 3.-A member who loaves the trade to 
enter another occupation need not withdraw 
from the V. ft. He can still remain a, member 
and In benefit, except he engages In the sale of 
Intoxicating drinks. 

April 33 — A Union lapsed or suspended. If re- 
organized or reinstated, shall not be In benefl 1 
until six months after date of reinstatement. 


Feb. II.— We favor the licensing of architects. 

Feb. II.— In giving grants of money to aid 
other trades In cases of strikes or trade troubles, 
It Is advisable to exercise care and not make 
donation unless condition of local funds per- 
mits nod then make It in the form of a donation, 
and avoid any assess men 1 1 an assessment levied 
for such a purpose shall be purely voluntary In 
paynsenl by the members. 

Feb. II,— A member In the ante- room on busi- 
ness authorized by the Union must be con- 
sidered as present at the meeting, and Is eligible 
to nomination for oflloe. 

Dec, 38 — Funds of Local Unions cannot be 
Med for political party purposes. 


Feb. IB.— Unions not holding meetings at least 
once a month forfeit their charter and are not in 

Feb 31.— Carpenters joining the navy cannot 
be entitled to benefit, on the ground of unusual 

Feb. 36.— A Union cannot admit to or retain In 
membership any one who, himself or any of his 
household, Is engaged or engages In the sale of 
Intoxicating drinks. 

March 12.— Persons ruptured and afflicted with 
chronic rheumatism can only be admitted as 
semi-beneficial memliers. 

June IS,— The occupation of a paid city fire- 
man In hazardous, and a member so engaged 
cannot be allowed benefits. 

June 33.— In movements for wages and hours 
where memliers are working at woodwork, ool - 
aide of bouse carpenter work, they can be 
exeml t frbm trade rules. 

July 80. — A member taking direct contract 
from owner, where the latter furrlshee material, 
and the member contracting hires union men 
and pays union wages by the day, la not piece 
ork ; but If the owner Is an employing con- 
tractor, it Is piece werk. 

Aug. 3.— Wherever a union man goes, he 
sh.mld live up to the union ruins of the elly he 
works In. 

Sept 17.— Grading wages is demoralizing to 
union principles and to ihe welfare of the trade, 
and no Local Union should adopt the system or 
grading nagi*. 

Oct. 23- Claims for disability bench! must 
dale from time of accident. 

■Ice. Tl All payments Of dues made to I F, H. 
In Interval U-tween meetings after Union has 
adjourned, must be credited under date of next 
meeting of Ihe Union. 


April VI— It la not advisable to extend the 
iurlsdlctlon of a District Council over a large 
extent of territory, but lo confine It to one elly or 
one county. 

July IS.— All benefits are forfeited by a sus- 
pended Union, the some aa a suspended mem- 
ber. A suspended Union cannot be entitled to 
any benefit* other than those prescribed for a 
new Union, 

July 17.— Local Unions are at liberty to charge 
a fee for a working card to traveling mem- 
bers on a clearance, said fee not to exceed the 
sum of 12.00 for the Ural working card, and such 
sum thereafter as may he charged any other 
resident member. 
July 17,— Non- resident mem bere can be charged 
not more than tl.00 per quarter for working 

Oct. IB.— A I . .eel Union In granting a clearance 
card shall not accept more than one month's 
dues in advance, sod should more than this have 
been paid by the member, his surplus dues 
should be refunded him by the Union. 

Tug moat abused man in the ranks of 
organised labor is be who tries to better 
the condition of bis fellow-workers. It 
does not matter how sincere be is, or 
whether he ia paid for the time ba loses 
and it is often the case that the man who 
does the moat work in this line ia the less 
thanked, not to say paid. Km ploy era 
call him an agitator, and assert that if It 
was not for him they could hire cheaper 

March 10.— A Local Union can fix a fine as 
penally for non-attendance of members at a 
monthly meeting. 

July II.- No member of any Loot) Union can 

scab" It on any other trade by going to work 
at such trade when II Is on strike. 

Not. St. -Dues are chargeable on first of 
mouth, hut a member does not fall In 
until end of (he 

Jan. 13. -A Local Union eannol admit a boy 
under IS years. 

April I, — A member can join a Ship Joiners' 
Union, and at the same time remain a member 
of our U. B, 

April 3,-A delegate to a convention of the 
U. B. must hold credentials from the Local of 
which he la a member, but several Locals can 
elm j together, or so can Unions in a D. C , and 
electa delegate; but be must hold credentiuls 
from the Union of which he Is a member. 

Oct, o.-Nollces are sent out regularly by the 
G.B-T toall Locals two months In arrears. The 
G. 8-T. cannot be held responsible for their non- 
delivery, especially where Financial Secretaries 
are negligent In advising the General OBlce of 
change of address. It is the duly of members of 
locals to see that tax of their L. U. la promptly 
paid, and receipts for same read at the meeting 


Jan. 11. — The G. E. B. deem It expedient to 
confirm an unwritten law heretofore In vogue in 
the U. B., and decree tool all General Officers of 
the U. B. shall be exempt while In oftlee from all 
duties in the luteals to which they belong 

April 10.— All Unions Or districts sending dels- 
gallons to appear before Ihe €1. K. B , must 
notify the G. ft-T. ten days prior to meeting of 
G. K. B. 

April 10,— A member can remain a contractor, 
or enter into the business of contracting, pro- 
vided he pays the scale of wages, oiie>s trade 
rules and hires none but Union men, and com- 
plies Willi the Constitution, and does not do 
lump- work, piece-work or sub-contract for a 
carpenter contractor, and further provided that 
he is not, nor does not become, a member of any 
contractors' or employers' union. Any violation 
of this rule to be punished by line or expulsion. 

Oct 8.— Itelatlve to granting dispensations In 
Jjocal Unions and members during the present 
crisis, by virtue of power vested in G. E. B. and 
a ,8-T.,by vote of Locals on circular dated Dee. 3H, 
IMS, and again given by 81. Lolua Convention 
(see page 31 of printed proceedings), special 
Instructions and full power are hereby given to 
the G. 8-T. In dealing with extraordinary cases. 

Oct. B.-Tlie Board decide that seven members 
can bold a charter or constitute a ojiorum. 

Oct. 7.— In charging S3.S0 to traveling mem- 
bers Tor first working card, O. E. H. would 
advise during the present stagnation In the build- 
ing I rude, thai Unions throughout Ihe U. B, 

should be as indulgent as possible with travel- 
ing members. 


Jan. 0.-O. 8-T, Instructed to send for books of 
Local Union for examination In ease of a doubt- 
ful claim for benefit. 

April 7.— All dues received In the interim hiv 
l ween meetings must be credited as received at 
the next subsequent meeting. Hec. 1B3 means 
that the actual date of the meeting at which the 
due* are received or credited as above shall a|>- 
penr oo the member s card and books of the 

April 0— In all strikes or lockouts only those 
men employed when atieh strike or lockout 
lakes place are entitled to strike psy under our 

July 10.— When a Union la three mouth- in 
arrears it ia not allowed seven days grace heforn 
running out of benefit. The seven days grace 
specified In Sec. 62, is given to save a union from 
suspension enllrclv, and from forfeiture of 

July 20.— A iiieiuber working as inutorman or 
conductor on an electric ear can retsln his meni- 
bershlp In his Local, but should he meet with an 
accident and become disabled, or die from the 
effects, bis heirs would not bo entitled lo any 


Jan. 10.— The non-payment of an excessive line 
should nol act an a bar lo the right of appeal. 

Jan, 10. —Where a member from an outside 
district goes into a large city U> take advantage 
of better conditions, he should he willing to bear 
some of Ihe burdens borne by Ihe members of 
the U. B. in that city, and tie willing to take the 
risk of being called out on strike without pay. 
This decision does uotapply lo strikes supjiorled 
financially by the G. E. B. 

Jan. 6. — A union contractor must al ways hire 
union carpeptere where available anil where 
not available, he should have the non union 
men he hires to join the Union. 

March I.- In death or dlaahlllty claims, the 
card of a member must be retained by Ihe (J. IT, 
OS evidence. 
June I — Kaeh Local Unlen la responsible for 

of Its own local 

Silver Question. 

. In 1873 the United States by act of 
Congress demonetized silver and the 
price ot wheat fell below a dollar per 

In 1890 Hotimania demonetized silver, 
hut the United states again began to 
boy under the Sherman act in 1890 and 
wheat went up. In ISnl the whole 
[taper money system of the Argentine 
Republic went to smash, and the grand 
panic there wis followed immediately 
by the greatest failures ever known in 
Great Britian ouch se the barings, etc., 
and those in turn by widespread bank- 
ruptcy in Australia and financial troubles 
in nearly every one of the Kuropean 
countries, notwithstanding their gold 
basis. Tbe United States was tempo- 
rarily saved by the Russian famine and 
tbe failures of crops elsewhere, which 
once more sent wheat above a dollar. 

Lot our Unions everywhere help 
organize the Painters more thoroughly. 
The union men of that craft have given 
the U- B. help to organize in many 
instances- Send names and addresses of 
Journeymen Painters to J. T. Elliott, 
General Secretary, 1314 N. Fulton Ave., 
Baltimore, Md. 

June 39.'- Member* working under union rules 
during a strike tnuil pay a strike assessment if 
lev lad. 

Aug. II - A member resigning severe all con- 
nection with the U B and can only rejoin as a 
new member. 

Sep 7— .A member owing a sum opial lo three 

ii His 1 dues cannot pay part of hie arrears and 

he In benefit. He roust pay all be owsa the 
Union and wall three months after that lo be 
In benefit. 

Nov. 1.-A Hue can be Imposed by a 



Jan. IS — A Union cannot expel a member for 
owing a fine; It can only suspend him when 
with tbe fine his Indebtedness equals the sum of 
dues calling for suspension, 

Jan. 36.— A fine cannot be remitted except on 
the same night It Is imposed, 

Oct. i.— All Local Unions are hereby ordered 
not to circulate any appeal or circular asking 
financial aid or calling on the Locals In any 
form to purchase tickets, unless by tbe approval 
of tbe G. B. B. , attested by the G. 8-T. 


Aa Excellent Form of 

for Carpenter Apprentice. 

•Trite Snttettttire, Witoesseth that b" and with tba 

consent of ■ bath pot himself, and by these presents doth 

voluntarily and of his own free will and accord, put himself apprentice to 

to learn tbe art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 

Joiner ; and after the manner of an apprentice, to serve tbe said.. 

for and daring, and to the full end and term of years next ensuing. 

During all of said term the apprentice dotb covenant and promise that he will 

serve faithfully, that he will not play at cards or dice or 

any other unlawful games whereby tbe said may be injured. 

That be will not absent himself from work during tbe recognized hours of labor, 
without leave, nor frequent saloons, hotels or play bouses, but in all things will 
behave himself aa a faithful apprentice ought to during said term. 

And that the said .....on his part, doth covenant and promise 

that he will use tbe utmost of his endeavors to teach at nanse to be taught or 
instructed the said apprentice in the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 
Joiner. Bald apprentice shall not be required to work more than the recognised 
boars ol labor. Tbe said further agrees to pay said apprentice 

And for the true performance of ail and singular tbe covenants and agreements 
aforesaid, the said parties bind themselves each unto the other firmly by these 

Ik Witnbjw Waaaaor, tbe said parties have interchangeably sat their hands and 
seals hereunto. Dated this day of in the year of our Lord one 


• • ■ f M»S*tl I f ItMtsltltlltlllMtS tlistftl 


End Via» of No. 2 Varietr Wood Work.r 

Send for Special Wood Worker Catalogue, 
which will show all the varloun kind* of work 11 
will moke. It Is Ihe mocl useful machine for a 
r Builder now In i 

J. A. FAY & EGAN CO., 

188 to 208 West Front St., CINCINNATI, OHIO, U.S.A. 




The Largest Line in the World of the Latest and Best Approved Designs- 


Outfits or Single Maohlnea Supplied, Send for Catalogues. 

Egsn Fool Power sfortiu. 
Thelites* and Beat. 

At S&tV&CA FA /./s. NEW YORK, 
Wt att turning out a line of Ma.hmerx 
I n the .omtant imfrovtwunt of whisk 
ut /mi out entire tmetgits. /» ,-,m- 

ne. ItOH -nth e\e> v me, hani.al re '.mice 
a'f.tded b\ a plant that it n out aim to 
ktrp lonsiantlv "at tht /tout," we 

has* an exten'iie eipenen.e. and a 
ds If nit : nation that . ur enviable teputa- 
turn shall continue t» gtow, and not 
shrr.e! undrt competition. 

Wood-Working Machinery 

/'■■• root and Hand Power u e is our 

spen.i/.'v, and of thn ue mate a ier\ 
latue a^ortnifnt 

Our Catalogue " A " :. ill drm.-n- 
st> at? cleat I v M hat gtnunds -ttha-.r fir 
the dbOVf il.itmi, and tht \ RV u.oild be 
piMttd t<i matt yarn. Shall ue d* so f 

Seneca Falls M'f'g Co., 
Seneca Palls, N. Y., 

■» H ater Street. It. B. A. 

You should see EHT, ! F EL S V TEEL 



No. 93. 

Vou cm im It ( t th» 


for we will Mint || t( J 
any dealer you rtwiuwi 
or we will mh u ^ 
any s.l.lrew n-,, 
of II I Irrular* f ri . 

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II will pay you to bur a aaw «iu 

■MWTCSKonll Ilwlllboiat? 
Ml Linger .anil do mora work wtk 
out llllng than other *»■»• ti>* . . „ 
eating In labor and coat of V«t 
Thsy are mad* of the beet * 
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For aa)* try all 


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approved new models of 
the best manufacturers. 

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279 Main Street, 







HTRQDD8BUBG, Monroe Co.. Pa. 
NEW YORK. 161 Washington Street. 
OINCJNNATI, 1 Wert Pearl Street 



BiLt'i CiartKTi t Hidi Bait Is oo 

Tub BuiLosa's Ouidb ahd KaTiataTOA'i 

Psiea Book. Hodgson a oo 

Tub 8 rkm. Sguamx, ausj How tu D»k It . t so 
F»*trmi C*»fKNTiT. liudfion . . I oo 
ftTarB-BiULiHKO Maui Easy, Hodgson . I OS 
Hand Kaiuno Miiik Kaby i oo 

CHANICAL DKAWINO-Boog. A belf in- 
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Tub CaapBMTBB'a mu Bui lob*'* Com- 

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Handy Wood Gating Tool 

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o u 

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Henry Ois&lon & Sons, 


Of bertM«et wltb «rea( rare, ana aarh ftlararafnlly Idj 
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> » 

Regalia and Badges. 


Society Flags an 
I. Over «WW Societies fu rubbed 
with Badge* or Keg alia, 

No. 84 Court St., Cincinnati. 


Send for the Beat and Cheapest Practical Book 
printed. Written for Oarpenter* by a Carpenter 


Or Balloon and Roof Framing, by Owen B. 
■ Is, author of " Practical 
to Join Mouldings,' eto., ol 

It la a practical treatise on Ibe latest and beat 
methods of laying out, framing and raising tim- 
ber houses 00 the balloon principle, together with 
a complete and easily understood system of Hoof 
Framing, the whole making; a handy and easily 
book for carpenters, builders, " 

P*«T I.— Balloon Fnuulug. 
Chapter I. General description of Balloon 
Frames, Framed Hills and tbulr ouuwtnictlou. 

Ctiaptert! First Floor Beama or Jolsla, Story 
Hertloiis, Second Floor Beams, Studding, Fram- 
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and Hoof Timbers. 

Chapter III. Laying oul and working Balloon 
Frame*, Olrdera, Hills. Posts and Studding. 

Chapter IV. Lawlns; out First and Hew ■ 
Floor Jolala or Beam*, Celling Joist* and Wall 

Chapter V. Laying QU t and Framing the Hoof. 
Chapter VI. Raising. 

P*bt II.-Dlfflcuit Roof Framing, 
Chapter I, Simple Roof*. 
Chapter II. flip and Valley Roof*. 
Chapter III. Roofs of Irregular Plan, 
Chapter JV Pyramidal Roofs. 
Chapter V. Hexagonal Roofs 
Chapter VI. Oonlcal or Circular Roofs, etc., < 
The work Is illustrated and ei plained by o 
MMarg^attgTBTlngg of houses, roofs, etc., and 

PRICBG, - - fl.QO 
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It is in the form of a Chart, 18x28 indies 
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pitches are illustrated in connection with u 
diagram of the full-sized carpenters 1 square. 

The lengths of braces, common and jack- 
rafters, hips and valleys, are given in plain 
figures to the 1-32 part of an inch with all their 
bevels. Also that of their runs, rises, degree of 
pitch and contents in board measure. 

Much other information, such as hoppvt 
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curved roofs, etc. 

Seat pcwtpaitl upon ruceipt of PRtGE ~ $3.00 



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If yoo want the very best tool* 
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Stair Bwlld*r»< 


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Manufacturers rtt the 

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si tensive line of Fins Rdge TouUIn the United 



Wm. McNiece k Son, 


Uand, Panels 
1 ond Rip 3aws, 


A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests . 

~ | Fifty Cents per Year. 

VOL. XV.-No. 6. 
Established 1881. 


Single Copies. 6 Cts. 

Financial Secret dries 


Under Ski:. 151, paragraph C, of the 
Constitution, it is the duty of the F. K. 
to send a report monthly to the G. S T. 
under penalty of $2.00 fine. At the 
latent the report should be here by the 
10th ot the month. 

Here below is a Met of Financial Secre- 
taries who up to May 2s have not sent 
in their April report*, ami who must l>e 
lined for their neglect to comply with 
(fee- m. 







































































" 1 m ni;irkt 

L Willi * nn- tfv 

itimUjr neali- 

K' hi Iti si-mlirijc In llnir rr|Kirln. tiirl 


The carelessness and delinquency of 
Financial Secretaries must be checked 
and in most cases is entirely inexcus- 
able. The reports to the (J. S-T. should 
he forwarded promptly and regularly 

Anaconda, Mont.— On June 1, Union 
88 inaugurated the nine-hour day. We 
interviewed the contractors and bad no 

Bomton, Mass.— We have had a special 
organizer in the field, Uro. Aaron Hill, 
and maas meetings were held in the 
month ol May in Dorchester, Boston, 
East Boston, Cambridge, Brook line and 

Atlanta, <ia.— We are very much en- 
couraged by the way the men are coming 
into the union. Never were they so 
anxious before. When we had a good 
onion they let it go down. Then wages 
dropped 40 per cent., and that taught 
the lesson. We are spreading now like 
wild fire. 

Kan Fkancihco, Cal.— Our unions are 
building up grandly, and a spendid feel- 
ing exists among the men favorable to 
thorough organization. Some prospects 
of better wages Whan we are more gen- 
erally organized. Our contractors will 
then sign an agreement. 

John Williams. 

The subject of this sketch is a member 
of the General Executive Board, selected 
last September at the Indianapolis Con- 
vention, lie was born on the 30th day 
or August, lSiiS, in the County of Angle 
sea, Wales, and first entered the labor 
movement in 1890 when be joined 
Union 125, Utica, N. Y. 

He has hem successively Vice Presi 
dent, Treasurer, and is now President 
of Carpenters' Union 125, and also boldB 
the otlice of Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees of the Utica Trades Assembly 
building fund, which has for its object 
the erection of a home for the trade and 
labor societies of Utica. For one year 
Mr. Williams was Secretary of a Welsh 
benevolent society, " The True Ivorites, " 
of which he is still a member. 

His father William Williams deceased 
nearly seven years ago, was a journey- 
man carpenter and foreman many years 
and then started into contracting. There 
are many carpenters all over the States 
who worked under the father when he 
web foreman or for him when be was a 
contractor. Like unto hie paternal an- 
cestor, John Williams is rated as an up- 
and-up, thorough going mechanic. 

He is zealously and loyally devoted to 
the labor cause, well grounded lu con- 
victions, studious in nature, and well 
equipped by education and training to 
make hie mark in this great industrial 
struggle. He spends many hours after 
his day's work in attending meetings 
and speaking publicly to organise the 
working people of Utica and vicinity. 

Indianapolis carpenters are moving 
forward, and organising thoroughly. 

Nkwtom, Maas —Carpenters' Unions 
Nob. 124 ami 125, itave been actively 
working to discharge the sub-contracting 
ot carpenter work by carpenter con- 

Chicaco, 111.— We have been quite 
succeCBtu) this past winter and spring in 
winning over a number of jobs where 
there was an attempt to violate trade 
rules. We have made detailed fights in 
such easel, and have done well in 
all respects, except on the Marquette 
building, and that strike was undertaken 
at Inopportune time. 

I>kals of the U. B. should not pay 
any attention to circulars eomtng to 
them making appeal for financial aid 
from any organization, no matter how 
urgent the appeal, unless endorsed by the 
G. K. B. 

I« any city where we now have two or 
more Locals, they should be consolidated. 
It will he a eaving of expense tor halt 
rent, officers' salaries, and running ex- 
penses. Besides that, it will lead to more 
united and effective action and give bet- 
ter interest in the meetings. 

Mont of our Locals are now holding 
public meetings with local speakers, and 
this is stirring up the trade very thor- 
oughly. Our membership is increasing 
rapidly all along the line, and energy, 
enthusiasm and zealous work have super- 
seded despair and pessimism. 

Whirs Ix>cals have have had dispen- 
sation from the 6. S T. and reduced their 
initiation fee to a reasonable sum, and 
arranged easy terms tor re-admission ot 
ex-members, they have done well These 
are no times when unions are weak to 
keep up high rates. 

Trade Movements this Spring. 

Tampa, Fla,— Contractors agreed nine 
hours a day May 1 

Urn on 3156, Marietta, 0. has secured a 
minimum scale of wages. 

Kalibpkll, Mont — Union 330 secured 
the nine-hour day easily May L 

Zanehvili-i, O.— Union 716 put a set ot 
good trade rules into effect May 1. 

Watxrvillb, Maine.— Union 605 pro- 
poses to move for the nine-hour day. 

Galveston, Tex., won the eight-hour 
day solidly last month, after being out on 
strike a few days. 

St. Paul, Minn.— Union 87 has had a 
committee out to visit the contractors to 
get the eight-hour day. 

Nxw Ohlbanh, I -a.— Our Unions here 
are negotiating through a committee to 
get an agreement with the builders. 

Davxnpokt, Iowa.— Union 664 has 
held to the nine-hour day firmly though 
some greedy bosses tried to break it. 

Ooi.i.kci Point, N. Y.— One contractor 
in this place tried to cut wages, but 
Union 640 made a stand and beat him. 

Lynn, Maas. has the eight-hour day 
firmly established since Nov. 1, last- 
Union 108 is increasing at a good rate. 

Lafayette, Ind.^We hare unionized 
the carpenters of the Lafayette Lumber 
mills and those employed by Contractor 

Fajrmount, W. Va.— We have thirty 
new men pledged to join Union 428, just 
as soao as work Is a little better. The 
Builders' Exchange has agreed lately 
to hereafter hire 

Lawbirck, Mass. — Union 111 has been 
working steadily forward to get tbe 
eight-hour day and will be tbe next to 
secure it. 

Somkkvilli, N. J.— Contractors had in 
view this spring to go back to ten hours 
a day. Union 6t>5 made a stand and 
stopped it. 

Fort Broox, Fla — We just started up 
Carpenters' Union No. 454, with over . r >G 
members, and now we have the nine- 
honr day solid. 

Watkhtown, N. Y.— Place us on tbe 
nine hour list. Without a strike we 
gained it early in May, jiiBt by the influ- 
ence of union 560, 

fiANr.oR, Pa, — One firm of builders 
tried to return to the ten-hour day. But 
the union men quit, and now the firm 
is down to terms. 

Quincy, III.— Union 18!) sent a com- 
mittee out to see tbe contractors, and 
now the nine- hour day is established, to 
hold good for a year. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia.— Union 83 has 
been a winner in standing up against a 
proposition or a leading planing mill to 
return to ten hours a day. 

Newark, N. J. — Union 300 has had 
several very enjoyable "smokers" the 
past few months and with the result of 
bringing out large crowds of non-onion 
men . With music, singing, (peaking and 
refreshments, and ths presence of onr 
sister Union 110 in a body on one occa- 
sion, Union 306 has added largely to its 
membership. There should be more of 
these socials and smokers in all the unions 
to show we are not dry, dead "chips." 

Tote on Eight- Hour Propositions. 

On the circular of February 11, 1895, 
submitted by the G. B.-T. per orders of 
the G. E.B, 296 unions voted. Tbe vote 
cast is : 

In favor. Against. 
Propoaition 1— 4,802 1,402 
" 2— 3,748 2,107 

3— 2,551 3,377 

4- 927 3,388 
The first and second propositions it is 

evident were agreed to ; bnt the third 
and fourth were rejected. 

The adoption of ths first and second 
propositions carries with it, that tbe 
Locals in our jurisdiction , by a vast ma- 
jority are favorable to the inauguration 
of the Eight- hour day for carpenters, 
by a general concerted movement of car- 
penters on one given day, in all citiss 
where tbe Eight-hour day is not now the 
rule. The rejection of the third and 
fourth propositions implies that tbe 
anions were not favorable to under- 
taking the aforesaid movement, until 
times had bettered and the opportun ties 
for success were mors favorable. 

Some unione voted on the subject 
under the misapprehension that tbe 
adoption of any of tbe propositions in- 
volved a general strike this year on their 
part for the Eight-hour day, whether in 
shape to win or not. That indeed was 
far from the mind ot the G. E. B. in 
having a vote on the subject. 



A Voice from the Depths. 

We have fed yon all for n thousand years, 

And you bail ua •till unfed. 
Though there's never a dollar of all your wealth. 

Hut markd the MitMl' dend. 
We hare ytcld. d our l*st tofrive you reat, 

And you lie on a crimson wool. 
For if Wood he the price of itll your wealth 

Good Uoil, we ha' paid II It) fUlti 

Thi rc's never a mine blown nky nani now 

Hul we're burled alive fur you ; 
There's never a wterk drifts shoreward now 

But we are Its ifhasttj erew. 
Go reckon our dead by the forKes red, 

And the r»i torie* where we spin ; 
If blood be Hie jirlef of your aei urseil wealth. 

Good God, we ua' paid it in full. 

We have foil you all for a thousand years. 

pOT that was our doom, you know 
From the days when >ou chained tis in your 

To Die strike of a week ago. 
You ha eaten our lives and our babes and wives 

And we're told it's your legal share. 
But if blood be Ihe price of your lawful wealth. 

Good God, we ha' boiinlit it fair. 

(Open forum. 

( 7 Department it open for our reader* 
nd member* to ducutt ail phatet of the, 
hbor problem. 

Correspondent* should twite on one Bide of 
the paper only. 

Matter for publication mutt be in thu office 
by the tstk of the month previous to ittue.) 

Humanity's Two 

JobE Groz. 

E are all familiar with 
the inexorable con- 
nections between 
causes and eQects 
In all physical and 
mental phenomena. 
In each one of those 
two departments we can notice that 
while general effects imply and directly 
come from general causes , the incidental 
ones radiate from secondary causes, 
which, as such, can themselves be traced 
to any of the grand causes at the root of 
alt general results. 

Take now human life, and we can 
easily acknowledge that poverty and 
disease are the two most general and 
transcending effects among men, tending 
to shape the whole coarse of human con- 
duct. Even tbs perpetuation of vice and 
crime are nothiog but the after effects of 
poverty and disease in their constant 
actions and re-actions through all the 
ramifications of life on earth. W» can 
prove that if challenged to do bo. One 
or more grand, general, basic 
must then exist to which poverty and 
disease can be traced. Can we doubt It ? 
Look at the fact that poverty and dis- 
ease do not exist among animal life in 
nature, while it does as soon as men 
force some animals to live 

Persistent deviations from natural 
laws mast then be the bottom cause of 
poverty and disease among men, since 
it spreads to all they touch, to all 
animals, and even to certain country 
belts, originally rich and healthy, im 
poverished and made unhealthy through 
wrong, unnatural processes interfering 
with the order of Creation. Is not that 
far more reasonable than to attribute 
sucb two general effects to a mere inci- 
dental or supposed deviation of law from 
a human couple 0,000 years ago 7 Is 
not that assumption a cowardly device 
of men, trying not to plead guilty of 
their own sins, or looking for an e^uuse 
that we may kesp on sinning ? 

And what about the tact that while 

some men manage to escape poverty, 
none manage to escape disease? And 
yet both evils are due to the eame cause, 
even the men who take the wrong view 
of the matter consider it so. 

That sin somewhere must be at the 
root of all wrong developments, that is 
untjueBtiouable, but why to entertain 
the criminal conception of having to Bin 
to-day because we did sin yesterday? 
And that is the fatalistic philosophy un- 
derlying all educational methods, 
heathen and Christian. It sticks out of 
the thoughts of all men, up to the wiseBt 
bo called, who are not in By m pa' by with 
the Borrows of the working masses, and 
would like them to humbly accept all 
hardships, to be satisfied with the poverty 
of the present, because, they Bay, It is 
not quite as harsh as it used to be. And 
we don't know anything about that. 
If we have improved by 50 per cent 
in 500 years, why not improve 100 per 
cent, in the next 20 ? Oh ! that would 
be too much of a good thing, for our wise 
fatalistic friends. It would not do for us 
to improve fast. Somebody would get 
hurt then. Don't you see that the 
fatalistic philosophy rests on selfish sees 
in the most criminal form, trying 
to cheat men out of the joyB and man- 
hood they could rapidly obtain, endeav- 
oring to delay all fundamental progress 
through radical processes ; preferring 
that we should keep on, in that eternal 
human job of all ages that we can call— 
patching up an old coat with old rag*, and 
never attempting to make a new coat oat 
of good cloth ! 

As we have already indicate not even 
thoie who are smart enough t manage 
to escape poverty can manage to keep 
sufficiently smart to avoid diseaie. And 
the latter 1b often the product of all those 
life methods that wealth invites, or ol 
all those procestes by which alone 
wealth can be accumulated. That is very 
significant. It proves the intimate con- 
nection of the two evils, poverty and 
disease, since we catch the latter in our 
efforts to escape the former. 

Disease among 95 per cent, of the race 
is inevitable because of their scanty 
resources and bard lives. Not even a 
slight regard for eanitary laws is possible 
to over 5 per cent, of the race anywhere. 
Sucb laws imply to-day two or three 
times higher annual earnings than most 
men can obtain tor themselves and 
families. They also necessitate a more 
peaceful lite. Absence of mental friction 
is indispensable for the free play of 
sanitary laws. And never in the history 
of humanity has civilization imposed 
upon all men, rich and poor, the constant 
agitations of to-day. That is just what 
makes wealth to-day mors of a farce 
than a reality, in our own nation moat 
especially. And it is here that the crazy 
scramble for wealth has attained its 
greatest intensity. And it is just here 
that we need a much larger proportion 
of doctors of medicine than anywhere 

We happen to be familiar with the 
history of a friend by which we can 
illustrate the fallacy of that fatalism 
about disease being an inevitable con- 
comitant of human life any more than 
among animal lite in nature. The grand- 
father and grandmother of that triend 
died before W and were old before 50 
His father and mother died after 70, hut 
were aickly before 40, and grew more so 
as they advanced in life. Our triend 
was sickly until 30, and delicate until 
after 40, when he discovered that we bad 
sanitary laws. He had already retired 
from business with what most men would 
consider a bagatelle, but enough for him 
because of his plain habits of life. Welt, 
he Bet to apply all sanitary laws, as much 
as possible, In the midst of men who 
't care a fig about them. He soon 

inherited or absorbed from others, and 
from 4.t to 05 he has enjoyed perfect 
health, with powers of resistance snch as 
are only had by vigorous joung men 
below 30, with no physical pain, how- 
ever alight, ever coming to remind him 
about thoBe dreadful laws of inheritance 
of ours. And we know that the laws in 
question* constitute the arsenal from 
which our fatalietic friends derive all 
their arguments to defend their philoso- 
phy of despair. 

And what about the application of 
that philosophy to the evil ol poverty, 
as also enevifable among men? It is 
extremely convenient, of course, because 
it relieves ub from all responsibilities in 
our general relations. We can then, aB 
citizenB of our own nation, silently or 
openly sanction all siclnl human laws, 
and ridicule all reform movements with 
the old silly platitudes of the old uncles 
and fossils in all historical periods. 

Return now to the inexorable con- 
nections between general causes and gen- 
eral effects alluded to at the beginning 
of this essay Meditate for a few mo- 
ments on the immensities of wealth 
stored up in our planet. Add to that 
the almost boundless potentialities of 
men through their inventive faculty, 
when properly applied to the raw 
elements of nature as well aa to all 
natural forces; and, the plea of poverty 
among men as some thing inevitable, is 
the most disgraceful blasphemy we can 
utter against the Power behind nature 
and all the phenomena in the I'ni verse ! 

Two grand setB of laws eeein to be at 
the root of all human development, 

First, ethical laws, with which to 
regulate our mutual relatione with each 
other in all our activities, personal and 

Second, Banitary laws with which to 
regulate our personal habits in harmony 
with all cosrn ical relations around. 

There we have the two most basic and 
central duties to be respected by each one 
of as individually, as well as collectively 
by tbs whole social compact, by that 
State of which most of our big fellows 
speak as some thing that has seldom 
made any mistakes, something apart 
from the working masses, and so it has 
been. The State or Nation has always 
meant the few holding most of the land 
and hence most of the wealth of nations. 
Naturally enough, the State has never 
cared for much of anything outside of 
BatiBtylng the selfish tendencies of the 
tew in question- What has bnen calltd 
the people was never anything but the 
cow, to be milked for the benefit of the 
few, while trying, when necessary, to 
keep the people quiet with some surface, 
falae pretence reforms, and always in- 
timating that nothing else ie 
because of that old fatalism of 
because of that poverty and disease, the 
two demons we mast keep feeding with 
oar own eternal blunders. That alone 
shall enable the tew to for ever humbug 
the many. 

We don't acem to have even taught 
men, or learned ourselves, Ihe folly of 
assuming that there may be a certain 
divorce between God's laws and those 
in nature, He taking care of His own, 
and letting those ot nature pJay hide 
and seek. Just as if there could be 
more than One Law Making Power in 
God's Universe, for universal good! 
And the absence of good, unmixed with 
evil, among men, cornea from our repu- 
diation of that Power as a symmetrical 
whole, and bo from our non adaptation 
to the natural order in the midst of 
which we are born, grow and die. We 
thus overlook the grand fsct that the 
meaning of life here bslow is that of 
enabling ua to enjoy the grander life 
beyond, up to the measure of our obedl- 
to divine ideals while on earth. 

The Danger of Too Much State Pun 

Let me congratulate yon on the excel, 
lem-eof Tiik Cari-sntkk, both in its typo- 
graphical appearance and editorial tune 
1 like its " pure and siiupleisni," t, tu 
speak ; and alBo its dislike of Slate con. 
trol. The fever ut governmental^m 
which BO thoroughly permeated nearly 
all the labor organizations some fc w 
yearB aj^-o is abating gratiually but eniHy. 
Ab our comrades look into the prubii t ,p 
of industrial equities and serial fr?nl.. nl 
they will learn that by going toward 
State control they are approaching the 
terrible maw of the beast which it- re- 
sponsible fur their past and present i un- 
ditions. It is vtry gratifying to ki,,, w 
that so many of the old time union n en 
who bad been led astray by the alluring 
promises otauthoritarianiHii, have l\ i ., ,j 
tbBir proper bearings, and now teecli m |y 
that the salvation of the industrious writ) 
enterprising classes lies in voluntary 
association and personal freedom f,„ m 
the power of tbe politician, 

The "Co-operative Commonwealth" 
which is Bimply State Socialism in dig. 
guise, has no chum in for the student of 
social science w ho persists in his study 
and inveBtinations. The solution ( i the 
industrial problem does not lie in the 
accumulation of collective or common 
wealth, bat in removing those laws * huh 
take from the individual worker the 
remits of his own toil. The fumlaim >ntaj 
principle of the labor movement is that 
the product shall helongto tbeprothi't>r 
not that it shall be tie property of ihe 
whole community, Community property 
twlongs to the idler as well as to the 
worker, notwithstanding it is Boleh ihe 
product of the tatter's efforts. Thii 
surely, cannot be in harmony with 

The taunt of " pure and simple," 
which our good but mistaken c omrades 
hurl at some tfthe Itadts unions, is otg 
which ie destined in the future tobec.n- 
bid i* red as a wise distinction bet w ten 
those bodisB of laborers who adhere to 
well-established and safe rules of act i n, 
and those who in their zeal and ban. to 
better economic conditions advocate and 
adopt methods which are abortive. The 
cry that "In political action alore <ao 
the working people gain their econwuic 
ireedom !" has lost its power of inspiring 
enthusiasm in the trade union. The idea 
is gaining ground that it is safer, mors 
economical and harmonizes mere nearly 
with the division of labor which hat 
been so productive of good in other 
fielda of activity, for trade unions to con- 
fine their eSorts to those things which 
especially effect tbem as tradesmen, and 
leave toother bodies those things which 
effect them as human beings, regard:. &i 
ot their particular trade or calling. 

It is very pleasing to note your dig. 
approval of the legal incorporation of 
trades unions. The p'ulociats are wm 
indeed If they could only get the trades 
unions within the power of the law, bow 
they would chuckle with malicious miis- 
faction. Poor, innocent working people ' 
I wonder how long it will he yet before 
they learn that the State is their mirst 
enemy ! 

Detroit, Mich. Jo. La ha nth 

May 6th, 120 delegates representing 
80,000 organized textile n orl trp met is 
sixth annual convention at Gluey vj lie, 
It. I. and enacted several serviceable 
measurtB for their constituents. 

Latsbt monthly report of Amalga- 
mated Carpenter b' for May shows they 
have 074 branches and 43,354 members, 
89 branches and 1472 members are in 
the United 8'ates and 8 branches and 
191 members in Canada. The 4 branches 
in Chicago have 208 members, New 
York has 422 members and Philadelphia 


<;«.«nl Reasons For An Unemployed 

HE fact of being out of 
employment doea not 
eo readily appeal to 
our sympathy, but a 
email amount of 
thought should con- 
vince us that combi- 
nation to palliate the 
effects of want of 
employment isequaly 
neceesary as in the 
case of sickness- 
Theie is the same 
principle in it — the 
same duty— the fortunate helping the 
unfortunate. It is to our advantage as 
wage-workers to do so. In the case of a 
partial Btrike against a reduction of 
wages is it not upon thoBe on Btrike 
the maintenance of the standard rate 
of wages dej- ends'.' Should they give 
way tnuBt it not then come to either a 
general strike or else a reduced rate of 
wages ? So ie it the case when a number 
are out of employment. Men seeking 
work, especially if it be known there 
are a nu-nber, are continually being 
ottered work at something lesB than the 
standard rate, and it depends upon their 
resources and the claims they have upon 
their resources how long they can resist 
the temptation. 

gome may Bay, some do say, that no 
trade unionist worthy the name would 
ever take work at less than the standard 
rate ; but let all those who talk bo try it 
for three months, with perhaps previous 
to that as many calls upon their earnings 
as to prevent them putting into practice 
that glorious gospel, thrift, and see how 
many of them will Btand the teat. Men 
cannot live upon air alone, no matter 
how fresh, neither can wives nor chil- 

Home admit the good of an unem- 
ployed benefit, but Bay also it is right 
that only those who want it should pay 
for it. This is a selfish argument from 
those- who have been furtunate all their 
lives, Apply the same reasoning and 
art upon it in regard to the sick benefit 
and where would it be? The duty of 
supporting our unemployed brother is as 
urgent as in the case of Bickness. The 
fear of being preyed npon by loafers is a 
baseless one. How many men are con- 
tent with four dollars where it is in their 
power to have twelve or twenty? How 
many can aflord to do it? Few such will 
be found contributing to the funds of a 
trade union- 
Here is another point during a time 
of depression,— suppose there are 500 
joiners in a district, and work can only 
be found for 450, what matters it though 
a few of the other SO do not look for 
work .' The only effect is to leave the 
chance of work to perhaps the most 
needful Better for the 450 working to 
pay the other 50 and not to aeek work 
till they know where there is some 
chance of it being found ; better to 
withdraw them from the labor market 

If we are not prepared to share the 
work with toe unemployed, they have a 
claim npon us as brother trade unionist 
to share the wages, and the trade union- 
ists who do bo through an unemployed 
benefit are fulfilling their duty to their 
power brothers better than those who do 
not— they are better trade unionists. 

A reduction in the hours of labor and 
an unemployed benefit should go hand 
in hand. 

Eight- Hours a day is the rule now for 
some months back oo all carpenter 
work in Boston, where done by fair 

Polygon* And Their Mitres. 


Mr. Editor.— With your kind per- 
mission I herewith submit the following 
article on polygons and their mitres. 
This Bubject and all others pertaining to 
framing is fully covered in my chart 
'the ityuur* AW Delineator in the Art of 
Framing advertised in The Carpenter. 

To bear out the statements therein 
made I have chosen the above subject 
becauBe it ia probably as difficult as any 
to comprehend. By the aid of the 
chart the mitre for any polygon is 
accurately given. In the illustration 
here presented we exemplify fourteen. 
It will readily be seen that it is the 
degrees that determine the mitres. 

Then bring 330° in a circle and 
by dividing that number by the 
number of Bides desired will give 

In the next issue of the Cabpbntib 
we will present our method of develop- 
the hips for O. G. or any other shape, 
length of jacks etc. 

The Carpenter has taken the agency 
of the Woods chart above referred to, 
for the Unions, and all orders for same 
should be sent to the Editor. 

Price, postpaid, |3 00. 

Unions mill Dilatory. 

Below is a list of Unions from which 
no list of officers has been sent ns up to 
date, since the election last December : 





I 9 


1 1 

1 1 fti 


woes art* 

3 Veil 

i : 
J i 




i ; 


B. ^ * oxiCfc »„t«on Of »m" f Hoot oiL<K«r<m IN 

the degree that the mitres stand 
with each other, but in order to 
find the figures on the steel square to 
lay out the mitres we must divide 360° 
by double the number of sides desired 
in polygon, the quotient will be the 
degree of the mitre with the centre of 
the polygon. Thus to find the figures to 
lay out the octagon mitre dividing 360° 
by 10 equals 221°. Now referring to the 
diagram of the rquare with 12 on the 
tongue at the starting point, a direct line 
intersecting 224° passes at 4 ^ on the 
blade. These figures will give the mitre, 
the blade giving the cut. This propor- 
tion exists at any place on the square. 
We ubo 12 on the tongue for all polygons 
because it Is one loot and the figures on 
the blade represent the length of side 
for one foat inscribed diameter. For 
more accuracy we express the exact 
length decimally. (See column to the 
right.) That lor the octagon is 4.9705 
inches. Multiplying this number by a 
given diameter will give the required 
length. Example : What is the side of 
an octagon eight feet in diameter. 

4.9705 X 8 = 89.7640 or 3' Sj" 
To find the side of a polygon in a 
circumscribed diameter, proceed as 
above hot multiply the decimal given io 
the left ham! 

Practical Hints. 



12"andl2 ^Square Mitre, or 45° 

7 " 4 -Triangle " equilateral 

18| " 10 --Pentagon " or 5-sided fig. 

4 " 7 - Hexagon " *' 6 " " 

18} " 6 —Heptagon" "7 " " 

18 " 7J Octagon " •* 8 " " 

22 1 " !) — Nonagon " " i) » ** 

n " 8 -Decagon " "10 " « 

Id response to a correspondent 1 here 
give common rafter cuts on steel square 
for different pitches; also hips, and 


J pitch take 3 in. rise 12 in. level or plate 



i H 






i " 





A " 





■ i 



















For hips and valleys substitute 17 
inches on level or plate for 12 inches. 



24 boards 5 inches wide 

20 ' " 6 " " 

17 " 7 11 '« add 1 foot 

15 " 8 " " " 1 " 
1U " 9 " " " l " 

|2 M JQ II l( II J ll 


20 boards 5 inches wide 

16 " 6 " 
14 " 7 " 
12 •< 8 " 
II " 9 " 
10 " 10 " 

" add 4 feet extra 

" addl 

1 1 


Load on floor J. V) to ISO pound* ptr tq /(. 

Bearing post 10 feet high 6x6 inches 

" 12 " 8x8 

14 " 10x10 " 
16 " 12x12 «' 
18 " 14x14 " 

" 20 " 16x18 " 


Bearing post B feet high 8x8 inches 
10 « 9x9 
12 '■ 10x10 " 
14 " 12il2 «« 
16 " l-uu « 



16 ft. bet'n centres bear'g posts 10x12 in. 
20 '* " '< 12x14 " 

124 " « <• 


10 ft. bet'n centres bear'g posts 10x12 in. 
20 '» " i' 12x14 " 

24 " h .< 

joists or floor beams. 

6 feet span 2x4 inches 
8 " " 2x6 *' 
10 " " 3x8 " 


feet span 2x6 inches 
8 " « 3i8 " 
10 " " 2x10 *' 
Joitta spaced 12 inches on centres. 


For 8 ft. i 

1 2x:j inches 

" 1U " 




" 12 " 

i . 



" 14 " 






" 18 " 

1 1 



ii go 



with collar tie 

ii 22 n 





ii ii 

" 24 '' 





■i it 

i* m 



4 i 

• i 

■ i ii 

" 28 " 





• > ii 

i4 30 >• 




n i 

All above proportioned for 1-inch roof 

on centres. 

For slate space 13 inches on centres, 
and add 1 inch of depth « each rafter. 

For hips and valleys a Id 1 inch to 
thickness and 2 inches to depth op to 
fnll pitch, above full pitch ada 3 inches 
to depth. 

St. Louis, Mo.— We are now beginning 
to grow, as the boys have had all the 
bitter experience they want in getting 
along without a onion. 

U«o. II. Chaudlee. 11, C. Ctuuidlee 

Trade. M*rk», Cmromtm, Sta, 


Eltalrigal snd Mechanical Expartt. 
York, Pa- Wat king ton, O. C 




The Trades- Union. 

thought and 
ttit* ei (iiali t y i 

IK trades union is destined 
to develop the highest 
type of manhood in the 
march of civilization. 
As feudalism) followed 
barbarism, so educa- 
tion ami enlighten- 
menl, have slowly hut 
fifcfJ^jL successfully brought 
about Hie freedom of 
action which aseertB the 
>f rights before the law. 
Trades unionism is not a wild or vision- 
ary theory to be spoken of contempt- 
uously, as are manv other isniB. It is 
not a theory, but a fact. It is not a 
privilege, but a right. It is a right 
founded upon principles consonant to 
justice ; upon just claim; lawful, true, 
honest, equitable, proper. It does not 
stand as a creed at war with all other 
creeds. It is rather cosmopolite in tenet 
than dogmatic, and regards the interests 
of mankind rather than of ite own class 
or kind. In thiB respect it bars no ont 
to its communion ; It is open to the 
world, regardless of age, sex, color, sect, 
nationality or political a Hi Hat ion. It is 
far and above all others in the precept, 
" one for all and all for one typifying 
in the fullest and broadest sense the 
universal brotherhood ol man. 

In its organization it is as lawful and 
holy as the church. It takea no private 
road, pursues no forbidden paths nor 
strives to monopolize the privileges of 
others. It Beeks to guard and protect 
ite belongings ; to advance the interests 
of the weak and helpless and to amelio- 
rate the condition of all mankind. 

It in not a Becret oath-bound cabal, 
combined for plot and intrigue. Its 
counsels arc private only in the sense of 
a propriety which prevails in a lirm or 
corporation. It has no more secrecy in 
its actions than is allotted the domestic 
circle in the most humble of family 
relations. Not an action is taken within 
its closed doors that would disturb the 
harmony of society or benefit the com- 
munity as a masB by its published dis- 
closure.. Ub business is within itself, 
and can in no sense bring evil effect to 
either ttlate or Church; nothing of a 
nature so detrimental that might not be 
proclaimed from the altar of the cathe- 
dral or forum of the citadel. 

While organized on a principle of 
polity as with all other established insti- 
tutions, It is only in so far as that 
principle is applicable to the science of 
government. It Is political in the sense 
of prosecuting economic reforms for the 
betterment of its class ; but it is also 
strongly ethical, as in teaching precepts 
of morality, character, human duty, one 
to another. 

Capital in the hands of one or more 
persons is invested under certain econ- 
omic rules which may bring increased 
returns upon the amount of Investment. 
Id the various modes of reproduction the 
price upon the raw material in not fixed 
by the buyer, but by the holder and 
seller. With millions invested in com- 
modities for the prod action of article* 
for ornament or nee, capital would still 
be helpless, ' t for the application of 
labor to the methods of producing the 
finished article. As before said, as 
commodities regu ate their own value to 
so labor, in the sense of a 

commodity, has an unquestioned right to 
fix its own price. It can not do tins 
tinglfl-handed and alone, a* an indiv- 
idual, hence it must organize, as a mase, 
to meet projK'rly the demands of force 
already organised which seeks its appli- 
cation for ti e increase in value of minor 
commodities. Capital in fhe hands of 
one man or a dozen would be worthless 
as investment without organized system 
in the conduct or busincsB. It has, how- 
ever, no exclusive power to organize, 
simply because it represents ir^ney. 
Labor has, and can ex ere Sue, the same 
power to protect itself as can capital. 
One represents money capital and the 
other labor capital, and organization is 
just as lawful and legal for one as for the 
other. Hence the trades union.— 'the 
I it/ > O'j rt i )< h i en t J ou r n a i . 

- • - 


Union Wovk tog turn mirkitiRwniiii-n 
nynipaltiizera willi lnin>r h»v« re Anted t<> i>ur- 
tlinwp »rtic1f» produced by the fulliiwIiiR tlriim. 
I.Rlmr jiH|,ertt j.lem«i' cop? ! 


I, All Bit BREtL 

OAQO. "Bl«rkli»wk," "Okwrnwut," 

" Kteoil," " Jllnc),■■ " Boh Boy." 





Yorl'M BUDS., CHI Alts, itKAIUNU, r A . 




Jack-on wi. i.i. Ki.A , Ajirll 2r>, IH94 
Al it n-Kular tnri'titiK nf local Citui N». SOS, 

0»rp«nt«r*' and Jolnon' United BrotWhood. 
belt] mi Mooitaf lant, It baring bcea learned or 
the ili-Hlh of Brother William Haviiks, wbo 
(It-narted tlilH life April II, IBM, Hie fol low I uir 
resolution* wire ■MOtawmsly Htlotilt-tl : 

Wlilli-tblB Hrollmrlinml buntbly Ikiwh to llit> 
will of the Master Workmnn of the Unlviirats, 
we deeply deplore Hie Iuhh of Brother Haydbn, 
Tor in him 1Mb Union Iohi-h a true nrnl fHltbful 
member, bin family n kind SOi loving broth t-r 
u ml dull fill nun. 

Rriolvsd, Tbnt till- Union tend el Brother Hay 
DKB'a f&mily llielr ilneere By mpeOiy , mid eonr 
mend them to Him In lliulr hour of uriel who 
doeth nil tiling* well. Be it further 

BinotvfH, i bm ttaey i™ v luerlbtd on 

Ike raoofdS of I hi* Brotherhooil, nud h ropy Hent 
to the bunlly of deeeeeed ; ftlwi it i«py h„ f UT . 
nlithi'd lliti loenl pr*W for piibllentlon. 

«, F.Haw*M, 1 

Hto. Mi i.i. kb. J. Comrtilltee. 

I'ltll i Oohaw, J 

WlIKKKlA. 1 1 has pi t iuted Mir nil wIhii Killer of 
the Unlverite to tube from our ml Im Brother 
Mil haki. Foi.kv , belt 

Brwtrrtt, TtiBt we, ineinlierm of Union 90, have 
ioBt bii earnest worker In the OMNW of Ikltor kiiH 
un Ionium. 

KfMvrd, Tiinl we lender our ImnrlMt Bym- 
petbyLolhe hereitvuil widow end family; he It 

■ I HO 

RemAvtd, Tb«tt a eojiy of ilium, rcBolullotiB tw 
Bent to Hie fdjolly of out deoeeMcd brother, und 
•ino he epri'Hd on Hit- tultiute* of our Union, 
Biid they he inibltnlicd In our otllctaJ JtxirnaJ 
ThiCa»m»t«i, end thel we drape our Cliertt't 
for thirty t!n>> 

F. W Kdwv 
John B. Bakkb, 


Bbo. Wm. Tuuiart, of r.ullalo, lately 
addressed the carpenters of Niagara 
Fall, N. Y., under auspices of Union 575, 
with good eilect. 


|Hakbv McOoBMACK, Union No. 1, 
Chicago, formerly Secretary of the Dis- 
trict Council, is now assiptant superin- 
tendent of the bridge department of that 


* » 

Patrick Dolan of Union iM. Provi- 
dence, R. I. , ib a zealous, nntirinu- worker. 
Hestartetl up a ne« nttion In f Hneyville, 
R.I. Hro. ,1.11. Cook at-tetl ae District 


KlkWABU M UMtOX, fitrnierly of Union 
11, Cleveland, (),, is the inventor of the 
patent sell- locking and a< lj ust able 
shoulder plane. 


* » 

BtraiBBM A>.kvt Hohert Ileatty, of the 
Brooklyn, N. V., carjieuters, has been 
very successful in prosecuting violations 
of the Kight boot law and Alien Labor 
law of the state of New York. 


PMTBfCT < irganiEer .lanies Fra/ier of 
Cincinnat i, without expense to tlnBOthce, 
visited Dayton, n., April 2."ith, anil 
aroused a lively interest in the wurk. 
He also took <jiiite a hand in renrganiiing 
Union 405, Ludlow, Ky. 


* * 

Sahtki. (iomckks' speech in New fir- 
leans was a roUHer, and odd I'ellows' 
Hall was crowded by an inunennt» audi- 
ence to hear him. His Southern trip 
has been very helpful to onion carpen- 
ters of that section ami to all organized 


* • 

W. F. Scott, Ueeording Secretary, 
Union (IflO, Tampa, Fla , has been ap- 
pointed Sanitary Inspector of that city, 
with police authority to enforce the sani 
tary laws. The trade unions of Tampa 
at the last municipal election elected the 
city clerk and two councilmeu. 


* # 

J. J. Gajt&Agiisk, President Union 178, 
Newport, K. I., on the ninth anniversary 
of the union, May Li, was the surprised 
recipient of a testimonial for hie ellicient 
services ss a an ion uibu and shop steward. 
He was presented with a reclining chair 
and meerschaum pipe. The meeting 
was largely attended, and happy speeches 
were made by Secretary P. U. Dawley 
and P. U. Mulqneeny, Secretary of the 
Trades' Council. 


Kari. Hitman, is not only a true and 
zealous union man ; he is likewise a 
poetic genius, whose facile pen has often 
graced these columns in metered vurse. 
Recently two songs of his, set to music, 
have aroused great interest, rft.; " The 
Ideal Greater Pittsburgh" and "Dear 
Hemetnbrance of AtlaDtic City, N. J," 
These songs are at popular rates. Write 
Karl Keuber, Boston street and Fifth 
avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Owkomta, N. Y.— Union No. 101 has 
been growing T«y rapidly. On April 1 
we intended to inaugurate the eight-hour 
day and a set of trade rules, and so 
notified the bouses, But trade was too 
dull, and the contractors gave no ear to 
us. Now we have the balk of our men 
employed on the co-operative basis, and 
are getting plenty of work at nine hours 
• day. 

What the Trades Union is Rein-. 

It is the trade union which is bringing 
the laborers together, teaching tfatni to 
know each other, and to learn their com. 
mon interest. 

It is the trade union which is advising 
the nieniini.it practical advance, obtain, 
lag higher wages, reductions of hours nf 
labor, or checking the pressure of cor- 
porate greed upon the weak and In Ip. 

H is the trade union which is carrying 
on the agitation of great social reforing, 
originating legislation in belmlf of ihe 
masses, and providing the means fur dig. 
tinguiehing the friends and the etteiitiei 
of labor among legislators. 

In the face of these facts, meamiri i) 
a test of value, the true unionist run 
ail'ord to "let the heathen rave, un<| 
the followers of visionary theories eJaim 
the superior efficacy ot their idea*. 

[net tlestrm tiunists try to tear rfown 
this work if they will let small miml* 
sneer and mean minds revile the triple 
union needs no apology but Iti own 
achievement, no defence hut the con- 
tinuance of the w ork it has nobly iiiaiitm. 
rated ami carried on AtMand Ajqwt. 

The SI ale and Trade Unions. 

It is a Hound view of the Timet ion* of 
the State, says Mr Bernard Holland u> 
the ffinthmth t fnlnry, that it shoulil 
interfere as little as possible, with in- 
dividuals in the conduct of business and 
industry. If any conntry allows Iti 
central government to absorb into iig 
oralis nil the capital and industrial man. 
aging power of the ( 'ominouwealth, and 
to give the ablest ami most energetic 
ci linens t lie sad choice between becoming 
regulation-fettered officials and betaking 
themselves to less enslaved regions, tliat 
country will, in the industrial sphere, as 
surely tall before the competition or Icm 
highly civilized rivals as, in the held ur 
arms, centralised ami bureaucratic Itowe 
fell before her vigorous and free Jtarlmr- 
ian invaders. 

By the time that theKtate has actjnin d 
all the "means of production, distribu- 
tion and exchange," it is to be feared 
that the subject-matter of the operations 
will have vanished. But the principle 
that the State should interfere as little M 
possible in industrial matters is tem- 
pered or checked by tli is other ancient 
and well founded principle ; namely, 
that the State, as the organ of the whole 
Commonwealth, should protect the weak 
against abuses of power by the stromr. 
It is on this ground that alike rest thin^fl 
so different as an action for assault and 
battery and the factory legislation of the 
last fifty years. 

Here, then, is seen the advantsge of 
drawing as clearly as possible the main 
distinction between the crafts which are 
able to and should form themielves into 
strong organizations and the industries 
which am unable to do so. livery one 
admit* the expediency ot Ktate i tiler m m 
lion in the case of the labor of wornm 

and children, 

♦ • ^ 

ROCSIABB, Me.— Union 33! » secured 
the nine- hour day, and now, as per 
agreement with the contractors, the men 
are getting the old ten- hour rate of jmy. 

Fluhhinij, N. Y.— We work nine hours 
a day. Union 714 had its members out 
two days for an advance in wages, from 
12.50 to $3,00 for April I. We gained it 
to go into eilect June 17, and also recog- 
nition of the union, 

Nkw Havim, Conn.— We had two 
me- lings here In March laat with the 
otuer two Carpenters' societies of this 
city to start for the eight-hour day. But 
the want of unity prevented. Still, 
Union 700 is working ahead. 


Clalma Approved In March, 181)5. 


From tlie Uutonn (Tm, etc.) fMU 18 

" ^dvertlaera 41 

" S.dmerlberH and Clcrtrancea . . . 6 76 
" Kent mill < iii- 33 70 

ToUl 15.189 M 


(A«perHe«tloa is) 

(leneral V iinil, aevau Until* H,»W 34 

Protective Fund, Iwo-tunlliM ...... I, OUT BO 

Organic! UK Fundi niie-tciilli . ..... MS 0!i 

ToUl 16,189 01 


Umhh r«num> im« 3* 

Orut'il'liiK Fund MS 90 

Hpcilal AHHrMHiiirnlH, (net- page 3 of May 
Ciiin NTm miliar bead of wi wy l 

received! 4,761 60 

OMB Balance. Mar. I, MM 711 OB 

T..UI 19,863 83 


For Printing . *M3 60 

" Oftlee.etc 611 13 

" Organizing II BO 

" u« BspM*x> " - 91 

K.a. On. Tiaaa., Twf 139 oo 

" Tu to A. F. nf 1.., 60 09 

*' ReiictlU Nun. S,H8toB,lHj '•,700 00 

Uaaii oil baud, April I, 1896 3,703 78 

ToUl |9.n<il S3 

1 Mai led RzpMMM -March, 1Hft.». 

Printing MOO appc» i * 1 ? 

9,ooo agitation mrdH 12 60 

500 uoatAl <»rd* 1 36 

1,000 iHmUl reccijiU S Od 

1,000 . nvelope.il H» 

e OWXIrnnun OMMlitUliolM .. 90 00 

10.H00F.iiBllf.lt " . . 1UO00 

" 000 pnwword i Inula™ 3 2* 

" 10,250 OOpfcM April Journal . . . 343 75 

l'i-l*l|r on A [Hi I Journal 18 33 

Hpcclal write™ for April Journal .... 87 25 

l'i.»L» K o on ftUpptiea, etc 23 28 

6UQ ] o*Ul innlx 5 DO 

I, 000 nUmped envelope* nut) UtfO |"*UI 

card* II 80 

1 elegralu M 

Kiprt»aage on aiippllea 20 117 

Ulltce rent for Man b 31 00 

Halary it ml clerk hire SW 06 

Tu to A. r. of I. ,1 February) 60 00 

Rubber atutlx, etc 1 1 00 

M O. ItnagflS. prlne drawing I" <'*«■ 

I HM BU 10 00 

F, ,1 Lambert, attorney, for aervb-e* ... 30 00 

llu K b McKay, Org lu Minut., Aug , 1691 . 1160 
Wine A MoNiilty, law riiM-rMH In Flebl*' 

BultM. II. H 13 60 

II, (!., Hruuklyu, N. Y., law cMjieiKe* In 

"r'-rrf — r" *. I'- B 10 it 

HUlinnery N 

.lame* Troy, iiervli'i-n to 1 USO, Trcaaiircr to 

Jan. H, I DOS 139 00 

dual ami Wood I 10 

Janitor, cleaning oMce .......... 6 00 

Ronelll* No* 311* to 3183 1700 00 

TuUI |0.I00 07 

K-Vort «r protective Fund. 



. 1 51 HI 00 

. 600 00 
. 100 00 


3i m. 




31 68 















Mm. li 13, D. (J. of ('blcM|[ii 

Mareli 10, 

April 13, " 

Mur 1 1 10, Manx. HUte Council 800 00 

April 30. If. U. of Brook ly n , N . V 600 01) 

Total , 13.300 00 

YU.OM rillDtlT 1, 1896, TO MAT 1, 1896. 

Ca*>t on liaml Feb. 1, 1806 §7,789 OS 

MaMlflg February, Mardi and Apj II , . 3,133 17 

NiNI. Union. Amt. 

Goo. Heigla 1 1300 00 

A. Meill 1 200 00 

A. Witt ■ 1 BOO 00 

Mra. M. Onertler ...... 3 60 00 

D. Wlltotto 11 300 00 

Mth I, Halm 16 60 00 

L. H. Rellly 20 200 00 

Mih K. Luoteft ...... 29 60 00 

F, Tholin 30 30000 

Mra. M, Wool ford 29 M00 

M Muillir 80 20000 

Mrs. J. MoN«ll 33 50 00 

■>a«. MoN.-ll 33 100 0U 

Mrn, 0, Buw-li 61 80 Oil 

1). Zwi lfel 73 aOH 00 

Boht. Killondn .76 100 00 

Dm id Sheen 131 MM 

O «nty, Hr H3 200 00 

Mr». K. Maloney 13t* 60 00 

Mi- K OoitOd 151 10 00 

UCO SI i h 160 200 00 

Mm. A. tmn* 181 60 00 

IYiUt Itimil 181 200 M 

IP. Mi lntoali 190 300 00 

Jn». Thowpaoa 3io 200 oo 

Mm.H.A IUvIi 310 60 0J 

K. F < 'lilptiiHii 871 200 00 

Mrn. K. N. [AMtaon ..... 107 60 Otj 

A. 1>. Ito*H 416 6(1 00 

Mm. «. «Ioyf> Ill 60 00 

Mra.F. 1*. I.oetllcr . . . . . 913 60 00 

TDM, Frollaiid 667 3011 00 

Mm M HlleirUtr 628 60 00 

W.J MUUI 638 300 0C 

K. B. CunnttrgbAti 736 MOM 

Total 11,700 00 

< lit i m* Approved in April, 1N«r„ 

31 Hi 









Nimk. I'hion Amt 

Mr*. M KaHhola ....... 1 IM> 00 

H V Hell 3 300 00 

Mm A Meiner.ltl.l 3 60 00 

tieo. Hhaw 1 300 «» 

<! HUIilIint i 2(» i»i 

It Ituiran . 8 106 66 

I Foley ............ II 300 00 

II B Wrlnlit 30 2U0 00 

Mm l\ V. Ward 39 50 00 

Tin.- BraMtbMtJ 31 JOO 00 

K. VaTrlnec 61 S« 00 

Mm a I.«m..ii 63 60 00 

J. B. Kelly 73 200 1)0 

<J B. llMWsn 72 200 00 

ft. K Hum 82 2<« oo 

Mm. T F»rrrll 101 M 00 

H. J. H. Kvem 119 200 00 

J. B. Hlalr . 118 200 UO 

A. A. Bri walt-r Ill 300 00 

A Aii.l. raon 181 100 00 

C. Nelaon 181 200 00 

Mm r* K. Morton ...... 198 SO 00 

0*M« a I. Haili tl 211 200 00 

Mra. M T. Uovi-ll 321 50 00 

F. J. Buki-r 213 200 00 

D. A- Manor «8 soo oo 

J. V. Ht-ndrlokM 281 60 (Ml 

T II lliivia .301 SO 00 

O.T. Mumliall 3*7 200 00 

Mis. M . Hawkey . 3*9 50 00 

M M> Donald . 391 300 00 

Wot. Wiilali 161 200 00 

L. Frtianf 161 300 00 

H MrltU r 607 20CI 00 

Mn. K Mueller, 618 90 00 

ft. II Hit II, ...to 626 19 60 

R IuMwkW W3 200 00 

F. Man 686 MOM 

Mr. M. Win, .Id 611 60 

T.Hilialk 786 60 00 

During tbe month ending April 30, 1896. 
Wktatitr u) norm ippoar a«ur> Uu O. I I. vltbHI 


- d a 

li 1 

~ o a 
* o o 

n 1 

ll I 

Total 110^71 61 

Money! eipendad (drlallii Klven almve.) 3,300 00 
Cash on hand May 1,1896, 

t ■ * * • t d.ouo oo 

Tot*l Protective 

.... 113,871 63 


Pitthhukcih, Pa.— Onr DiBtrict Connuil 
ia in nfffotiation with the Itaililero' Kg- 
cbuBga to n**nrv> an agreement as to 
wage* and bottfl and the BignB are 

VVimKi.iHo, W, Va, -We are haviiiK 
joint i:(»nri*ranceB, front time to time, this 
BprinK witii n committee of the liuililere' 
Kxchange, and witii j(f>o»i efletit. This 
covers Wheeling, Martin's Ferry and 
Bellaire. ^ 

1'rivatk ownership of railroatla, among 
its other frnita, says the l armsr*' 'tribune, 
now includea a French count jiml hou^lit 
for a husband at the price of $2,000,(100 
by Miss Anna Gould, heiress of the late 
celebrated railroad pirate. Probably 
□ine-tentbe of this little slice of the 
(lould estate represents extortionate 
freight rates converted into dividends 
on watered stocks and wrnng from the 
Industry of the country. 

1-1116 CO 116 17 20 319 

J 67 30 117 12 OS 323 

3^ 7 11/ 119 1 90 331 3 60 

I 17 211 161 10 Ml 138 8 10 

6 II 10 161 13 96 127 11 20 

S I 8u 166 11 10 328 6 «0 

7 2 80 188 3 HO 

H 3 1)0 1«0 HI 20 

9- — 9 09 16] 19 8(1 

II 2H 30 161 8 flU 

ft 90 516- 
00 S18- 


13 13 00 166- - 10 

2 *lll 167 1M 20 J 

129 3 60 

130 9 10 9 

m — a oo i6i— 

113 36 80 668- 

I 10 661 
3 80 Kt— 

16 10 36 KM- -II 10 ,119 — 6 (10 %67- 

16- 33 70 169 16 60 |1*0- ■ 77 10 VM1- 

17 9 20 1T0 2 fiO 1 113 1 1 10 iy8- 

18 1 20 171 9 80 1 113 11 60 fifil — 

13 2 00 173 1 mo 

30 13 70 176- -30 3d 

31 19 20 176 21 10 

33 — 82 HO 177 7 81 

23 30 10 179- — -II S3 

36 11 10 181 — -81 10 

26 6 0(1 186 6 10 

37- - 7 30 189— 8 80 

38- 117 OU 190 6 30 

29—68 10 191 ( 20 K9 6 00 

80 |o w 193 6 801170 9 20 1 1M — 

81 2 30 193 I 80 J71 2 M l 603— 

33 — 119 60 191 8 Id 1 171- - 18 20 «B- 

S8 8 OO 198 6 60 , t76— 7 10 401 — 

87 3 20 194 3 60 177 1 80 DOS— 

88— 6 20 198 H 10 178 8 56 V«— 

40 6 86 199 13 M) 380 1 2U 611- 

13 9 ho 200 12 HI 381 21 i\ 117— 

13 82 00 301 8 10 W2 66 00 (1)9— 

41 9 10 303- - 19 36 flW 9 1,0 632- 

48 1 lli 307 IH 10 190 6 10 628- 

16 6 30 208 6 HO 391 11 CO ,626- 

18 2 80 209 IT 20 193 8 HO U'iB- 

61 31 60 an 18 10 (00 9 HO 

81 If) OH 111-— 3 10 tnl 9 0JI „ 

M 3» 00 116 13 Ml (03 1 80 '«7- 

Bl 11 I 218 5 20 ,103 B 6H as— 

69 7 10 321 10 fid 1(11 6 00 '619- 

60 1 1 60 3)3 8 to 106 31 


61 IH 70 IK 

63 38 10 

63 61 60 «7 

•4 21 (0 12H 

67 1 10 


— 3 

— 9 

— 8 


-16 1 230 

10 (07- 
10 109- 
8« 116- 
*0 ,119- 
16 1(20- 
66 (21- 

33 00 Ml 

8 30 
30 30 

— fi 10 

— 8 30 

— 5 60 

73 28 30 2Sl fi 60 \12 1 60 

78 17 60 333 6 00 121 It) HO 

71 6 10 233 4 60 (36 1 80 

76 1 70 236 1 80 (37 10 90 

78 8 i0 238 10 00 (28 1 80 

(0 8 iflilW 13 30 (39 17 V0 'tp, 

83 6 (SO 140 18 60 (8] S 00 ,178— 

83 IH V Hi 6 20 (31 17 30 

87 - 13 00 M3-- 6 60 (37 3 10 

88 16 70 $11 3 10 138 3 OO 

89- - 6 8t JIM 1 60 |,19- 11 00 

90 18 10 M7- - 2* 80 U0- - 8 31 

92 H 00 1(3 1 Hi (42 — a 00 

03 no 290 4 60 1 (4ft 3 HO 

94- - 1 1 10 391 7 10 ,1(7 1 1 10 

S« 14 65 363 8 30 119 11 29 

87 3 80 3B7 92 80 (AO 2 80 

90 « 00 — —11 20 (81 11 mi 

lOU 3 -0 360 21 10 1498 19 10 

10] 20 368 4 10 4 v| 10 00 

103 H HO 368 1 80 466 2 00 

108- — 8 261268 1 «0 187 *( 60 

104 19 20,367-- 3 10 460 6 60 

108- -100 40;368 7 10 (61 6 00 

109 51 40 360--3I 60 444 10 60 

11] 17 30 270- -l, r i 90 

113 22 10178-- 10 «0 


113 3 60 

114- _ 3 |n 

US 7 30 

1 IB— 6 h0 

119 18 60 

131 13 80 381 

111 11 00 

131 4 10 

138 33 20 

]2fl 7 ]0 

180 30 

183 6 00 

134 10 

ISt -9 60 

130 6 80 

187- - 6 80 

138 6 00 

1(0 3 00 

111 13 in 

142 16 OO 309- 

I 36 311 


20 10 

1 CO 

376 21 03 

377- - 6 70 474 H 40 

381 18 00 (78 '0 Ml 

7 80 478 13 90 

15 20 (79 9 00 

387 13 60 181 14 60 

388 7 «0 483 9 10 

390 1 36 (88 76 00 

3B1 7 00 184 7 60 

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298 B 60 487 7 SO tm- 

308 10 00 190 6 00 7»7- 

300 — 2 00 io« — a 40 '768 

304 I 60 ,497 8j 00 

309 6 00 499 6 30 779- 

306 16 20 600 9 10 788 

108 13 00 1 103 3 20 78R_ 

163 80 807 '3 10 788 

144 8 00 116— 

111 -2 10 118— 

6 10 
- 1 00 
■ 10 80 

8D9-— 61 20 

610 II 

118- -II 90 1 

130 10 
-II 00 

— 2 00 
-12 no 

a 60 
37 20 

■ 3 60 

a ko 

■ 2 30 

1 60 
36 80 

- 6 60 

- 1 03 

2 10 

13 20 

1.1 m 

21 06 

8 on 

■ 7 80 

8 00 


■ 2 Wl 
• 7 66 

- 3 10 
8 00 

3 '10 

a 20 

1 40 
10 70 

10 60 

11 00 

1 20 

14 16 

— 7 2o 

— II 30 

— I 86 

— 30 

— 6 00 

— 14 40 

4 00 

2 20 

— 9 80 

— IB 80 
—10 00 
-1(1 20 

1 80 
6 60 

9 SO 

1 00 

6 TO 

_ 10 40 

— 1 80 

— 1 60 
_16 80 

— 8 90 
43 80 

— 10 on 

— H 60 

— 7 36 

— 7 20 

— 6 20 
— 10 It 

— 6 80 

— 7 10 
_ 7 60 

— 1 10 

— 18 20 
-11 It 

— 78 

— 1 65 

— 26 Hi 

— 28 00 
9 60 

— 4 (Ml 

— 8 30 

— 2 10 
.12 HO 

— 1 80 
—18 80 

— 6 08 

— 1 80 

9 90 

_ 9 60 
-26 90 
_ 3 90 

— I 00 

— II 00 
9 10 

— 11 10 

2 60 

— 8 60 
9 00 

— 8 00 
4 10 

— 6 60 
6 90 
8 10 
2 00 

KECKI ITS- A I 'HI I., 1896. 

■VOW (In- Unions (Tax, etc,) 11,826 99 

" Motiaonla, CHI., lapKcd 133 00 

" Advcrtlnurn 67 60 

" Sub»crilitrr» mill c lfHmiKt-H ... 160 
" llonl 10 00 

ToUl I6,0:i2 09 


(As pat BflOttMi is). 

Q*OM«] Finn!, Hi-vt'Dtli-tt tittM 33,133 18 

FTotocUva Vttnd, two-t*Dttui 1,006 11 

flrnaiitilng rami, mis Isiilh 603 20 

ToUl M.0S2 09 

April P«r«»n|a4j(« 13,621 18 

OrganlalmR fnmi 6to 30 

Special A — ii.itiI- rrrt'lvi ,1 in A |<t il . Ml 60 

Ga*h Balance, April i, not 3, 701 7* 

ToUl 18,073 91 

F.\ I'KNNKH, A I' It I L. 1896 
For I'riiilliiK $310 CO 

" onw, Me Bil n 

•* OrKanUlnjr 138 81 

" Ta« to A. V uf 1 60 00 

" Its pensea 01*0. H. It 186 20 

M Attorney*!* Lk|wn*t-H ........ 11 80 

" lleitellla Nik. 3 183 to 3122 fi.HOS 16 

Ciu.li on han<l, Hay I, IB96 1 678 76 

ToUl , t8,073 91 

Detailed Expenaei -April, 1SH5. 

Pi intltiK 1,000 nUio|>ti>l i-livi'loiifH .... II 21 

■ 6, mm neiJooa t>r arroAr* in oo 

" 6,0C0 nolfhiadu 12 60 

" 16.630 co] ill* May .fun run I . , . 326 60 
Ream oflieavy wrHi>]ilii|t |.ui»>r 8 71 

Pi.hIjiici* 00 Mity Journal ......... 

H|«.|>1iil m ritern fur Apill anil Mny .... 

KotrruvlnitK for May Journal 

Puntafcf on BUppttea, air 

1,000 i-tampi-il t'ltvt'liii id 

12 teleicraniK . ., , 

Kl|*r€-n.rtKt. tin sii|i|i!1ea . . ...... . 

(Kill i' ti 01 for A], 1 Ll . 

1*. CI. ItuK lent for tjwHitiT . 

IU* bill for ijnartt'T 

Preiultiw on lire Irmunuiae . . 

Kalnry ami clerk I. in- 

Tax to A. F. of I.. (Manli) 

P. J. BfoOufim, aaimnaaa to Prm i- 

di iice, «-tc. 

P.J. Miliiilro, I'Strn t-xpt'itMsa to Clilcnirn 

frtini linliiiiia|iolii>, ati) 

P. .1. Mi tin Ire, fiiifiiM-a In Hrnokl> n.N.V. 
I*. C. Wlioi-ItT, ei|M'0tn'H lo Miiii<m)ii1ii,ChI. 
L, F.. TtiHney,i<ii>f-tifieH to flrninl I<a|i1iU, 

Ml. I. 

H .1. Kent, exi-t-ttHeH on AinalKaruat^tL 

Ootnmtltae lo Kaw Ymk ami lo vtnlt 

Ni«wrk, N.J 

A. ( tUtrrin oil , PI|>eiiM.'» on A iNnlnnmulivl 

Uoniiiilllee tu New Vurk and U. rlstl 

Nvwurk, N. J 

1*. .1. IseQutM, mi AiMJgamatad < - 

■nil lie In N'nw York 

A. CHlterioull, Iiivi-hIIkhI lun at PitlubntKl', 


Altornt-y'x rxjiuiMi-f. in Hit' Fielil'it tlHitti, 


Jitiiilor, dcMtlnB dial 


W. J. Hliii lda, attendance ai (J. K. H. . . . 
Joan ^ iiiiaiuN, " " ... 
Jon. c. Onfftet, 41 m ... 
a. Cat tarn k«H, " " ... 

A . CalUritiulI. lnvenli||ittiona ...... 

H, J, Kenl.U. K, li 


17 76 
IS 00 

12 86 
|] H6 
21 80 


11 10 
21 CO 

3 00 

18 70 

13 18 
■till 66 

60 00 

-8 60 

12 60 
3 8U 

3 -JO 


ToUl received, . . 16,110 19 

1 tod wit ur MimkUI AaaeaauMiiiU In- 

elo.ti .1 aUivti MM 

ToUl for Tax mad Huppllai H,H1« 09 

Iiktboit, Mich. -Union 6H9 is Krowin^ 
Bteadily, and hopes to increase its) mem- 
liership ten fold within the next 60 days. 

Bui-kami, N. y.— We have adopted 
the plan of paying a commission on all 
new m cm bars brought in, and it seems 
to lia?e a good effect. 



A. rUaoui.D, formerly of I'nltm 663, Hcranlon, 
Pa., defrauded a numlier of our nteuiliern lu 
tltul city uf wagaa line llieio. lie Iibh Hkl|i|ied 
for wurU uuknnwn Be la 6 feet IDJ-J Indiea 
htgb, M pound! weliclil, im< I red fitoetl. 

Joe .Umk*on from Union 67, Roil-nry, Man* , 
for ii]iaa|i|>riipr1iilhi|r money IioIoosIdk to I lie 

Nicwtok, Mass.— Union carpenters here 
are urging the Board of Aldermen to have 
the carpenter work of t lie city done by cit- 
izens and resident workmen, and we have 
also sent out circulars to all architects to 
get their co-operation against sub-con- 


HKBMttiKiiii.a Fobtim, WHM rr)ecU'd retiently 
In Union 31, Cliteatfo. He waa an ea-mi-uiber 
of Union 21, anil applied for reittliaaiaelon, but 
wan rejected fur wnrkingnn tlieHlot k Kxfltaii|te 
btilldtiiK during a alrike and for Inducing a few 




Not till llfp'a hra" ia» pooled, 

The lipadl >1ir r, til (.lowed to a ipiii't paep. 
Ami every pwMlltd i -m 1- • i , that had rulpd 

nut noisier yearn, at la*d, 
Spura ii- In vMin, and, weary of Ihfl race, 
We eare no mure who lo*p» nr who wlna— 
All | not till all the hext uf llfo lltDll paat 

The heat of life laglna. 

To loll only for fame, 
Haii<l-t-la|>|ilii|c* ami the tic Ule kuhIw of pralap, 
For )>li«ee or power or Rold lo jjU<i a iiiune 
A hove the irrave whereto 
All jmtht* wi 1 ) hrliiR ui, were to loM our days. 
We on who#fl ejtra youth'* j>iu*«l ri(r ln-11 ha* tolled, 
In blowing Imhhlea, even aa ihildrendo, 
I'orKeHhiic «e Rrnw old 

Hul Hie world w Id pita when 
Huch Initio of trivial gain thtit ruleii nallea 
Broken tniioutt niir childhood'* loya, for then 
Wp w in lo aelf-etintrol 
Anil mull uiimolvif 111 manhood, and there rlae 

Upon It! fr the Vawt and wind I van height 

Those rlearer thought* I hat ara unlo Hie aoul 
What atara are lo the night. 

The Labor World. 

I'll EST It |{, KNi.LANII. 

[Mr. Threlfall DM been fur many year» a well 
known trade itntontat and lalMir udvocat*. He 
wan a memlier of the Trade Union Parltamuii 
tary Committee several years, and presided nt 
the Trade Union Congress of 18»l. In view of 
pertain theoretical, problematical development* 
In the Trade Union movement of lid* country 
the paal year or ao, tills article ulionld he exten- 
sively read and studied] 


b^^-i^ESPITE the fact that excur- 
aioii trains were ran from 
h all parts of Great Britain to 
the north, and that Faster 
is par excellence a time 
when workmen can attend congresses at 
minimum cost, the conference of the 
Independent Labor Party at Newcastle 
was the poorest yet held, only 84 dele- 
gates attending. Such a fact is signifi- 
cant, and shows that the movement is 
not really making the headway its advo- 
cates would lead the people to believe. 
When one remembers the lavish expen- 
diture of these people at election times, 
the bazaars, the profits from Indepen- 
dent Labor Party matches, tobacco, and 
other commodities named I. L. P., and 
also how on the highest authority the 
members pay a suhicription of one penny 
per week and a 3d levy freque-*';- ~ne 
is prompted to ask bow it comes about 
that every one of the 400 branches as- 
serted to exist did not eend delegates. 
In view of this lavish expenditure 
and reputed self-sacrifice, the plea ot 
poverty doea not count Surely an 
organization which counts its " Par* 
llamentary Labor candidates" by the 
score, and which embraces university 
men, barristers, doctors, landowners, 
commercial magnates, and other men 
who could aflord to pay their own ex- 
penses as delegates, should be able to 
organise a conference five times as big as 
the gathering »t Newcastle. No, the 
reason lies deeper than that. 

It la abundantly evident that the In- 
dependent l.abor movement is on the 
decline. The novelty baa worn off; the 
eager spirits who hoped it was going to 
regenerate the world in a couple of years 
have been sadly disappointed, and are 
looking further afield lor a new weapon ; 
whilst such thoughtful workmen who 
Imagined it might really be an effective 
means to elevate Labor bare been com- 
pelled to admit that an Iconoclastic 
Labor policy is foredoomed to failure. 
It may, no doubt, be entertaining to 
■mash both Liberal and Tory, and to 
play havoc with every section which 
does not agree with the latest apostles, 

but sensible men naturally ask, " What 
ie Labor goiDg to gain by a policy of 
wreckage ?" It reminds one of the occa- 
sional vagarieB of Chinese beggars, who 
have been known, when refused help by 
a householder of the Celestial land, to 
commit suicide on his doorstep. Of 
course, it makes things very uncomfort- 
able for the householder, but that doesn't 
bring the eccentric beggar back to life. 
However advanced genuine British trades 
unionists may be, they have no wish 
to bring the organised labor of this 
country into the unenviable position 
that, eay, German Socialism holds, viz., 
that of a hobby horse and football for 
every erratic politician who quarrels with 
the party he has hitherto been identified 
with, and is anxious for a cover from 
which to fire upon hie erstwhile friends 
The Socialist party in the German Reich- 
stag coneiets almoBt wholly of lawyers, 
journalists, manufacturers, landowners, 
and nearly every class but work iegmen. 
Whether it is desirable or not to have a 
duplicate of such a party in our House 
of Commons is a question I don't pre- 
tend to discuss just now ; but the I.abor 
electors are too wide awake to elect as 
I abor candidates men who never did a 
day's manunl work in their lives. These 
people are endeavoring to palm Social- 
ism upon the people under false pre- 
tenses. Socialism and Labor— Labor as 
understood in this country, and as en- 
dorsed by the organised trades of this 
country— are entirely different things. 
The first is theory, the second experi- 
ence. One ii at the beet but an untried 
experiment, the other is au absolute 
fact, burning into the lives of the people 
every day. In a word, Socialism is a 
coat of opinion which may lit the mil- 
lionaire and the peasant j but Labor rep- 
resentation is the corduroy jacket of 
experience, to be worn by the bona- fide 
workmen . 

OI course, all this has been said 
before ; but it is necessary to reiterate 
it Happily the facte and arguments 

trades are alive to the danger, they are 
hardly likely to play the part ot the fly 
to any spider. Ooe great difference 
between this Independent Ijtbor Party 
conference and the Labor Electoral Con- 
gress ia that in the former the trade 
organizations find no place, and stand 
without the pale, whereas to the latter, 
every t railed council and trades union in 
the country is invited to send delegates. 
The Labor Electoral Congress takes its 
stand upon the granite pedestal of trades 
unionism, whereas the Independent 
Labor Party is baaed upon the more 
unstable and uncertain foundations of 
Socialism —From Ikt Sfanrhetter Weekly 
Jimet, April 19, 1895. 

Judge (Jayiior on the Hut If* «f Corpo- 

are telling upon the 

and when 

they are told that the Independent 
Labor Party, has 33,000 paying members, 
it can control 60 per cent, of the 
etectoTB, that it Is growing every day in 
force and numbers, and that it will ere 
long be the party of the State, they 
naturally contrast each statements with 
very awkward facte. To begin with, 
there was, not long ago, the Billy fiasco 
at the London County Council elections : 
the extremely poor results of running a 
host of Independent Labor Party candi- 
dates at the last municipal election, and 
now we have this decreasing conference. 
In politics nothing succeeds like success, 
and when any political party— whether 
connected with Labor or not — can show 
only a rapid succession of defeats, the 
working class electors draw anything 
bat a flattering conclusion about the 
position ; and Invariably withhold their 

A big effort will be made on the part 
of the trades, and bona- fide working- 
men, to save Labor representation from 
being made the laughing stock of the 
public. The I*bor Electoral Congress, 
to be held some weeks hence, will show 
the other side of the shield with a v en- 

A noteworthy feature of the confer- 
ence which has been sitting in Newcastle 
la the fact that trade* anions and trades 
councils as such find no place therein. 
They are but thus secondary organiza- 
tions in the movement, and the fact con- 
firms what has been so repeatedly urged 
here, viz , that one of the objects of the 
Socialists behind the Independent Labor 
Party movement is to path Trades 
Unionism back and rear Socialism in its 
place. Whether they will succeed 
remains to be seen; but, unless I am 
sadly mistaken, now that the organised 

Judge Gaynor, in one uf his decisions 
in the Brooklyn trolley Btrike, said : 
"'These railroad companies are not in a 
position of a mere private individual, or 
company carrying on business for private 
gain, which may suspend business tern 
porarily or permanently at pleasure. On 
the contrary, it has a dual relation 
public relation to the people of the State, 
and a private one to its stockholders. It 
must not l» forgotten here, though it 
may seem to be growing dim, if not 
wholly forgotten elsewhere, that in its 
chief aspect it ie a public corporation, 
having duties to perform to the public 
which transcend any obligation whicl 
in its private aspect it owes to its stock 
holders. It has received franchises of 
great value from the State and had con- 
ferred upon it the State's transcendent 
power of eminent domain. In return it 
took upon itself the performance of 
public duties and functions in the per 
form mice of which it is, in law and in 
fact, not an independent individual or 
entity, buttbe accountable agent of the 
State. Though these principles are old 
and inherent, in the idea of the sover- 
eignty of the people, it would seem that 
in the recent rapid growth of corporate 
power and of the tendency to use public 
franchises tor the aggrandisement of 
individuals first and for the benefit of 
the public second, they have come to be 
overlooked and need to be restated-" 

"The directors ot a private business 
company may, actuated by a private 
greed or motives of private gain, stop 
business and refuse to employ labor at 
all unless labor comes down to their con- 
ditions, however distressing, for Bach 
are the existing legal, industrial and 
social conditions. But the directors of 
a railroad corporation may not do the 
like ; they are not merely accountable 
to the stockholders; they ate account- 
able to the public first and the stock- 
holders etcond. They have duties to 
the public to perform and they must per- 
form them. If they cannot get labor to 
perform such dutiee at what they offer 
to pay, then they must pay more, and ae 
much as is necef sary to get it. Likewise, 
if the conditions In point of hours or 
otherwise which they impose repel labor, 
they most adopt more lenient or juit 
conditions. They may not atop their 
cars for one hour, much less one week or 
on- vear, thereby to beat or coerce the 
pr i or conditions of labor down to the 
pri conditions they offer. For them 
to do ao would be a defiance of law and 
of government, which, becoming general, 
would inevitably, by the force of ex- 
ample, lead to general disquiet, to the 
disintegration ef the social order, and 
even the downfall of government itself. 
Experience shows the wisdom of our 
fathers in retaining at least some control 
of corporations to whom are given public 
franchisee for the performance of public 

Organization The Primary XecesNiij. 

/f? NT1L organised la- 
bor controls, o r 
haB In its mem. 
bership.a, major- 
ity of the voters, 
it is idle to look 
for the adoption 
of a political la. 
bor programme. 
The law never 
shortened the 
hours of tabor 
until the labor unions firet reduced tin IM , 
Public opinion precedes law. Under the 
perfect and complete organization or the 
working people, to the extent of 7,000 ,*eio 
of voterH at least, the hours of labor and 
the entire political programme as pro- 
mulgated by the American Federatiotnif 
Labor at Chicago, or so much of it as mav 
be deemed proper, would soon spring 
into legal life. Labor should shun r 
counsels of the politician who claims for 
hie party that it is the friend of the (oiler 
and that it alone will secure him const ant 
employment, high or higher wages and 
shorter hours. Political action never 
has nor never will come first. Counsel 
like that is as deceiving as the song of 
the Sirene. Eliminate such vagaries 
from your mind as you would poison 
from your syetem. Let the labor move- 
ment take on or substitute system r,,r 
want of fly Mem ; let all labor rally around 
the standards of the unions. All the 
hopes, the aspirations of the trade union 
movement is founded on a complete or- 
ganization of all labor in one union lor 
protection. There always will he organ- 
izations of capital. Then the two great 
forces will, without paeeion or excite- 
ment, treat with each other through 
intelligent reprenentativr s, and wbea 
labor is Ihns, or in some better manner, 
more thoroughly ami more compact ! y 
organized and it is called upm to cross 
lances with capital, then one campaign, 
should, like the war of the lit- belli i*n, 
which did away with slavery and more 
cbttriy eliminated the Stales in one 
union, show that tabor is equal if nut 
superior in strength to capital, and l y 
reasons of this silent force there ehouM 
be no more con Hide of yearly occurrtme 
as at present — Otft, Mm (THrien. 

Straight Trade Union Doctrine. 

It is worthy of remark, that of late it 
has become popular in certain qnarterf, 
to inject into the labor problem about 
everything politicians wrangle over- 
such as government ownership of rail- 
roads and telegraph lines, the single tax, 
bimtallism, the initiative ard referendum, 
and bo on to the end of the chapter, in- 
cluding the transfer of labor organiza 
tionB, rank and file, to some one of the 
political parties. 

By such a ha rum searutu policy the 
rral labor problem ia practically lost eight 
ot, however notorioua the leaders in tin* 
scramble may become. To make things 
if possible, still worse, Bellamy ism is 
often hitched on to the labor problem, 
and thus vagary and hallucination, arm 
in arm, may be seen almost any day, 
biasing the way to some Utopia where 
only so much labor la required to gather 
op and stow away the wealth. 

Why clamor for single tax ? Why run 
mad over nationalism, another term for 
parentalism? Why resolve to go pell 
melt Into aome new fangied political 
party ? Why get hoerss over the initia 
five and referendum? Why not, on the 
contrary, unify, solidify and federate to 
secure honest, fair and just wages ■.'-/."- 
Firemm'1 i 


Drawing fur Carpenters. 


fN commencing theae articles on 
the art of drawing in its applica- 
tion to carpenters' work, I do so 
with the intention of benefiting 
those who, being far removed 
from schoola or instructors, cw 
not obtain this knowledge; also with a 
view to give a clear practical insight into 
geometry, at the same time met nit- ting 
the mechanic; in the elements of drawing. 
The system is peculiarly my own, and hu 
lieen bo successfully followed that I have 
received letters or thanks from many 
pupils who have practised their drawing 
and found the knowledge of value in 
actual practice. 


like carpentry, involves the use of ap- 
pliances or instruments of precision for 
the proper and accurate delineation of 
objects. These conBist of thr drairing- 
hoard, which any mechanic of ordinary 
skill nan either construct himself or pur- 
chase. They can also he made in various 

ways. The first and about as convenient 
and economical ai the student may desire 
is that represented in Fig. 1. It is very 
simple, as may readily be seen, and con- 
sists of 3 I" hoards glued edge to edge, 
with a ; x If" batter or clamp, tongued, 
grooved and nailed into each end across 
the grain, to keep it from springing or 
warping from the effects or heat or 
moisture acting on the wood. Whin 
the clamps are nailed on the whole sur- 
face must Ire faced up trw and out of wind 
with the tore plane, smoothed off and 
sandpapered. II" the carpenter so de- 
sires, he can purchase a drawing loan! 

made in the manner shown in Fig. - at a 
store where artists' materials are sold, 
but those situated in the coantry, or 
small towns or villages, can easily make 
their own. There are other forms of con- 
struction tor drawing boards beside the 
above, bat these are the 
perhaps the molt useful. 


screwed fast to the stock, at right angles, 
so that it is always iquare. This square 
can be bought or made with an edge of 
some very hard wood, as maple at ebony, 
glued on the latter wood, is the best, 
becanse, being black and hard, it does 
not show ink stains and keeps straight 
and true. At Fig. 4, where a Teo square 
with a 


is represented, the reader will perceive 
how the ebony edge is glued on, also 
the swivel part of the head turne ' lor 
use on the edge of the board. 

"FT- 1 -4- 

In this case the head is made in two 
pieces, into one of which the blade is 
fastened. The other ia movable and 
revolves on a brass set thumb screw, in- 
serted in the center of the head. Its ob- 
ject is to allow the draftsman to lay out 
work on the pitch, and it will be found 
convenient in carpenters' drawing. 

More expensive T- squares than those 
explained may be obtained, but either of 
the above is good enough for our pur- 
pose. The square should be at least two 
inches longer than the drawing board, 
and be absolutely accurate and well 

Fig. 5 is the usual form of 


or set square, as it is often termed. It 
consists of two pieces of pear wood, or 
mahogany, I" thick, with an ebony 
edge tet or mitred at right angles, or 90 
degrees, to each other, with a third piece 
or hypnthenmi- piece mitred and glued, to 
retain the angle and keep it fixed or M, 
thus completing the triangle. 

The second instrument needed La 
termed a T, or Tee-square, which can also 
be either made or purchased. It is 
called a T-^uars on account of Its re- 
semblance to the letter T, and consists of 
two parts, viz., the tlock and the blade. 
Tne T-square la always made of some 
hard wood, mostly of mahogany or pear- 
wood, and the proportions are ahont 
those seen in the engravings, Figs. 3 and 
4. The first, Fig, 3, is the ordinary cheap 
form of manufactured pear wood square, 
and rnna in various sizes, in length of 
diode from 12" to 72", the stock increas- 
ing in proportion as the blade lengthen!. 
In Fig. 3 the blade is stationary, or 

The Nature of the Circle. 

The triangle, trapesoid and circle 
together with the circle sector and spiral 
surface are various formations or modi- 
fications of parallelograms. Their area 
can be determined by the common terms 
of measurement for parallelograms, viz s 
by dividing the sum of the two opposite 
sides by 2, and multiplying with the 

Fig. 6 is the triangle of 60 degrees, or 
the degree triangle, as draftsmen call it 
That shown in the engraving Is made of 
hard rubber, or vulcanite, and is ob- 
viously the best material to employ in 
their manufacture, by reason of its non 
liability to shrink or expand, and thoa 
vary- They are, however, rather ex 
pensive to boy, so I would recommend 
those just commencing the art to use 

wooden triangles, as they are reliable 
enough for ordinary drafting. 

The Oiumb lack, or drawing paper tack, 
is made as in Fjg, 7. Its use is to hold 
the paper securely stretched on the 
drawing boark. These are purchasable 

4 ?■ 

only, and should be always obtained with 
heads not less than J inch in diameter. 
A very cheap and excellent stamped tack, 
in which the point is stamped out of the 
head, can he obtained at a low cost. 

(lobe continued) 

Continuing the contraction and expan- 
sion of the circular sides the figure will 
gradually assume the form shown in Fig. 
S, but still retains the trapesoidal quality 
and the area is calculated as before. 

Finally, we will suppose this moving 
process to continue so as to reduce the 
side C D, to the limit of a point, as in the 
first rectangle, then the figure will be a 
circle like Fig. 4, and top side of the 
circle will be reduced to a point, or the 
center Q. and the bottom side extended 
till it completes the circumference, and 
the two originally opposite sides A C 
and B D, have fallen together as one 
line O 6, thus forming the radius of the 

From this it will be seen that the circle 
is deduced from the rectangle or trapes- 
oid, hnt cannot be measured like them 
on account of one parallel side having 
dwindled to a point (the center), and the 
other extended to form a continuous curve 
or circumference, but as the original 
parallelogram can be measured as given 
above, so the area of the circle, or as It 
might be called the circular parallelo- 
gram. Fig. 4 — Two opposite sides 
divided by 2 and multiplied by the alti- 
tude Q G = 1 inch. Area ot circle =■= 
+ 0.28 


X 1 = 3.14. 

This gradation, from a rectangle to a 
circle will only occur when the sides in 
original rectangle A C and A B, are in 

In Fig. 1, the rectangle A B C D, 
assume the elds A B, to contract or 
shorten, and the opposite side C D, to 
extend In the same proportion, the 
trapezoid HPKL, would be the result, 
and its area would be equal to that of 
A B C D, the original rectangle. (Taken 
from Kuclid.) Suppose that the side 
A B, continues to shorten till it ends In 
point as E, the bottom aide at the same 
time extending, then the triangle E F 6, 
would result, and be also equal in area 
to the rectangle. It might, in fact, be 
said that the triangle was a trapesoid in 
which one aide contrscted to the limit of 
a point, and its area may be figured as 
for a traps zold, thus :— 

* F G * A <E - O) 

Hence triangles and trapezoids may 
be derived from parallelograms by con- 
tracting one side and extending that 

In Fig. 2, suppose the rectangle ABCD, 
and let the aide C D, crimp or contract, 
and A B, extend, at the same time allow- 
ing the straight lines to bend or form 
parallel curves ; then the figures A' H 
B'CXD would result and the circular 
figure is yet a trap* xoid, with two oppo- 
site snd parallel sides, and It area can be 

as 1 : 3.14. If the proportion be smaller, 
as U B is to U F, so will the rectangle 
bend to shape of the sector of a circle, 
0' V O, in Fig. 4. If it be larger, as 
RT : KB, the rectangle will bend to a 
spiral or twisted surface, or a circle or 
overlapping sector of a circle G V U', 
Fig. 3. 
Area of Sector 

O + W V G 

— r 

Area of Spiral 


X I. 

G V U' mm 

X 1. 

A' II B y C v. D x A c 

This ares would be equal to that of 
original parallelogram because A' H 

B' + C * D m A B + D and A' C «= 


Consequently (except in matter of simi- 
larity) Circles or Hector* or Circles 


The forgoing is a fundamental problem 
and forms a basis for a series of a hun- 
dred others, of which I hope to send Tbb 
Carpenter soma of those of most In- 
terest to your readers. 

RutUnd, Yt. Mao rub 0. Tbboeb. 

Federations of the building trades are 
now organised In 27 cities of Great 
Britain. In London there are 4 separate 
and distinct carpenters' societies, the 
Amalgamated, the General Union, the 
Associated and the Perseverance. 

Six thousand carpenters recently qoit 
work InPesth, Hungary tor an increase 
of wages 

How to Join Mouldings; or, The Arts of 
Mitring and Coping. By Owen B. Muinnla. 
ISido, el. . 73 ftp ., ft 11., 1801. 11.00. A sUndtrd 
work on Mitring. Address, 

369 W. 12*th St., New York City. 




United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Monthly, on the Fiflftnth of cack 

131 K. Ninth RtfPbtl*., P>. 

P. 3. McOuikr, Editor mid 

kt (lie I'tmt-Offlee »t Philadelphia, P*,, 

SrB»cittPTiON I'kii k :— Flfly centi a yr»r, In 

AdrireM »ll letters ami money to 

P. J. McCK'lBK, 
Bo I 884, rlillulMphla, Pa, 


Bxttkr at any time the "Pure am! 
Simple" than the Impure and Complex. 

Trade: Unions cannot be cruahed by 
insidious enemies within or open foes 

Dkbx' incarceration is likely to prove 
more than a Dred Scott decision in the 
wage workers' struggles. 

Non-union carpenters, ex members, 
and all the ' chips" not with ue, tell us 
what are yon going to do? It you are 
against Da, say so- If not, then come to 
the front. 

Wukkk Carpenters' unions were 
Strongest the past two years, despite 
hard times, wages were upheld and work- 
men decently treated. Can the same he 
said of unorganized places? 

lead to better attended meetings, a live- 
lier interest in the organisation and be 
an attraction to new members. 

Times (Jetting Hrttcr nwl Better. 

The Carnegie Steel Company advanced 
wages ten per cent, at Homestead, Brad- 
dock, Puqiiesne, and at all its works, to 
go into effect June 1st. This allects 
15,000 employes in all the departments. 

The recent continued series of succes- 
sive victories of the garment workers— 
the strikes of the coat makers of Balti- 
more for better wages and shorter hours, 
and of the jacket makers uf Phila- 
delphia against the sweating system- 
are hopeful indications ot the revival of 
business. Over 82,000 employes in this 
industry in a half dozen cities, have 
gained advances this spring without 
much trouble. 

Coal miners' strikes in Western 1'enn- 
sylvania, Ohio, Virginia, the past month 
have been pushed to get some of the 
beneiltsof revived industrial life. 

Iron workers when thoroughly organ- 
ized, in 1892, in the Amalgamated Asso- 
ciation, got J5.50 to $15 per ton for pud- 
dling. Through disorganization the price 
tor paddling went down to $4 per ton and 
less. Now it is coming up strain and 
with it the Amalgamated is growing at a 
wondrous rate. 

Trade Unions are no creature of fancy, 
no capricious whim of the moment. 
They are built on the bed rock ot human 
experience and have come to stay— 
though they are "pure and simple." 

Fun k, Carnegie and their gang thought 
to wipe out the Amalgamated when there 
were less than 400 union men at Home- 
stead. Now there are fully 4,000 Amal- 
gamated members to-day in that bor- 
ough. Just ten to one 

The Work or Consolidation Uohig on In 
Many Localities. 

Local Unions Pushing Ahead. 

SINCE the advent of 
hard times, two years 
ago, many impressive 
lessons have been 
taught our Locals and 
members. The policy 
of economy in manage- 
ment and retrench- 
ment of expenses was 
forced on many of 
them. And with it has 
come the adoption of 
the plan ot consolida- 
tion in many localities, 
as was advised by our Oeneral Secretary 
in liia report to the U. B. Convention 
last September. 

Chicago is making qnite an innovation 
in this direction, and when completed, 
instead of thirty-two unions in that 
District, we will have them consolidated 
into about ten or twelve good strong 
unions at most. Indianapolis, and a 
number of cities, now see the advantage 
of the change, since they adopted it. 
They find it is a saving of expense for 
hall rent, officers' salaries, delegates to 
District Councils, etc, etc. It brings 
the members more closely together, and 
leads to a better understanding and far 
effective work and harmony of 
i in every way. Columbus, 
O., proposes next to try it, and it would 
pay to have the idea carried out by our 
Locals in Cleveland, O., Cincinnati, St. 
Louis, New Orleans, Milwaukee, Louis- 
ville, Omaha, New York and Brooklyn. 
It anyhow. Its adoption will 

Within the past few months the U. It. 
has shown a decidedly encouraging in- 
crease in membership in a number of 
localities. Fully :i5 per cent, of our 
unions have had gains, and it is due to 
the individual and collective activity of 
the members in those places backed by 
public meetings, or social gatherings, or 
by the liberal distribution of "appeals" 
and printed literature for non-union 
men, which we furnish free from tbiB 

In a number of cases it has been caused 
by placing a good, wide-awake man in 
the field as business agent or walking 
delegate to drum up the men, where 
the Locals could afford it. 

The localities which have shown a 
large growth are not the ones which have 
been clamoring for headquarters to ap- 
propriate a hundred dollars or some 
sum of money to help them organize. 
But the best work has been where the 
locals and members have "taken the 
bit in their own teeth," and pulled them 
selves through. 

We can not mention all the places 
where there have been new initia- 
tions. But we cannot forbear special 
mention of a number of cities which re- 
cently have had a wonderful growth in 
membership by working In some one of 
the lines above indicated, vtt,; Chicago; 
Cincinnati; Ban Francisco, San Jobc, 
Cal.; St. l„ouie ; Galveston, Ran Antonio, 
Corsicana, Tex.; Newark, Bridgeton, 
Montcleir, N. J. ; Rochester, N. Y. ; Hart- 
ford, Conn,; Lynn, Mass ; Providence, 
K. L; LewiBton, Me.; St. Catherines, 
Canada; Yonkers, Flushing, Long Is- 
land, Staten Island, Williamsport, N, ¥.: 
Lafayette, Indianapolis, South Bend, 
Evansville, Ind.; Springfield, 111.; Char- 
leston, 8. 0.; Atlanta, U».; Colorado 
Springs, Colo. 

The foregoing list is proof that the 
advancement of our U. B. is not con- 
fined to any section, nor are there any 
sectional or local reasons why each and 
every locality may not do as well as those 

Cities Overcrow ded w ith Carpenters. 

While business has quite generally a 
more encouraging outlook in all parte of 
the country, still there are a number of 
cities overcrowded with carpenters. This 
condition has been brought about by 

rt fake " atories o( real estate speculators 
and canards of interested cheap labor 
Bcheniers and fictitious newspaper booms. 
1 1 is best for traveling chips to not tom b 
such places or near them, as it wilt in- 
jure both the resident cnrpenterB and 
new-comers alike. Here are the places 
to be avoided for some t ime to come, vis., 
Chicago, St. Louis, New York, Brooklyn, 
the whole Pari Be Coast, Kansas City, 
Winnipeg, Lafayette, Ind., Kalinpell, 
Montana; Atlanta, (ia.; Pittsburgh, Pla.1 
Williamsport, I'a. ; Denver; New Or- 
leans ; Montreal; Topika, Kan. ; Mil- 
waukee, Wis ; I'eneacola, Fla. ; Zanes- 
ville, O.; Wilmington, Del.; San An- 
tonio, Tex. ; Ureen Bay, Wis ; New 
Haven, Conn.; Wheeling, W. Va. ; 
Cleveland, O. j Bangor, Pa. ; Taunton, 
Mass. ; 1-a Croeee, Wis, ; Seranton, I'a ; 
Charleston, S. C. ; Helena, Montana; 
Mum-ie, Ind., and Mt Keesport, P,t. 

The hours of labor for carpenter* 
Bhonld be reduced to eight hours per day 
in every village, hamlet, town and city 
to make room for the unemployed, 

Trade Schools ill the Building Line. 

ANY of onr members con- 
tend strongly against 
Trade Schools in the 
building line, whil 
<iuitea number of our 
members are favorable 
to their institution 
In New Yorkand 1'hila 
delphia Trade Schools 
have been established 
by the Master Builders' 
Exchanges ot those cities. 

The bret practical support of the idea 
was given by Col. Kit-hard T. Auchmuty 
of New York, more than a decade ago 
Mr, Auchmuty, since deceased, was then 
very wealthy and devoted considerable 
of his moneys to the first Trade School 
in New York and next in Philadelphia 
He was seised with the notion that the 
trade unions prevented and debarred 
American youths from learning trades 
Of course, he failed to recognize that the 
real cause rested in the disinclination ot 
American boys to be bound under in 
BtrnctionB as apprentices, and also lay 
in the desire of young boys growing np 
to shift about with a view to better pay, 
rather than drag along at low wages in 
the old routine and learn their trade thor 
oughly. Too many of such boys even 
when apprentices run away when barely 
half instructed ami palm themselves oil 
as journeymen. 

In Europe there is a much stricter 
system of apprenticeship, bo that the 
bulk of carpenters, masons, stone cutters 
and other mechanics when they come 
over here are quite thorough and 
competent in their respective branches. 
Mr. Auchmuty in observing this, saw 
such a large number of workmen of 
foreign birth at the building trades, and 
at the same time connected with trade 
unions, though they had learned their 
trades abroad, that he jumped to the 
conclusion that the trade unions were to 
blame for keeping American boy a from 
trades, and were monopoli-sing the work 
in the interest of foreigners. 

There is one fact which is true under 
the old system of apprenticeship, and 
that is the first year of a boy's appren- 
ticeship he practically learns nothing. 
His employer uses him principally as an 
errand boy and gives him little or no 
instruction. As a rule the lad is sent 
out on the work with the journeymen 
and is a mere drudge,. In the vast 
majority of cases he receives no instruc- 
tion, and at the end of the year does not 
know the firBt rudiments of his trade. 
In all probability he will have no knowl- 
edge whatever of even the handling of 
tools. Journeymen have no more tools 
than they need and cannot stay idle 
while a boy is handling them, even if 

they are disposed to allow him to touch 

It was to do away with this and tuRi V6 
the boy a technical and practical know), 
edge that Trade Schools and Manual 
Training Schools have been (bunded 
The usual course is a system uf nli p 
practice with toolB and materials, «up. 
plemented by scientilic instnn-tion 
drawing, etc. The Tee charged is merely 

The main object is to teach thoroughly 
how work should he done, leaving t ne 
ijuickncss required of a Hint Gifts rae . 
chanie to lie acquired after instniei u n 
has finished and actual work begun, 
The several trades are taught in a]] U lt! j r 
branches and the reasons why use 
method is right and another, which may 
neem to produce the same resuli, j, 
wrong, are carefully and thoroughly &*> 
plained by the teachers who me skilled 
mechanics. These teachers Beek to aacer. 
tain not only what the pupil knows, | )Ut 
also in what he is deficient. Boca a sys- 
tem of thorongb training could hardly 
be pursued in a workshop where each 
employe is necessarily engaged up-.u the 
work for which he is best fitted. Thin 
system also benefits the employer to t lie 
extent that such boys are of some prac- 
tical use tu him at once. Their ku.iwl 
edge ia fairly right and all that is lacking 
is the aler tness and proficiency in hand- 
ling tools which can only come with 

The young men in the carpentry clan 
are shown the use of the various tontg 
commonly used in the trade, great rare 
being taken that each is held and used m a 
workmanlike manner. After this ban 
been acquired, and boards can tw sawed 
to a line and neatly planed, mortising 
and tenoning are taught. Then panels 
are framed, moldings are put on, and 
later, doors and ah utters are made. 
Partitions are alto set, tloorB and parti- 
tions are bridged, and flooring laid. A 
small frame bouse is also framed, 
sheathed, ubingled, etc. The course of 
instruction gives each memlier of ihe 
class a varied amount of work. The 
scientific instruction includes the mean- 
ing of the terms used in carpentry, lay- 
ing out a building from a plan, the fram- 
ing of partitions and roof trusses, 
girders, etc. 

The tiadeB principally aflecfed by 
thtBe Trade Schools are carpentry, brick- 
laying, plastering, stone cutting, paint- 
ing, plumbing ami blacksmithing. 

In quite a number of cities this work 
of technical education is carried on by 
Manual Training Schools supported by 
private donations. Boys and girls are 
taught the elementary principles of 
Industrial application which thereby 

become* a valuable auxiliary to I k 

knowledge. By far too much ot the 
education of our public schools is com- 
mercial and quite enervating. 

We are thorough believers in the 
Kindergarten system of instruction lo 
start with for the littlest ones. Vtam 
that then let the pupil proceed to (lie 
Primary and the Oram mar Schools and 
top this out with technical education or 
Industrial training bo to qualify the 
hand as well as the head tor useful 

But this all should be under public 
control as part of oar Public School sys- 
tem and not lie left to private individuals. 
It is a matter of public concern, and be- 
fore many years will be iocorported in 
onr public system of education. The 
only contention against Trade Schools 
now is where they are misunderstood, or 
where they have been started prelum* 
ably to antagonize organized labor At 
best, a boy or young man coming from 
one of these schools cannot be expected 
to be a ripe, practical mechanic, until he 
goes out into the world and deal with 
work as It i 



General Officers 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office nf the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

R. Oweiii .Wextchea- 

Oo., N. Y. 

(Joneral Becretury TrutkMurer— P. J. Mdtn tin, 
»oi 8Ht, l'l.ll»il,>l,.t,m. Vm. 


First Vlee-Preeldcnl— Henry Oslo, 330 W. Var- 
mutitnt.. [tkdUiiitiHilIn, Itid, 

Becond Vlio PriwIileiit— Uiutu K. Toamsy, «01 
iAruuij nt., IWt. IMrnK. Ulch. 


(All rarrM|K>tid«nce for the <i B. H numt be 
mill If. 1 U> tliu < Irnrrn I HecreUwy .) 

W.J. HMelda, 10 ClimUIre si., Jmiml.* Plt&U, 

8. J. Kent, 2016 B, St., Lincoln, Neb. 

J. William*, 31 Si)rl., K st., Utli», N. Y. 

A. Cittermull, k>H B, H»liiU>*d at, C'liloijto, 111. 

Joe. C, (Jcrnet, 1SI Foot Ave., Belle vue, Ky. 

May May— Vast and Present. 

E shall not enlarge on 
May Day aa an an- 
cient popular festival. 
That would require 
quite an extended 
story of the basic 
Idea of which that holiday was the 
Visible expression. 

The founders of the Roman muni- 
cipality observe! May Day, when they 
made ollerings of the May flower to 
Maia, the mother of Mercury, one of the 
deities of industry. Hut what ttiat 
ancient festival meant to them and to 
the white-robed vestals and llamens, 
who, during the joyous but solemn offer- 
ing sang the I 'Hemm Memorimn, ia known 
by few, and appreciated by still fewer 
people, in this so-called materialistic, 
but really mammon -worship ping age. 
The celebration of May Day has ex. 
tended wherever necessity or ambition 
led the conquering legions of Home, 
and has been engrafted on the practical 
life of the people of such countries. 

During the Middle Ages in the early 
dawn of each recurring May-morn the 
younger men of city and village could 
be seen returning with the loftiest May- 
pole the neighboring forest could yield. 
Willi shouts of triumph and libations of 
Wine or mead the mighty ah;ift was 
raised and decorated with garlands of 
the mystical May (lower, and pendant 
ropes were entwined with primrose and 
violet, with blue-bell and cowslip, and 
all the wild llowera of epring. Then 
through the long spring day, the ladsand 
lasses, with the flowery ropes in hand, 
threat) ed the mazes of the May-dance, 
weaving and unweaving every intricate 
figure that mirth and ingenuity could 
devise; while the older folk directed 
the games of Strength and skill, or pre- 
sided at the festive board and swelled 
the strains of the joyous song. Amid 
the festivities one of the lasBes would be 
chosen May Queen, or Mav Lady, and 
crowned with a garland of flowers- This 
custom is still maintained in a few ot 
the country villages of Hug land. 

The time came, however, when the 
light-hearted mirth that generally greeted 
the May-morn was mingled with a graver 
feeling, and "Evil May Day" is the 
ominous name we meet with in the 
period when wasting war and a debased 
currency were producing their inevitable 
ellects in reducing the purchasing power 
of wages. " Is the time coming when 
there shall be no more cakes and ale on 

May for thoBe who toil the live- 
long year V g Such was the question 
asked by the journeymen of London, 
who, being blind to the real cause of 
their growing poverty, and attributing 
it to excessive importations of manu- 
factures, raised the well-known call to 
arms of "Clubs! Clubs! 'Prentices! 
Clubs!" during the May Day revels of 
tfiUS, and then rushing to the bouses of 
the foreign merchants levelled them to 
the ground. 

From that lime, now for political rea- 
sons and then through puritanic preju- 
dice, the celebrations were frequently 
forbidden. Resulting partly from State 
confiscation of the monastic and the 
trade union funds devoted to the relief 
of the poor; resulting also from the 
vicious State syBtem of poor relief, which 
lirst created and then perpetuated pau- 
perism, " Merrie England " was changed 
into a land haunted by anxiety, and May 
Day ceased to be a general holiday. 
Since that time, or for the past two cen- 
turies, except here and there in a tew 
rustic villages, the public celebration of 
May Day baa been maintained almost 
exclusively by the fraternity of chimney 
Bweepers. During all these years we 
have been indebted to voluntary bands 
of these useful workers— each with its 
lord and lady of May, and each with its 
Jack O" the Green dancing and career- 
ing through busy streets— for our only 
reminder of the ancient and once uni- 
versal festival of May. 

The effort to revive the proper cele- 
bration of May Day, by giving it a 
modern and practical significance had its 
origin in this country, in the United 
States. That effort was due to the ini- 
tiative taken by the American Federa 
tion of 1-abor, and dates from its fourth 
annual convention held in Chicago, 
i ictober, 1884. That convention decided 
that the celebration should commence 
with the practical inauguration of the 
eight-hour work day. It further decided 
that the inauguration should be made 
on May Day-the first of May, 1880. On 
the day thus fixed several unions through 
out the country easily succeeded in ob- 
taining the desired concessions. In other 
cases, however, a series of strikes had 
to be resorted to in order to enforce the 

As in every great strike, considerable 
excitement resulted, and on this occa- 
sion the excitement was intensified by 
the red-mouthings of would be-revolu- 
tionists. Yet violence was only com- 
mitted in one city. It ia hardly neces- 
sary to say that the violence was com- 
mitted on, and not by, the workmen. 
This occurred in Chicago, where crimi- 
nally corrupt police officials took ad- 
vantage of the public alarm, cauBed by 
rabid red ravings, to break up meeting 
after meeting of peaceable workingmen 
and trade unionists, and to exercise 
brutal ferocity by clubbing, shooting and 
killing unarmed workingmen. The 
sequel is well known- The revolutionary 
rant. The brutal clubbing of orderly 
and wdl-dispcsed workingmen. The 
deadly bomb, thrown by an unknown 
hand. -And, last Bcene of all, four dang- 
ling corpses on the gallows in the jail- 

The prejudice created in the public 
mind by the events referred to bad its 
ellect in checking, for years, the progress 
of the eight-hour movement. Two years 
afterward, however, the solid growth of 
the American Federation ot Labor en- 
couraged that body to resume its grand 
task with greater energy than before. 
Thus, the eighth annual convention 
assembled in St. Louis, December, 1KB8, 
resolved to call mass meetings through- 
out the country on Washington's Birth- 
day, Independence Day and Labor Day 
of 1889, and on Washington's Birthday 
of 1890, with a view to the 

ment of the effort for the more general 
observance of the eight-hour woikday 
on May Day, 1H!>0. In obedience to 
that resolution, a total of 1,497 mass 
meetings in advocacy of the object speci- 
fied were held, on some or on all of the 
dates stated, in upward of BOO cities and 
towns of the United Statefl and the Do- 
minion of Canada. 

At the succeeding convention held in 
Boston, December, 1889, it was further 
decided to concentrate the strength of 
the Federation on the support of some 
one trade in its effort to Becure victory 
on May I. The United Brotherhood ot 
CarpenterB and Joiners of America was 
the union thus honored by the confi- 
dence of the struggling workers of this 
Continent. The result obtained reflects 
the highest credit on ail engaged, since 
the Brotherhood Bcored a series of suc- 
cesses in no less than 137 cities, in some 
eight hours a day was gained an d i n man y 
nine honrs a day. This was to the direct 
benefit of more than 4Q,(KXi carpenters, 
and the increased prestige of the whole 
trade union movement. 

The adoption of the recent May Day 
celebrations in Europe followed trom 
thiB new impulse of the trade union 
movement, and it came abont in this 
way : 

In response to an official invitation, 
the President of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor forwarded a letter by 
special messenger to the Internationa) 
Workingmen's Congress which met in 
Paris, July 14, 1S89. That letter in- 
formed the delegates assembled of the 
etTortB being made to establish May Day 
on a practical industrial basis in Amer- 
ica. From the very first, it was clearly 
evident that the delegates, under the 
in lluence of opposing political influences, 
were divided into two bitterly hostile 
camps. On the one side, the State "So- 
cialists ;" on the other side, the " Posai- 
bilists." These warring factions, despite 
repeated efforts on the part of delegates 
unbiased by the prejudices of German or 
of French politics, continued their meet- 
ings apart and in separate balls during 
the entire week. In the congress of the 
State Socialist faction, a proposal to bind 
each country to a practical effort to se 
cure the eight-hour workday was strongly 
opposed by 1 1 err Liebknecht, the leader 
of the German Socialist Party, on the 
ground that the labor organizations were 
not strong enough to achieve success. 
Eventually, a resolution was adopted in 
that same Congress that an eight-hour 
"demonstration" should be held each 
May Day, which should be organised in 
each country as the leaders of the "So- 
cialist Party " in that country might 

out of this action of the Paris Labor 
Congreis of 1880, in reply to the solici- 
tation of the American Federation of 
Labor for co-operation of the European 
labor movement in the enforcement of 
the Eight-hour day, has grown the re- 
cent May Day celebrations in Europe, 
but they have developed more and more 
into political demonstrations, where the 
subject of the Eight-hoar day has been 
made decidedly secondary. 

What May Day may be made in the 
United Htutea may be gathered from the 
success which has attended the eight- 
hour day in the Australian colony of 
Victoria. There, in the city of Mel- 
bourne, in IS50, the masons, bricklayers, 
carpenters, plasterers, painters, plumb- 
ers, slaters, builders' laborers and coach 
bnilderB gained this concession. Their 
first next step was to organize the Amal- 
gamated Trades Association, with the 
understanding that euch trade was to be 
admitted to membership therein as it 
acquired the eight hours. The next step 
was to establish an Eight-Hour Com- 
memoration Day, a prominent feature 
of which was a parade in which none 

but eight-hour unions were to participate- 
The anniversary of the first day worked 
under the eight-hour By stem, April 26, 
was choBen as the day of the parade, and 
this day has now grown to be the 
National Festival of the colony. 

The first and greatest struggle in de- 
fence of the eight-hour day occurred in 
1859. At this period the decline of pro- 
duction in the gold fields had caused a 
great surplus of labor. Many employers, 
and notably the State railroad contrac- 
tors, took advantage of the general de- 
pression to force a reduction of wages and 
a return to the ten-hour work day. The 
workmen declared their resolve in one 
picturesque sentence characteristic of the 
Colonial spirit: "We have nailed our 
eight-hour colors to the mast, and if 
they are shot away, we will fight for the 
holes left by the shot 1" The contest 
which followed was one of the severest 
in the annals of labor ; but, after a heroic 
struggle ot eight months duration, vic- 
tory perched on the eight-hour banner, 
and the engineers, iron molders and 
boiler makers were recruited to the eight- 
hour ranks. 

At the close of the second period of 
the movement, which we may place in 
1883, twenty unions, including the sailors, 
had joined the Eight-hour procession, 
and the possibilities ot the movement 
under the active propaganda of a new 
generation were clearly revealed. 

The opening of the third period was 
signalized by the accession of the bakers. 
This generally unfortunate trade, which 
had been working fifteen hours a day 
for twenty-five to thirty-five shillings a 
week, reduced the honrs to ten per day, 
and were astounded to see that their 
•minimum wage, without any effort on 
their part, soon rose to forty shillings ; 
encouraged by this Btriking fact, in a 
few months they resolved to join the 
procession, and then their wages rose to 
fifty shillings, at which figure they have 
steadily remained. 

The ripening of the opinion that the 
eight. hour work day is a boon which 
should he secured independent of all 
other considerations may be traced 
through the whole of this period until the 
the present time, when more than fifty 
distinct trades march under the tattered 
banner of 185«, accompanied by the sur- 
viving veterans who fought the good 
fight forty years ago. The Amalgamated 
Trades Association has demonstrated the 
immense strength which lies in labor 
compactly united. This body has now a 
Bplendid and spacious edifice built with 
their own bands on a sight presented to 
eight-hour labor by the Victoria govern- 
ment. Here is centered the grand influ- 
ence which assists in the formation of 
new unions ; which assists those unions 
to obtain eight hours ; which vigor- 
ously resists every attempted encroach- 
ment on the eight-hour day, and which 
has united the whole English -speaking 
people of that hemisphere in one grand 
Federation based on the practical and 
beneficent principle of Eight Hours. 
It is now in order to secure the American 
May Day, as originally intended by the 
American Federation of Labor. Let ua 
strive each successive year to establish 
the eight-hour day in city after city, in 
one occupation after another, until May 
Day becomes the festal day of Eight 
Honrs univsraally the rule all over onr 
broau land— the May day of Industrial 
rejoicing, garlanded with the flowers of 
trade union achievements and trade 
union devotion. 

To- dat In the northwestern cities, 
under-paid children of both sexes glaze 
sash, mold doors, run machines, and do 
the work that fairly well-paid adult 
labor performed a few years since. 



A Train)*. 

A ragged garb mill hunger* "tump 

Doth nai rw al Ibe klud of heart 
That belli* n iiiiln yon homeless trampr 
N«r tell the thought* that through bin dart. 

i*erh»p* wbftn hunger** pang* are kn a 

And t lit- blinding sleet bent- im hi- bend, 
llr think* uf the happy day* tn 'il MM 
With dither, tiinilu r- Iiihk -ifii i dc*.'. 

Thiii fiirm begrimed whs. too, raraated 
Hy toeing friend* lu boyhood - time 

Ere the world MWfttW* Oil him p« -"''.I 

And dragged klui down ti> r*B* and *iiiiu-. 

Htu pr II Ol it' llim ye « iirlilhliK- pinllil 

V< too are "iniri i- in In* sUauie 

A>cl >••■ viiiii, -ellUh. grit-pine crowd 

k..i hit downfall aw nio»< to blainc- 
Sordid capital demon < . r. i • I , 

I ii yonder * rump > out Work** T ' ' ea|e4 
Voiir blighting CUM in him behold 
Hu. I \ il l i in In Hit) BOW cr > a wield. 

HOMethlug X i>il ten in tin uiiild. 

Or tlir poor are stricken dowli, 
Kite, why *|icnt a* they're hurled 
Kiirllu r in a cave uf gloom. 

Hi i it I ii in, at* yout lunging- real 
<l. wouul ymi win I'll- loir***' light ' 

Then Item-ken In in> heart * appeal 
Km -Haggling Minn niii/r, unit*. 

VntUI hen! imi f*l*i wnrdeat blow*. 

r.vim: oiu ceu«* i- true and |b*J. 
cm i i:* mi nil the toller's r«» 

An- cuinpicrcd. linni|ileil in ■ lit du-l 

T. ('. \V*i.fii 

t. U /,;, Ml* Par*. 

0ur 31lnil-r.no. 

([.mat* <Di'l wmbert an trt/utrtetl to *tnd 
(tfff to ten Ihu itupu 0/ truth Mtwi l»r tin* 
ilepartment, Wtih platnly in ink <tn QM tide 

uf the 1'ttJHT unlit ) 

Union 4Q<>, I ludson, MaaB., in growing 
in Rood shape. 

MihWAt KKK, Wis. — Wages and work 
are low and lUt— never ao bal iu years. 

Spring Kin.)), Mo.— Trade at zero, A 
good many members have gone tofirai- 
iuK sooner than starve. 

RiH'MicoitK, N. Y. — We are trying to 
hnild Mp> our I .-teals lhi« awianti, Bro. '•' 
J. McFurlio is our huiine** agent. 

KasaAB City, Mo.— I'rospeetB fair, 
boomers advertising fur men to reduce 
waged Lota of idle carpenters loaliog 
the streets. 

DutiixiUB, Iowa.— Keep away from this 
city ; over half the carpenters idle and 
we may possibly have trouble with the 
eon tractors this summer. 

In buying ready ma le clothing be Bare 
yuu liave the label uf the (iartnent 
Workers' Union in the Baiue. Ho to not 
get sweat ahop made clolliea. 

Ui-un the close of the Rebellion the 
volume ut our national muney (gold, 
a liver and paper combined} amounted to 
|55 par capita. It ia now lees than |S3, 

Sr- I'avl, Minn.— Union 87 1b hard at 
work bttiUliog up. Old membera arc 
foining back, also eonie new men whom 
we never could get bdojre, even iu our 
palmii'Bt daya. 

Los Anhklkh, Cal.— Union Iff has 
gro#u itntneusely in metnberahip. We 
have knucked out all the nine-hour jobs 
and made the eigbt-huiir day solid. 
Trade slow and city overrun with idle 

Tua Theatrical Actors are organizing 
under the A. F. of h. Unions of Acton 
are now in operation in Boston, New York 
and Chicago, and a National Union of 
tic profession is in process of forma- 

Jackson v i llh, Kb. carpenters have 
instituted the card ay stem and non- 
union men are rushing into the organiza- 
tion throngh it I) protect themselves 
against the usual Intlua of tramp car- 
penters this time of the year. 

Thk National Unions of tiranite 
Cuttera, Iron MonMers, Custom Tailors 
and tin Brjthsrbood of raiiitere; have 
lu'en disntaaiog the advisability of dis- 
pet sing with i on ventions ami substitut- 
ing Die syBtem of the initiative and 
referendum la the framing of tln-ir 
lawn and t he election of general oili 'era. 

(Ji vftcow, Scotland. — Win. Mclntyre, 
Ueneml Secretary of the Associated Car- 
penters and Joiners, writes ue' "I lind 
many interesting articles in Tiik CampBR* 
i kh and I hope it m«y go on and prosper 
along with your large society." 

Fairmoi nt, \V. Ya.— Twenty men 
here for one job, and more coming to 
realise they are out a few dollar* by the 
trip anil still no show of work. A day 'a 
work here is like a grain of corn 
thrown among a broo.l of humrry chick- 
ens— it don't go tar or last long. 

Tub Hot'^B earpente's of New York 
City had a onion in ISOC, and the lirst 
CarpiniterB' Union nt Boston « as founded 
in 1M2. One wa=) organizfd la !'ln)«del- 
piiia in thouuh the ol-leat t^arpen 

tera Company of the Quaker City— an 
American tifTshoot of (he London (hiitd 
— was foil nd eii in I Til;,. 

Waosh of carpenters in ManidiPBter, 
i;ngland, have bten advanced this Ken- 
son from pence to 8 pence per hour, to 
gJ into eflec: this Jane 1st. In Black- 
burn wages have gone up from 8 pence 
tofU pence per hour. Trade concessions 
have alsj been gained last numth in 
England in Burnley, Yarmouth, and 
(irangemonlh, also in Ireland in Bangor 
and Fcrmoy. 

Thkhk iBsome talk of a'tenipting to re- 
organize the carpenters of Minneapolis, 
Minn , wo siys tlm liaibj Iribitn* of that 
city, anil then it adile : " MinneapoltH 
enjoys the doubtful honor of being the 
p lores t carpenter t jwn in this country " 
Still at one time ii was well organized, 
but in the eight-hour strike ot iHWithe 
men went into contracting on a co-opera- 
tive baai*. broke up the onion, and are 
now oo»n to low hard-pan, at low wages. 

Columbia, U— \'ery little work. The 
trade has changed considerably the past 
three years, ao there is little for carpen- 
ters to do on the large buildings until 
they are ready for finish. And then 
there ia less than used to be. The doors 
and base are made of cement and the 
windows are plastered around close to 
the Irames. The trails will suller still 
more as long as we have men who call 
ihetneelvts ''carpenters " and willing to 
work for laborers' wages. 

The Taulle (Jo.N Whettdmie* 
in Prftt* 

Fur nt-iirly h»lf » yeiir Ink G»an#T*l has 
l.ern Mdverllniii K H Solid Kuiery Whet -Unit ni«,le 
hy Tne Taiilte Company, of SiroiiiUhurK, Ha 
TlilnarilekiwherL-vrr uaad baa be«H |irom>oin«d 

a pr»«tlcal MwatM Ktvertbstoaa, tb« trade. r» 
■MtmaMMlli fbf HosiMMBtof t4vstttatag win 

■ .i.i-e <haler» l.i Ihiv UOjaM Uta liidivKliial 
uarr innken a OSSUOdi If Hie IndlvldlUk] 
nwt h.ix not MS> II rtSWSIIll In thin mm 

m ihink H mtm !»• aitlwi on ami r 

prlee or oil are»„.,i ,,{ ,,|,| t ,, r< v[rMrtl 

nt a lime win ,, tl,n |i„ t M ,,lld Kmery W' H i i*li,iie» 
were Introduced many yeara a K o. Thene what. 
KKilimdld not m.€l with favi.r, but that la no 
raaNMi why thiiKi- oflii*r make Ibould 1« eon- 
tlrmued FMIowlaw ibe a< tieral dedine of 
l>rhei,TlieT»iilte<:iim|H»ny Iihx MutiiUy deior- 
niineil ti.re.liKeihe price of Ihew w liel«i„„ea, 
in tlie hope tlml al (tn-atly n il need ixwt 11)4 car- 
periler and jointr will lakS IbeartlliHal product 
rather than the nalnial «t,/ne.. TtlCae arUttltai 
al.,,,,.. were, until rei*ntly . .old In the dealer at 
W W |*r rJosta {lean, of , „,„„„ „ ij(,eral din- 
•Mat>, but lid, price ha* lately b*M altc.ed U> 
Yi Vi. Thin rednetfon hrln K n ||,e price of Die 
artlil. iHl atom; within tin mean* „f aily w „ rk . 

■ n mi - in fact, II maken It an low that every work- 
.uaiM.nHllor.lt-.irythee.perltn.c even If he 
■IWKlwMNUi rbiapurabaaa • ha,) Inv.al.nenl 

likely to be the eaae. | 

Staiidlus llecisioiis of li, F. II. 

Jan. 2.-A niember who travel the limle l( 
enler another rMcunalbtH B*cd nol withdraw 
AroOt Ibe U. B, He can -llll remain a Otrmlx 
and In benefit except It (age* i" the «•!< II 

biUwIaatiuR drink* 

April 2i - A Union lap-cd ur Hii«penilcd, If re 

er|tanlse4 or rvinalaled. fhall not i»- In beuetl' 
until fin iiiuntliM after data of reinaUtrMtvnt. 


Feb 19 - We favor Ibe llccn-lng of archill . t- 

Kcb iu.- in giving Km' ii of money to alu 

other trade- In taaea of -ti 'ken or Inide trtMlbleK 
It la KilvtaaMe la Steielas care and not iiniki 
doniitlon iinles*! coitdilhni of local fiinda pel 
Mttaand then make It ill the form of a donation 

ami jicoid any aaae a ant^til t an eaat sanieiit lex i* ^ 

for Stteb a purpiiae -hall be purely voluntary h- 

paynent hy the member*, 
j-'cti is, -A member In the aula- room on imal 

SSM Hiithoii/ed by the Ulllon mmd lie inn 
rddi ri d a« pie-ent al the im eliiia*. and t- ellgihii 

to nominal ton for offtee, 

lice. W - t'niiila of Local Union! eannol b< 

used tor pollUeal party purpose*. 


Fell is — I'litnim not boldins mectlnsjaat leoal 

oik e ii IMOntb forfi It their charh r ami an not in 
bei il'd. 

Feb 23 - Carpenter* joining the navy eannni 
be initltb'tl to briit'lll. on the ground of uiiiimiiil 
i i-k. 

Feb M -A Union cannot admit In ur t< tain ti. 
incuihcr*hip an> one who, liim-elf hi any nt lu- 
ll Itsehoiti, la enlaced orcni^aKex In the hhIo nt 
inloi it nti n>r drink-. 

March I I'ei pout ruptured and alll n-ti tl with 
chronic i heiimiit inm t an only be aUttllited a- 
aeiul belli lii ial Im uibi rM. 

June M — The occupation of a paid cltj Bre 

man ii Im/arilou*. and a incuihi r no ensaiCed 
nap not be alluwetl bein nt- 

June 2J. - In uitiveiiieiitH lor waici-i and boUTS 
a-lieie uiernber- ale work ing at iw.nihoirk, mil 
pide of baaMM ' arpenti r unrk, llie\' ran be 

exempt from trade rules. 

July 30— A member Inking direr! eottrait 
from owner, when Ibe latter fun lahoa Uiaterialt 
ami the member pontmeliii|| blret anion men 
and payt union wage* by Ibe day. i- n..l piece 
work; but if the owner la an cmployO* .on 
tractor, it It piece work 

Aug 3.— Wherever a union man he 
xhoiild live up In the union rule- Dl the illy In- 
wo-ki In. 

Nepl. 17.-<irailiiur wairi a i- rJeSBOMltSinSi t« 
union prtnclplea and to the welUre of the trade 

and no Local Union should adopt the nyatem of 

K'uding isatei 

Oi t. M - Claim* r.ir ittMMIity baneill mutt 

date fnuii time or ai ei<b i.t 

i'i < n n\l payments i f dins mad* in a U B 
in Itttental between meetlnat afier Union ba* 

adfournedi mual be rTcdited under dale f.f ne»t 

■eettag of the Utrios. 


March 10 — A I-twal I'nlon can Hi a Hue ax 
penalty for mni-alteiiilaiit a of mcmbern al a 
monthly iriectiuK. 

July 1 1,- No meiiiher of any I.ni nl Ciifon cnit 
" feab '' f t on any other liade by gol ng to work 
at micli trade when it In on atrlke. 

Nov. 2t. — Iluca are chargeable on llr-1 o| 
month, Imi a member doen nut fall In aircar* 
u li II I end of the month. 


Jan, S.- A an ton contractor muM alwa.VK hire 
union sar p e a tett Whet* available and where 
not available he xlinuld hav. : the nou union 
men be litre* to join the I'nlon 

Match II, In death or duMbtllty tlalui-, the 

card ufa member Hu*t in- retained hytheOi H T. 

a- evidence. 

June i — Kaeh booal I'niMU it t«*p»netbla for 

llie t areleaaneat) or ueallKence of It* own local 

June y.t htemhefs tmefttnsj SAdet union rule* 

duituf astftfce must pay a ntrlke a*Mnam«nt If 

An* SI - A member re*l K nlnK aevera all con- 
nection with the II 11 and i an only rejoin a* a 
new memoi r. 

Hep 7- A meat bar uwOik h mim a^naf to ihrca 
UMMtths' duet eannol pay )«trt or hi* aneara and 
he In benellt. He inunt pay all ha thu 
I i, Ion and wait three uionth* after lliat to he 
iu benefit. 

Nov. 2. - A fine ran lie Itnpoaed by r Local 
Colon on a member for nol parading uti Labor 


Jan. IS - A Union eannol expel a member for 
owoiK a tine; It can only inapt- nd hlio when 
with the fine bin lude bled new* equate the mm of 
dues calling fur nuepcnaloii. 

Jan. 20.--A tine cannot be remitted except on 
the Name night It la itnpoaed. 

Oct. 4. — All Local I' ii ion* ar« hereby ordered 
not to clreulala any appeal or circular aaklus 
lltianola) aid or calling on the Local* In any 
form to pnrcbaae UeVet*, Uaieet hy the approval 
of the (I. E. »., atteeted by the ti. N T. 

Nov. IS.— A walking delegate njay hudeputlzad 
hy a Local or I). 0., to oellact due.., eta. 


A|)rll 17 It I* not advi-ahle to..,t. ,„i,. 

lurtadiet f » lhtiriti Uoandl over * i 

extent ol territory, bui to cenflneil to uaeelu* 

ore eoliiily. ' 
July IS - All benelllt are forfeit ,) i. 

peuded Union, the tame aa a tuepemlid 
tier, a tuapended i nioii eannol ha 

'Hied k 

any beiielll- other than llin-c pre*tii|„,| j 0f 
new I'nion. * 

oenl i'. Ion* ate at liberty inesijg 


July 17 

a fee fur a working card lo ttavi I 
ber- on u cb ar.no c *iiid fee mil t 


Noil tr-ideiil uieinberi can he 

"Hit i 


more than S. on per .pniiUi f ( „ ,,„ k)| ,, 


''I! Uif|„ 
" " d lb, 

tum of l»: I f,.r the lii-l working curd „, ,| 
turn llicrcaftiT a- may be charged 
reeldenl meiuhi r. 


■ 1,1 18 A Local fu ion i n run ti ng a . iwntsai 
raid .bull not accept inure than out ;..i,i u> 
due* in advance, and tht'Uld inure tlou, I >. |„, r 
been paid by the me tuber, hl-t *iirp. 
thould be rcfundi d bun by the I'nlon. 


Jim II- A Loral Uniofi tnniint ai'n.u a I*,, 

under IK > ear- 
April I —A meuila-r ran join a Whip J.,i„ ( „ 

Untuu, and ut lhe*ame time remain a m\ mi rt 

oT our C. II. 

April 2 - A delegate to a QOnrentlotl ,f t|„ 

C, It. ntual bold eredenthtta from the I ■ 

Wbleh lo- I* a member but *cveral I..-. . . ^ 
i luti together or «o can I'nlon* In „ |, , w j 
elei'ta delegate; hut be mutt hold ii, 

I from the I'm 4 a Iiii h he la a no ruber 

Ort 6 Nil ire- are -enl out rcK'ilaih lij i|, t 

I n. m-T luali liovtdatwti tuoHtfaaluarreei. ti, 

• J. s r. oaannl be held reauonelbte fur it m 

delivery, eapeeiail) abere I'lnam iul Mi. ntaihl 
are netcllgent In a i\ i-iug the rieneral nit . „i 
c liai ge of add re-* 1 1 I- the dnt > of mentl* t. af 
Local* to tee that lat of their I,. C. i* pTompU) 
paid, and retelpl* flit -nine read at tin nil ■ lli.g 


Ian 11 -The (i K It d it e>|" -i.tU 

iin.tirin em unwrittati ia« beretofote lii t . tea 

IheU H and dn r. i that all lien, tal •> . . 
theC B "hall I* .-ti nipt » bill In olio . . u, t 
loiol diille* in the Lin al* lu which lb. \ . M|| 
April IV All Ciilon* or di-tin I- tend I dilt 
gallon" to nnpear la-fore the li i'. H mud 
notify the II. nVT ten day* prior to mtillitg of 

a. k. h. 

April I'j - A member can remain a etii tiaetei 
or ciitrr into itie i uaii.i** of contracting pre 

vidi d be pay* the *i ule uf wage* ida i- tlardk* 
rule* ai d birr* none but Cnion men and rwej 
pilea with the < 'un*llliillon , and dm - not 4t 
In inp. u ork , piece- work or tutetXMjttai 1 r . 

earpenti ■ eontractor, ami further pn»v| . i [ ... 
ha i* nut. nor doe* not become, a me to I* • ' ,r i 
contracture' or employer* 1 union Any i hi tine 
of Ihi* . ule in be puntahed by Due iin.] i.-tun 
Oct *> -KelalUelo granting di-p. • 

Ltnai Colon- liioi member* during tio i 

• rial*, by virtue of pout , verted in <i I 1 ai.J 
li H-T ,by vole of Local* on cl rru lar dated I ■■ ■ tl 
1**9, ami again given by hi I^ilu* Otnvi tttM 
i*ee page 31 of printed pria-eaiilng- - - . i* 

instruct tone and fn 

IfaeC H-T In dial 
Oct S -The Itna 
ran hold a i barter 

I] jaiwer an- beret 
i.g with cut raonii 
d deride I hat *eve 
>r coo*ti1utr a tpio 

. it t« 



Ctrl 7— Iu iharKing 12 B0 to tract In ^ i... m- 

for lirnl working card. 0, K 11 >uU 

ad viae during the preaenl *bignatiun in il.. ' .lin- 
ing trade, that Cnion* throughout tin- r R. 
i- lion Id be a* Indulgent aa poaalble with lr*ftl- 

Olg NH ||,|..l. 


Jan. 9 — O. N T. In*lmcted lo (end fur I kaof 

Local Cnion for eiain I nation In raar of tdouU> 
ful claim for benefit. 

April 7. -All dues received In the betel's* be- 
tween meeting* linitl la? credited aa ret r i» . d it 
thn next *iili*cipient meeting flee 16S n e*i-> 
that the actual date of the meeting al Willi i IB* 
din * are received or credited as above til* sp 1 
pear on the member * rerd end book- H ' 


April 9- In all strike* or lot knot* null I'"" 
men employed when such atrlke or batieSt 
lakes place are etilltled to strike pa) undi < 0* 

July I» — When a Cohni Is three Siealbt 10 
arrears It la nol allowed seven days gran i.> furs 

running met «f benefii The seven .i*>- treat 

■pncllled I u Hee ft, Is given lo*a\e a on f""» 

tuapeeeioa entirely, and from forfeit • ol 

July 29.— A member working as motor irntu or 
conductor on an electric car can retain hi- "icm- 
hurshlp In his Local, but should he meet * Ilk »" 
accident and beeouie dlaalded, or die frcui Ik* 
effects. 1,1s heirs would not Ue entitled '■"»" 


Jan. 10.— The rion payment of an execs*' 1 1 "°* 
should not act as a bar to the rlghl of app« »h 

Jan. 10 -Where a member from an entSatl 
district guiHi Into a large city to lake mh " "I' 
of belli r condition* he should he willing t" 
■nine of the louden* lairne by the gieSrlbarSSl 
the U. » In thai city, and Im willing to take lb* 
rlak of being celled out on atrlke withuul I*'' 
Tbl* decialou doea not apply tuslrlkcasupporkai 
UnaoulaJly by Uia O. K. B. 




■ Ui I, 



liai r 


r.l tw 
if It 


k li 

k- of 

.1 ' 

.< ni' 

rill ■ 

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I o( 

id or 
« in- 

h all 

1,1 »F 

i If 

irnft problems. 

( 7 hit DrjMtrtmmt it for crilicitm and 
IKtrrexpontlrnce from our reader* on mrrhirti- 
On/ mdijeeit in Varjienlry, and idm* m to 
W\f( organiz<dion. 

Write on one tide of tlte jtajier only. Alt 
wrlir.lnt nhoulit he tigned ■ 

Midler far Ihit Department mwd he in tfiit 
efiir* by the tfith of iht mmdh.) 

Awraiti The I Ha meter of n Circle. 

Nltw York, May 14, 1895. 
TO TIT H 1)1 tor of Tbk Caiu'Kntrm: 

Deir Sir. — In March nnmbef of Tiik 
Oakikntkh the solution to problem num- 
ber 4 was how to tint] the cirrumfer 
or stretch out of a circle instead ol 
imeter; it in exactly the fume an the 
tr -ami I Bent id .lanuary latH except 
one figure in thii, the nfo part in 
pl*ce n l 6i P ar t- 

Brother MeGinnie must have miennder 
stood the question I asked. I will give 
A rule and an example, if the chord and 
heit'lit being given. To find the diameter 
E D divide the Bijtiare of half the chord by 
the height, add the height to the product 
will (five the diameter of circle. 

Example if the chord A B be 3k feet 
ftod height « Teet what ia the dianie:er 
D E of the circle ■ 811 2 IH 1 ^ 32-1 
6 M 54 li 00 diameter J 30 
nriina or circle. Rule by Brother 
White, Union 4.13 to lind radius to the 
■quart; of height divide by twice of 



ii>lh rules give the Banie 




M radiua 

P. 8.— With kind respects to "Inter 
cited Header" I would nay that I am not 
the) least discouraged. I do not claim to be 
an expert or a seeker after knowledge. 1 
inserted the diagram that it might he a 
benefit to some, apprentice as none of 
the others give the beginner the desired 
knowledge, I remain 

Yours respectfully, 

Pint o 

A Ship Carpenter'* rroblcm. 

The following problem was published 
in our May number. 
A wrecked ship carpenter found in 


ie bottom of the only boat saved, 
~le which measured 8 x 18 

On investigation he f< nnd ihe only 
hoard he had to fill it was one 12 x 12 
incheB- How did he cut this piece so as 
to fill up the hole and make the boat 
feaworthy V 

A Ktkadv Kkaijkr. 
Solition of Kmc Caiickntkrh' Pkohi.km. 

How to Construct Two Oval Klower 
Stand* front n Circular Table. 

UOS F. K. Wilton, 
Union 72, Koch- 
ester, N. Y., E. 
A. (ieisler Union 
i»2, Cliii-ago, 111., 
SaTil Thornhill, 
Union ^nh, Do- 
ver, N. J., and 
Bro. A. Z. Whit- 
ney, Horchester, Neb., sent ub Bolutions 
of the above problem, as piblished in 

last month's Uar ckntik. Bro. Whitney *• 
letter was the first received , and us the 
statement of the problem and its aolu- 
tion bb submitted by the other three are 
almost identical with that of Bro. Whit- 
ney we trust the other members will not 

feel aggrieved that we publish Bro. Whit* 
ney'e solution alone. We hope the cob 
uinnaof Tub Cabi>k«tsb will soon receive 
another contribution from them aod 

As in Fig. 1, describe or make a circle 
as shown, and through the centre draw 
two diameters, on a mitre or angle of 4!)". 
Divide 1 into 4 equal dimensions and 
strike the smaller circle- Now saw 
through the circles on the diameter lines 
and the result will give 2 Beta of sweeps 
or piecea. It these be jointed and glued 
together in the manner denoted by the 
nnmbere in both figures, two oval flower 
or bric-a brae stands will be obtained. 
The above problem applies also to an old 
circular table. 

Mechanical nuggcttions , ortipt of informa- 
tion are of value and we look forward to re- 
ceiving more xurh at the- above — [Eoitor ] 

Pointer* to Carpenters. 

nv i. p. mcKK. 

ia a noticeable fact among work* 
men that while one man will be 
working in an apparently easy 
manner, another at the eame kind 
of work perhaps will be laboring 
at the top ot his speed to keep his end 
up witb the man who ie apparently tak- 
ing it eaay. The cauae for thii is ap- 
parent it one will observe the movements 
of the men while at work. 

One man is cool and level headed, all 
hia movements are well directed, and he 
makes every move count, while on the 
other hand the man who appears to be 
working at the top of hia speed to keep 
up makes or goes througli witb a good 
many motions which in reality do not 
count at h\\ toward the accomplishment 
of the work he baa to do. These are 
commonly known to the trade as false 
motions, and the man who is af Dieted in 
this manner is nearly always in the rear 
of the procession, and generally works 
harder than those who keep to the front. 
Much time ie saved by making accurate 

For example, a man might spend half 
a minute to obtain an exact measurement 
of a cornice board, another man who la 
in a great rush will take a measure in a 
careless sort of way, allow a Utile and 
then, as likely as not, cut the board by 
gneas. It doea not take any great amount 
of observation to notice the result of 
such work. Sometimes the baaty or 
random worker will strike it just right, 
but more times be will come wide ol bis 
mark, and have to throw away the board 
from being cut too short, or let it pass ae 
a bad joint, or it, by chance, the board 
should be cat too long be will have to 
spend several minutes catting the second 
time, or fitting it witb the block plane. 
Now, who ia the gainer, the man who 
spends a half mioate to obtain an accu- 
rate measurement, or the man who 
measures at random, and afterwards 
spends three or four minutes fitting the 
board be has just cut, and occasionally 
he will spend ten minutes to get a new 
hoard, or in piecing out the one be baa 
just spoiled? 

The above is only a fair illustration of 
the result of working at random, and 
shows very plainly the disadvantage 
under which the man works who never 
set me to know jnst what be ie doing. 1 
would say do not measure at random 
where anything like accuracy depends 
upon the measurement. It is well enough 
to learn to take measurements quickly, 
but accuracy should never be sacrificed. 
It does not pay, and an ounce of precau- 
tion is worth a pound of the remedy. 

Again, there are many points in the 
laying out of work, which, it properly 
considered , will save considerable time 
and labor. For example, take the set- 
ting of studding tor doors and windows. 
It pays to be exact in this work, ao that 
when yon are ready to set the frames 
you do not have to cat and hew studding 
to make room for the frames, or for the 
weight* required to hang the aasb. 

Following are a few calculations which 
will insist in laying out openings for doors 
and windowa. Take a common aize out- 
side door, for example, 2 feet 8 inches by 
8 feet 8 inches, and allowing the jambs to 
be 1J inch thick, the sill 11 inch, the 
threshold | inch, and allowing proper 
room to plumb and level the frame, we 
find that the size of the opening between 
studding and between floor joiete and 
header should be 2 feet IP, inches by 7 
feet. Thus we see that a common out- 
side door requires an opening 31 inches 
wider and 4 inches longer than the size 
of the door used. Of course transom 
frames have to be calculated according 
to the thick nees of the tranaorn bar and 
the size of the transom used. Inside 
frames shoo Id be calculated eomewbat 
differently, as they have no sills and tbe 
jambs are usually only | inch thick. For 
these pick out nice straight studding, be 
careful to set them plumb and leave tbe 
opening 2\ inches wider and 3 inches 
longer than the size of door need. 

The Bize of window frames is usually 
estimated from tbe size and number of 
lighte in tbe window. A window ie 
usually composed of two Bash, and has 
two, four or eight light s, or as the case 
may be. Windows are nearly always 
marked glass measure on the plans, and 
the carpenter has these captations to 
make when laying out the frames. On 
two-light windows we allow 4 inches in 
width and 8 inches in length for wood. 
Thus a window marked 20x28 inches, 
two lighte, would require 24x62 inches 
inside jamb measure. A window using 
the same glaas measure, but having four 
lights 10x28 inches, would require 25x62 
indies inside jamb measure. Again, a 
window using the same glasB measure, but 
havingeigbt lighte, would require 2ox62i 
inches inside jamb measure- It will now 
be Been that 4 inches are added to the 
glass measure for width and 6 inchee for 
length in laying ont a two-light window, 
8 inches for width and 6 inchee for 
length for four lights, and 5 inches for 
width and 6} inches for length for eight 
lights. The above are exact measure- 
ments, but to facilitate the work of fit- 
ting and hanging sasb and blinds I 
alwaya make the frames ft of an inch 
wider than the actual measurement; this 
leaves little planing to do, and is quite a 
saving of time. 

We will now consider tbe laying oat tor 
tbe size of opening for frame. The jambs 
are usually { inch thick, and 2 inches 
are required on each Bide of the window 
for the weights. Thus we see that in 
laying ont studding for two-light win- 
dows we must add 10 inchee to the glass 
measure for width of the opening. If 
the width of glass is 20 inches the proper 
space between studding will be 30 inches. 
If it is a four-light window of the tame 
glaas measure, then tbe space should be 31 
inches. For the length between headers 
we have to count the Bill, eubaill, bead- 
jamb, and allow an inch play . Thus, if 
we have ft two-light window with glass 
28 inchee long, we add 11 inches to twice 
the Isnglh of glass and have 77 inches, 
the proper distance to take between 
headers for the frame. 

Tiiese calculations are easy to make, 
and will aid very much to insure correct- 
ness ia laying out openings for frames. 
I have seen many mistakes in laying out 
door and window frames, causing much 
annoyance and lost time in doing work 
over the second time, or doing that which 
would not have been neceeeary bad tbe 
proper method been taken at first. 

There is nothing like making accurate 
calculations in every detail ot the build- 
ing trade, and those who will make it a 
special feature of their work and get 
everything right the first time, will find 
that they can a accomplish more work, 
besides doing it easier and quicker lb an in 
going at it in the rough and ready way. 



A Tram|>. 

a taafad t>'» ^,l hunger's stamp 

Until mil ri'K rtl Ihc kind <>( heart 
Thai llSall Within you homclcs* tramp. 
N.ir tell llie thought* that through lilni dart. 

Perhaps when hunger's pang* arc kce n 
And the- blinding ^U«-t brut- cm hi* head, 

Hf think* of the happy days he'd seen 
Willi father. mcilliiT-lniiKHlr.i l- de*'. 

That form begrimed Wx>», too, enreswd 
By Icivinii friend* In boyhood'* 1 1 n > i- 
Kre the world snrrein * on hnn pi c sscd 

Aod dragged Un down to run- and clime. 

Hneer not u' bltu yi' worldling* pioud 

Ye (no are sharer* In hi* shame 
Aje! ye vain, selfish, grasping crowd 

For hi* downfall are most dc blame. 

Sordid l iipilal demon (Jold, 
In yonder trump your work's revealed 

Your blighting c ursc in him behold 
Sad victim to ii,,- power ye wit-Id. 

Hccicu-IiiIiik » mltcii in tin- world, 

(Jr Ihc poof are stricken tlUBlb, 
Bl*e, why silent aa they're hurled 

Further in it cave of gloom. 

Brother*, are > longing* rani, 

(}, woudl ycici win ttM toiler*' tight? 
Then hearken to my heart's appeal 
Ful struggling until confr. uiemt. 

Uttitr ! heed not ft ha word* or blows. 

I'Ni rn '. ccir < hii-c I- true unci just 
I'M Hi: till all ill* toiler's fo»* 

Arc conquered, trampled in Mm du*t 

T. C. Wai-sn. 

/.. u 6 j, jv. m Tort, 

{Isxah mill minium uiv m/w.'lrd Id Bend 
flee to ten liio- ittmt of truth Uttrrrxl for Ihix 
ftrfm rtment, I I 'file plainly in rut on one ride 
of the pnjnr only ) 

Union 4(H), H tit! boo, Mass., ii growing 
in good shape. 

KlLVAUKM, Wis. — Wages and work 
are low and ii*t— never so l>n 1 in yean. 

Spkinukiii.o, Mo. — Trade at zero, A 
good many members have gone t -j 1 trill- 
ion sooner than starve. 

RoL'iianiiiR, N, Y. — We are trying to 
build up our Latials thin season, Bro. F. 
J. MrFarlin is our business agent. 

K*ssai Citv, Mo.— Proepecti fair, 
boomers advertising: for men to reduce 
wages Lota of idle carpenters loatiog 
the streets. 

Duficituc, Iowa.— Keep away from this 
city , over half the carpenters idle and 
we may possibly have trouble with the 
contractors thiB summer. 

I n- buying ready made clothing be eare 
yuu have the label of the (Jartnent 
Workers' Union in the same. 8o to not 
get sweat shop made clothes. 

Ui'un the cloae of the Rebellion the 
volume of our national money (gold, 
silver and paper combined) amounted to 
J> m per capita. It is now less than % 2;i. 

Sr. 1'aul, Mian.— Union 87 Is bard at 
work building up. Old memhtrs arc 
coining back, also some new men whom 
we never could get before, even in our 
palmiest days. ' 

Los Asuklsh, Cal.— Union 332 has 
gro*u immensely in membership. We 
have knocked out all the » inn-hour jobs 
and made the eight-hour day solid. 
Trade slow and city overran with idle 

Tin Theatrical Acton are organizing 
under the A. K, of L. Unions of Acton 
are now in operation in Boston, New York 
and Chicago, and a National Union of 
tae profession ia in process of forma- 

Jacmoivillb, Fca. carpenters have 
instituted tbe card system and non- 
union men art rushing into tbe organiza- 
tion through it to protect themselves 
agai nst the usual in Has of tramp car- 
i of the year. 

Thk National Unions of (iranito 
Cutlers, Iron Moulders, Custom Tailors 
anil the Urjtherbooii of Painters; have 
lieen ilis:u*sing tlie advisability of dis- 
persing with conventions and substitut- 
ing the syBtem of the initiative and 
referendum in the framing of their 
laws and the election of general oili 'era. 

Glasgow, Scotland.— Wm. Mclutyre, 
General Secretary of the Associated Car- 
(ipnters and Joiners, writes us: "I nnd 
many interesting articles in Tiik Cai:pbn- 
tsk and I hope it may ko on and prosper 
along with your large society." 

Fairmockt, W. Va.— Twenty men 
here fur one job, and more coming to 
realize they are out a few dollars by the 
trip and still no chow of work. A day's 
work here is like a grain of corn 
thrown amanjr a hrood of hungry chick- 
ens—it don't go far or last long. 

Thk Hor>« carpente<s of New York 
City had a union in 1808, and the first 
Carpenters* Union of Boston *as founded 
in 1M2. One wa? or t 'ftniznl in Philadel- 
phia in 1830, though the oldest Carpen 
tera Company of the Quaker City— an 
American offshoot of the London (inild 
— waa founded in 1*86, 

Waos.s of carpenters in Manchester, 
Kngland, have been advanced this Bea- 
son from pence to 9 pence per hour, to 
go into effect thia June 1st. In Black- 
burn wageB have gone up from 8 pence 
to 8} pence per hour. Trade concessions 
have also been gained last month in 
Kngland in Burnley, Yarmouth, and 
Grangemouth, also in Ireland in Bangor 
and Fermoy. 

Thkrb is some talk of a' tempting to re- 
organize the carpenters of Minneapolis, 
Minn,, so siya the /Jut/;/ Irtinm of that 
:ity, and then it adds : " MK aeapolis 
enjoys tbe doubtful honor of being the 
poorest carpenter t>wn in this country." 
Still at one time it was well organized, 
but in the eight-hour strike of 1886 the 
men went info contracting on a co-opera- 
tive basis, broke up the union, and are 
now down to low hard-pan, at low wages. 

Colo m bub, O.— Very little work. The 
trade has changed considerably the past 
three years, bo there is little for carpen 
ters to tlo on tbe large buildings until 
they are ready for finish. And then 
there is less than used to be. The floors 
and base are made of cement and tbe 
windows are plastered around close to 
the frames. The tMde will sutfer still 
more aa long as we have men who call 
themselves " carpenten " and willing to 
work for laborers' wagea. 

The Tanlte €«.>* Whetstones Iteduced 
In Price. 

For icewrlr half . y« r Tn« CAHPENTta hiut 
been ttdverti»li. K a Hoi id Hinery WheUto.ie made 
Uy The Taut to Company, of Mtr<.iidid.cir K , Va. 
Tula kriicle wherever used hiu boas jironoimced 
a practical nucueiM. NevcTltiidwH, die trade re- 
main* email ; for no amount >,f advertising win 
I to Ittiy ii litem I In- Individual 
a demand. If the Individual 
not made a demand in t|,| B liilHt 
think It miiat be either mi avwuint of 
pftoa or mi areunnt of old time prejudice erraUd 
ut a time when the tlrat Hulid Kmery WbeUlum-a 
were Ititrudueed many yeara ago, Tlie*c wiiel- 
atonm did not otoct with favor, but that la no 
reaaon why thoM oflatcr make itiould he con- 
demned. KollowiiiK tbe Keneral decline uf 
prion*, The Tanlte Onioany jeeently deter- 
mined to reduce Ihc price of thtaie whetatuuea, 
In tbe hope that at greatly reduced coat tbe car- 
penter and Jul tier will h.k. the.irtlll. lH' product 
rather than tbe natural alone. Tucte urtlllclal 
alone* Were, until recently , .old to tbe dealer at 
W.OS |>er doaCD (lean, of Oottwe, a liberal dl«. 
uounl), but thin price baa lately been altered to 
MOO. Thia reductinn bring* the price of the 
artific ial atune wllbiu ihc mean* of » rly w „ rk , 
man - In fact, it make* It *o low that every work- 
man can afford to try tbe eiperknce even if be 
*hould eomdder bla piirohaac a bad Invtatmeiit 
and B o back to the natural -tone, wbieb in not 
likely to !»■ the caae. | 

Standing lH>ei>dmts of «. K. It. 


Jan. 2,— A member who leaven the trade lc 
enter another occupation ntid not «ilh,lraw 
from the D. B. He can «tlll remain a HMMHlHi 
and In hencllt, eniepl he ritgagea i" Hie "ah- u 
IntonlealinR drink*. 

April H - A (7ntO« hip-i'd or Hiwpended, If rr 
organized or nilMtatett, *hall not be In hem ti' 
until Mil month* after datoof rein*latemi nl . 


Feb 19 —Wc favor the llcenatni o( arcbitecl- 
Fcdi. 1 9. — I ii afvlnSJ Rfiir I* of money In all] 
other trHiles in ea»e* of atrlSMM or IfiuU trouhle*. 
It 1* iidvliahle to eierei*e care anil not matte 
donation m.l, »* condition of local fund* per 
Safin unit then make H in the i.,nu uf n donation 
and avoid any * **** * tOenl t an n**e**ment levied 
for aucli a piirpn*e *1ihI1 be purely voluntary If' 
payment hy the member*. 

Feb 19..— A member In tbe aiiie-room on bu*l 
ne** aulhori/eJ !■>' the I'nlon mii*t hi- con 
*hlered a* present at the- uiet-tln|r, and I* cli^ihh 
to iioinitiKlion for nil,. , 

t*ee, !S — Fund* of I^ieal rnluii* cannot he 
U*ed for iioliticul parly ptirpoaca. 


Feb IS.— tTnlno* Dot hold i to; meetiii|t*at I, „ ■ t 
ouee h inoiilb forfeit their charter and are not In 
bob* fit, 

Feb 21.- f^arpenter* joining the navy cannot 
he entilh L d to lienctlt, on E lie ground oT uiiiihiihI 

Feb 26. — A Union cannot aclncil to or retain In 
nicuilH-ridiip any one who, himaelf ur any cd ilia 
h',ii*ehoh1. 1* I'nifaircd or euKage* In tbe *ale cd 
lotoi Icnlinif drink*. 

March VI, — Fer*on* ruptured and afflicted w lib 
chronic rbeu mat lain can only he adtniitccl u» 
*eml heiu th-ial nieuihera, 

June M — Th* occupation of a paid city lire 
man I* hKStfdoo*, anil a member *o emraged 
c-annot be allnu'ed bene tit*. 

June 22.— In inovemcut* t&t waicc* and Incur* 
where ucc-inher* are working at woodwork, out' 
Hide of hon*<> carpenter work, they can he 
eiempt fro^m trade rule*. 

July 30 —A member InkltiK dirrci cot, tract 
from owner, where the latter fun 1-hc* material, 
anil llu> member eotitractic \s hln^ nniciu men 
and pay* union waife* by the day, I* in,t piece 
work : hut If tbe owner Is an employing con- 
tractor, it I* piece work. 

Aug. 3.— Wherever a union man foe*, In- 
Kbould live up to tbe union rule* of the city he 
wo'ka In. 

Wept. 17 - (i railing wagea 1* drmoralixl ng to 
union principle* and to the welfare of t he trade, 
and no Local Union *hould adopt the -y*tctu of 
grudltig cvagc*. 

Od. 1*,— Claim* for dlnabllity Iwtietil HMMl 
date from time of accident. 

I>ec. 22.— All payment* i f due* made to a F. S 
in interval between meellngn after Union ha* 
adjourned, m net be credited under date f-t neit 
meeting of the Union. 


March 10 — A I^cal Union can tit a fine aa 
penally fur non-attendance of meuiber* ut a 
monthly meeting. 

July II.- No member of any Local Union can 
"«e«h- it on any other tiad., hy going to work 
*t aucb trade when It 1a on ntrlke. 

Nov. 2*. -Due* are chargeable on Ural of 
mouth, hut a member doe* not fall In airear* 
until end of tbe month. 

Jan. S. - A union contractor mnat alway* hire 
union ™i|,o,i,n where available, and where 
not available, be aboiild have the mm union 
men he hire* to join the Union 

March 9.- In death or disability claim*, the 
card of a member mux! be retained by thuG. ST. 
a* evidence. 

June 1 —Each Local Unl«n 1* icaponslble for 
the (ttrelcaauea* or negligence of Ita own local 

June 23.-- Memb».-ra working under union rule* 
during a ntrlke muat pay a atrlke a«ae«sment if 


Aug.ai - A member realgnlug aevera ull con- 
nectlun with the U. B and can only rejoin a* a 
new mem.ier. 

Sep T-.A member owing a sum euun. to three 
mouth*' due* cannot pay pan of hi* arreara and 
In- In henelit. He oiu*t pay all be owna tbe 
Union and wait three mouth* after that to be 
In benefit. 

Nov. X- A fine can be Imposed by a Loc al 
Union on a member Tor not parading on Labor 


Jan. IS —A. Union cannot expel a member for 
owing a fine; it can only * impend him when 
with the line bla Indebtedness equals the sum of 
due* culling fur suspension. 

Jau, 28.— A fine cannot be remitted except on 
the same night It Is Imposed. 

Oct. 4 — All Local Unions are hereby ordered 
not to circulate any appeal or circular Baking 
financial aid or calling on the Local* In any 
form to purchase ticket*, unlesa by tbe approval 
of tbe Q. B, H., attested by the O. B-T. 

Nov. IS.— A walking delegate may be deputised 
by a Local or D. 0., 


April 17 -It I* not advisable to exteo I t ), 
juried Id Ion of a District UnUUCfl over a i,, rK( . 
client of territory, but In confine it lo one, i| } 0r 
oi.e county. 

July 18 —All bcnefil* lire forfeited by | 
ponded Utlloil, the annM a* a -UHpeudcd i,,, ri] 

her. A an* ponded Union cannot he entitled ut 

any benefit* other than those prescribed f ur 
new Union. 

July 17 - - Local I ' . Ion* ate at I iberly lo . , r>> 
a fee for a working card lo traveling taaa> 
her* on a ctcarancs *al*1 fee not to erect t the; 
sum of S'l On Lir the lii«l working curd, at d mu.1, 
sum thereafter a* may he. charged am , ih rr 
renidenl nieuclier. 

July 17 — Noli , resident in ember* can be- cli„rg e j 
not more than t, on pM ciuatlcr for trorkiaf 
cjc rd. 

Hit IB. -A Lca al I'nion in grantingae li-ar. t i ict 
c ard pttall not accept more than one Bituita'l 
due* In advance, and ahotlld more than thin Lnh 
been paid by the member, hi* surplus dntt 
should be refunded him by the Union. 


Jan. 13 —A Local Union ciinnol admit a la/y 
under 18 year*. 

April I —.V member can join a Ship ,T,,i 
I'nioii, and at the same time remain a mender 
of our V. U. 

April 2 — A delegate to a convention of the 
V. Ii. muat hold credential* from the Local af 
which he la a member, but several Local* ,»„ 
el up together, or as can Unions In a D C and 
chela ihli^ati . hni he must bold crcdeni ,,di 
frnin the Union of « hich lie I* a member 

Oct 6 — No ic e* are sent out regularly by i|, e 
(I. H-T loaH Local* two inoicth* In arrear*. Tbi 
H. S T. cannot be held rcponslldr for their i,on. 
delivery, c»pi eiall> nhern l"l uatieiul Sec ri lac in 
are negligent In a tviaing tbe riencral Ofth n of 
change ufavMrna*, It l« the duly of member* nf 
Local* lo see that tax of their L. U. ia promptly 
paid, and receipt* fur name read at the meetij k. 

l MS. 

Jan. 11 —The (S K. It. deem It •Xpedlenl Uj 
Confirm an unwritten l»« heretofore I ii VOftUi in 
the U, B , and dec roe thai all Ueneral flRJeei* of 
the U. B shall bo ■■••■nipt while- in otlic e fNmi „i! 
local dulle* in the Local* to which the y belong 

April 10.— AH Union* or district* tending d. le- 
gations to unpe-ar la-fore' the (i. K li muat 
notify the (1. H-T ten day* prior to meeting of 
<J. K. H. 

April I'j — A nieinhe'r can remain a eonttacinr, 
or enter into the limine** uf contracting, pre*, 
vldcd he pays the- scale of wage s uhcj* Itself 
rules and bins mine but Union men. and , , i M . 
piles with tbe Constitution, and doe* not d* 
lump-work, piece-work or suh-ceilclract lor s 

carpenter contractor, end further provided that 
be is ucit, netr does not become, a member of any 
contrai't nra' or employers' union Any violation 
of this rule to be i Isbed by fine or eipul*|. n. 

Oct S -Kelatlve to granting dispensation- to 
Local Union* and member* during the pre-, td 
criils, by virtue of power vested In U, F. B. and 
O. H-T., by votenfLne'atsonelreulardateel Dee. 28, 
1889, and again given by Bt, Lolus Convention 
two page 31 of printed proceed I tig* special 
instructions and full power are hereby given lo 
the- i. 8-T, in deal I tig with ei I morel I nary Caete, 

Oct. B.— The Board decide that seven member« 
e»n hold a charter or constitute a cpjonmi. 

Oct. 7 —In charging 12.00 lo traveling meui- 
Icers for first working card, (I. K B. would 
adebx .luring thepr»*entsbigtiailonln lliebulhl- 
lug ttacle, that Unions throughout the U. B, 
should be a* Indulgent aa possible with travel- 
ing members. 


Jan. O.-G. S-T. Instructed to send fur book* of 
Local Union for examination in case uf a doubt- 
ful claim for benefit. 

April 7.— All dues received In the Interim be- 
tween meetings must be credited ss received at 
tbe next subsequent meeting. Her. 1B3 meat * 
that tbe actual date of the meeting at which t he- 
el ues are received orcrediledas above shall ap- 
pear on tbe member ■ card and book* of H e 

April 9.— In all strikes or lockouts only tho-e 
men employed when aucb strike or lockout 
takes place are entitled to strike pay under our 

July If. — When a Union I* three months in 
arrears It la not allowed seven day* (race bcfni • 
running out uf benefit. The seven days grace 
Hpeclfied In See. 62, Is given losave a union from 
suspension entirely, and Trout forfeiture of 

July 30.— A member working as molnrman or 
conductor on an electric car can re lain bla uieui- 
beisblp In bis Local, but should he meet with au 
acoldeutand become disabled, or die from the 
effect*, his heir* would not bo entitled to any 


Jan. 10.— Tbe non-payment ofan excessive fine 
should not act an a bar to the right of appeal. 

Jan. 10.— Where a member from an outside 
district goes into a large city to take advantage 
of bette r conditions, be should be willing to be ar 
some uf the hutdens I mi row by the members of 
the U. B, In that city, and lie willing to take the 
risk of being called out on strike without pay. 
This decision doe* not apply to strike* supported 
by the O. E. B. 


Staff problems* 

('I hit Department ti far criticism ami 
correnpondence, from our reads r» on mecluim- 
cal mhyectt in Carpentry, ami id'a* an to 
craft organization. 

Write rm one aide of Uie paper only All 
article* nhould be xigned. 

Mutter far thi* Detriment muM be in tftv 
offirt by the tSth of Que month. ) 

A train The IHnnif'tf r of a Circle. 

Naw York, May 14, 1895. 
To Tint Editor of Thk Cari'«*tkr : 

Dear Sir.— In March number of Tiik 
Oari'Bntrk the solution to problem num- 
ber 4 waB how to find the circumfer 
Mice or stretch out of a circle instead oi 
diameter ; it ie exactly the fame an the 
diagram I sent in January last except 
one figure in this, the (0 ', )0 part in 
place To 1 ( g part. 

Brother McUinnia must have mieunder- 
gtoori the question 1 aeked. I will give 
ft rule and an example, if the chord and 
height being given. To find the diameter 
E 1) divide the square of half tin- chord by 
the height, add the height to the product 
Will give the diameter of circle. 

Example il the chord A B be 3H feet 
and height t' feet what is the dtameiet 
D K of the circle r 30 I 2 « 18* — 321 
6 — 54 54 t n - yo diameter * Hfl 
radios of circle. Rule by Brother 
White, Union 483 to find raditiB to the 
Square of li eight divide by twice of 
height, iljth rules give the same 

2)38 «i <> 

18* « 

m 3tl 12 
•M i 


P. 8.— Witb kind reepecta to "Inter- 
••ted Header " I would nay that I am not 
the least discouraged. I do not claim to be 
an expert or a seeker after knowledge. I 
inserted the diagram that it might be a 
benefit to some apprentice as none of 
the others give the beginner the desired 
knowledge, I remain 

Yours respectfully, 


A Ship Carpenter's Problem. 

The following problem was published 
In our May number. 
A wrecked ship carpenter found in 

the bottom of the only boat saved, a 
1 ijbole which measured 8 x 18 inches. 


On investigation he found the only 
board he had to fill it was one 12 x 1. 
inches. How did he cut thia pi* ce so as 
to fill up the hole and make the boat 
ceaworthy V 

A Ktkaky ft BAUER. 
SoLtTiON oeSiur Cari'KNTKRs' Phour.KM. 

How to Construct Two Oval Flower 
Stands from a Circular Table. 


BOS F. E. Wilton, 
Union 72, Koch- 
ester, N, Y,, E. 
A. Geisler Union 
02, Chicago, III., 
Wanol. Thornhili, 
Union 888, Do- 
ver, N. J,, and 
Bro. A. Z. Whit- 
ney, Dorchester, Neb., sent us solutions 
of the above problem, as pnbliehed in 

last month's Carcinter. Bro. Whitney's 
letter was the first received, and as the 
statement of the problem and its solu- 
tion as submitted by the other three are 
almost identical with that of Bro. Whit- 
ney we trust the other members will not 

feel aggrieved that we publish Bro. Whit- 
ney'* solui ion alone. We hope the col- 
li tn ns of T h a Uaiu'kntke will soon receive 
another contribution from them and 
from other students of the craft. 

As in Fig. 1, describe or make a circle 
as shown, and through the centre draw 
two diameters, on a mitre or angle of 45°. 
Divide 1 into 4 eqnal dimensions and 
strike the smaller circle- Now saw 
through the circles on the diameter lin _,B 
and the result will give 2 sets of sweeps 
or pieces. It these he jointed and glued 
together in the manner denoted by the 
numbers in both figures, two oval flower 
or bric-a brae stands will be obtained. 
The above problem applies also to an old 
circular table. 

Mechanicul mggettions, or tipt, of informa- 
tion are of value and we look forvard to re- 
ceiving more tvrh at the above — [Editor ] 

•> m ♦* — 

Pointers to Carpenters. 


perhaps will be laboring 
at the top ot hiB speed to keep his end 
up with the man who is apparently tak- 
ing it easy. The cause for this is ap- 
parent it one will observe the movement* 
of the men while at work. 

One man is cool and level headed, all 
his movements are well directed, and he 
makes every move count, while on the 
other hand the man who appears to be 
working at the top of bis speed to keep 
up makes or goes through with a good 
many motions which in reality do not 
count at all toward the accomplishment 
of the work be baa to do. These are 
commonly known to the trade as false 
motions, and the man who is afflicted in 
this manner is nearly always in the rear 
of the procession, and generally works 
harder than those who keep to the front. 
Much time is aaved by making accurate 

For example, a man might spend half 
a minute to obtain an exact measurement 
of a cornice board, another man who is 
in a great rush will take a measure in a 
careless sort of way, allow a little and 
then, as likely aa not, cut the board by 
guess. It doea not take any great amount 
of observation to notice the result of 
BUch work. Sometimes the hasty or 
random worker will strike it just right, 
but more times he will come wide ot his 
mark, and have to throw away the board 
from being cut too short, or let it paeB aa 
a bad joint, or it, by chance, the board 
should be cat too long he will have to 
spend several minutes cutting the second 
time, or fitting it with the block plane. 
Now, who is the gainer, the man who 
spends a half minute to obtain an accu- 
rate measurement, or the man who 
measures at random, and afterwards 
spends three or four minutes fitting the 
board he has just cut, and occasionally 
he will spend ten minutes to get a new 
board, or in piecing out the one he has 
just spoiled V 

The above is only a fair illustration of 
the result of working at random, and 
shows very plainly the disadvantage 
under which the man works who never 
•etuis to know just what be is doing. I 
would say do not measure at random 
where anything like accuracy depends 
upon the measurement. It Is well enough 
to learn to take measurements quickly, 
but accuracy should never he sacrificed. 
It does not pay, and an ounce of precau- 
tion is worth a pound of the remedy. 

Again, there are many points in the 
laying out of work, which, it properly 
considered, will save considerable time 
and labor. For example, take the set- 
ting of studding tor doors and windows. 
It pays to be exact In this work, so that 
when you are ready to set the frames 
you do not have to out and hew studding 
to make room for the frames, or for the 

Following are a few calculations which 
will assist in laying out openings for doors 
and windows. Take a common size out- 
side door, for example, 2 feet 8 inches by 
8 feet 8 inches, and allowing the jambs to 
be 11 inch thick, the sill 1} inch, the 
threshold | inch, and allowing proper 
room to plumb and level the frame, we 
find that the sise of the opening between 
studding and between floor joists and 
header should be 2 feet 11} inches by 7 
feet. Thus we Bee that a common oat- 
side door requires an opening 3} inches 
wider and 4 inches longer than the Bite 
of the door used. Of course transom 
frames have to be calculated according 
to the thickness of the transom bar and 
the size of the transom used. Inside 
frames should be calculated somewhat 
differently, as they have no Bills and the 
jambs are usually only i inch thick. For 
these pick out nice straight studding, be 
careful to set them plumb and leave the 
opening 2} inches wider and 3 inches 
longer than the size of door need. 

The size of window frames is usually 
estimated from the eize and number of 
lights in the window. A window is 
usually composed of two sash, and has 
two, four or eight lights, or aa the case 
may be. Windows are nearly always 
marked glass measure on the plans, and 
the carpenter has these calculations to 
make when laying out the frames. On 
two-light windows we allow 4 inches in 
width and 6 inches in length for wood. 
Thus a window marked 20x28 inches, 
two lights, would require 24x02 inches 
inside jamb measure. A window using 
the same glass measure, but having four 
lights 10x28 inches, would require 25x62 
inches inside jamb measure. Again, a 
window using the same glass measure, but 
having eight lights, would require 25x62} 
inches inside jamb measure. It will now 
be seen that 4 inches are added to the 
glass measure for width and 6 inches for 
length in laying out a two-light window, 
5 inches for width and 6 inches for 
length for four lights, and 5 inches for 
width and 6} inches for length for eight 
lights. The above are exact measure- 
ments, but to facilitate the work of fit- 
ting and hanging sash and blinds I 
always make the frames £ of an inch 
wider than the actual measurement; this 
leaves little planing to do, and ia quite a 
saving of time- 

We will now consider the laying ont lor 
the size of opening for frame. The jambs 
are usually j inch thick, and 2 inches 
are required on each Bide of the window 
for the weights. Thus we see that in 
laying out studding for two-light win- 
dows we must add 10 inches to the glass 
measure for width of the opening. If 
the width of glass ie 20 inches the proper 
space between studding will be 30 inches. 
If it ia a four-light window of the eame 
glaes measure, then the space should be SI 
inches. For the length between headers 
we have to count the sill, subsill, head- 
jamb, and allow an inch play. Thus, if 
we have a two- light window with glass 
28 inches long, we add 11 inches to twice 
the length of glass and have 77 inches, 
the proper distance to take between 
headers for the frame. 

These calculations are easy to make, 
and will aid very much to insure correct- 
ness in laying out openings for frames. 
I have seen many mistakes in laying out 
door and window frames, caneing much 
annoyance and loet time in doing work 
over the second time, or doing that which 
would not have been necessary had the 
proper method been taken at first. 

There is nothing like making accurate 
calculations in every detail ot the build- 
ing trade, and those who will make it a 
special feature of their work and get 
•very thing right the first time, will find 
that they can acccomplisb more work, 
besides doing it easier and quicker than in 
going at it in the rough and ready way. 



I'lio GfMen Hulr, nol llnle «f Uoltl. 


Two nl— si ■>* of old 

A giant warfare wage; 
Thin in I be age of goM, 

And gold bM ruml our :ifce. 
It mennurcn men mid thing*, 

It till* the heart Willi gr I, 

It clip* our Hjilrit « inn-. 

And polaonn all our creed ; 
We do not liitok of hoiils, 

Hut dividend* und ntock ; 
Aoil round our huniiienn rulln- 

Woulid up an If a chick. 
And then machinery break*** 

Bccaimc iimn'H more tli»n tliH. 
The whole or him MtafcM 

To win true human lilin^ : 
Tin- working-men have rlt;hl* 

That wealth Is hound to livi d ; 
They need the like delight* 

TIihI ever richen need. 
Ho not to crutfc and grind, 

Hut help and lift uliiivr, 
Kin caplhll tnM»t nud 

Ami keep the. law of love : 
And bark of H ealth, Html ntroug. 

Must bi 1-hr 1-iI'h Kolden rule. 
Turning OW wall* to song ; 

Muk 1 iik life's la-ik* a school 
Of jualice, patience, worth; 

Kach unto each most nhnw; 
How rigid i ■tin 14 OM tile earth 

And nuke a heaven below ! 

A Koigfa Sketch of a Rough Struggle. 


HV HI 'Oil Mt'liRKMOR. 

F the many itnpres- 
eive events which 
mark the progress of 
our race none other 
has bo powerfully 
excited the imagi- 
nation of all classes 
and conditions of men bb the great 
political upheaval known as the French 

Meaning of tlie RewtuLion.— There are 
many who regard that revolution aa a 
mere national rebellion reuniting from 
the despotism or the vacillation of a 
Louis ; the ambition of a Mirabeau, the 
audacity of a Dan ton, the vanity of a 
Kobeapierre, and the fanaticism of a 
Murat. But there are a constantly in- 
creasing number who perceive that the 
revolution is not exclusively French, 
and that far from being local or national 
in its origin and development It is a 
movement common to the entire West. 
Indeed it would he ditlicult not to see 
the striking analogy between the events 
which caused the head of Louie XVI. to 
fall on the Bcadold in l Tst i, aa the head of 
Charles I. fell in 1<J4» and placed the 
sceptre of Charlemagne in the hands of a 
Napoleon, as the mace of the Common- 
wealth was placed in the hands of a 
Cromwell. There is much more than a 
simple analogy in this series of events. 
For whatever may have been the battle- 
cry of the grim, puritan Ironsides who 
broke the fiery charges of the cavaliers 
at Naseby, or that of the shoeless, car- 
magnole volunteers who beat back the 
vengeful forces of thu emigrant uoDllity 
and the handed armies of Germany at 
Valmy, the practical result oi these two 
phases of the revolution was the same. 
That result was the emancipation of the 
special industrial classes from the domi- 
nation of the State, and the control of 
the state by the special clauses. The 
State is nothing if it is not military and 
the special classes have no policy that 
is not dictated by the commercial class. 
Therefore, with the commercial class in 
practical control of the State, commerce 
Is made to flourish by war; and com- 
mercial war, by forcing the sale of 
shoddy goods at the cannon's mouth, 
engorges the merchant ; robs and ex- 

terminates the weaker rates: and by 
the coat of its armaments, pauperises 
the workman. 

True, the revolution hiis decreed that 
all men are free nnd eipial citi/.ens ; it 
has decreed liberty, equality and the 
sovereignty of the people exercised by 
the ballot. These decrees may mean 
something to the special classes, but to 
the working masses they are worth little 
more than the paper on which they were 
written. If the citizen has the where- 
with to live, he may cast his ten-mil- 
lionth share of the ballot with satisfac- 
tion and write a book on " Triumphant 
Democracy; " bat it he is a workman, 
one who is ever in need of bread for the 
table, and rent for the landlord, the 
revolution, ite decrees, and methods 
have very little meaning or attraction 
for him. 

t'omlitionof France in T789.- Regarded 
from an economic standpoint the con- 
dition of France in 17811 contrasted 
favorably with that of any other nation 
of the West. Her population of 
2(>,30u,000 was contained in a compact 
and fertile area, and her annual revenue 
amounted to $120,000, 000. The poei 
tion of France is made i learer when we 
see that the entire Knglieh-Bpeaking 
people, at that date, only numbered 
18,000,000; ot whom 8,860,000 were in 
England ; 4,350,000 were in the United 
States ; 4,000,000 were in Ireland ; and 
1,500,000 were in Scotland; while the 
annual revenue of Great Britain was 
onlv $78,250,000. That France was 
strong and prosperous is certain ; but 
the bnrden of taxation was unequally 
divided, and pressed with extraordinary 
severity upon the agricultural laborers. 
Wealth was Bteadily increasing in the 
hands of the special classes; but those 
classes wen - : *?idly ex eluded from all posi- 
tions of honor and appointments ot value 
in the service of the State ; monopolized, 
as they were, by the nobles ami some ] r i0,- 
000 of their relatives and sate Mites. I >is- 
aatiefaction with this exclusion had grown 
with their prosperity, and, now the time 
arrived when the special cl asses combi ned 
against the State. This combination, 
though tacit, became effectual when it 
resulted in a refusal to pay taxes. The 
king, having exhausted his credit by 
successive loans contracted without 
national authority, was constrained to 
call a general congress (States General), 
nominally representing all classes. No 
sooner was this body convened, than the 
representatives of the nobles, of the 
clergy, and those of the special classes 
(the third estate) , one-ball of whom were 
lawyers, commenced a passionate struggle 
for supremacy. This contest of classes 
was short and decisive; a signal victory 
was achieved by the third estate, and 
FraDce with extensive enthusiasm 
plunged into the vortex ot revolution. 

State Employment, 178$.— At the out- 
break of the revolutionary struggle, in 
May, 1780, work was very scarce. The 
harvest of the previous year had been 
destroyed by hail, the winter had been 
Intensely cold, the price ot bread was ris- 
ing higher and higher, and the burning 
agitation connected with the elections 
tor the States (leneral had still further 
tended to paralyse business. In that same 
month of May, public works were opened 
in PariB for the benefit of the un- 
employed. The number of workers who 
were thus furnished with work and wages 
was 11,800 originally ; but the news that 
the revolutionary assembly intended to 
vote a credit ot $3,000,000 for the support 
of these works, had theeffect of drawing 
from all parts of France an ever Increas- 
ing multitude of the least desirable 
characters. Vying with each other in 
the expression of the most radical revo* 
lutionary sentiments, as well as in idle- 
and insubordination, these patriots 

workmen, and swelled the number of the 
employed to l».i>0n and then to 81,000. 
In vain the King united with the Assem- 
bly in urging the employ ees to pay decent 
respect to the orders ot their inspectors 
and foremen, and not to waste the hours 
■oT labor in playing cards and other 
games. In vain the Assembly ordained 
that none Bhould be employed bnt those 
who had resided in Paris for one year ; 
and that all others should be returned to 
their own provinces, or, in case of not be- 
ing French, to their own countries. The 
scandalous abuses connected with these 
works continued to augment with the 
number of the employed. To mitigate 
these abuses, and to provide for those 
who were sent back to their homes, it 
was proposed to establish in each of the 
83 departments of France, camps of dis- 
cipline for the insubordinate, piece- work 
for the capable, and day-work for the 
lees capable workers, but, in every case, 
at lower wages than the current rate 
paid by private employers for the sa un- 
kind of work. This plan, with some 
modification;;, was adopted in August, 
17iH), but as the available appropriation 
did not exceed flti.OOO for each depart- 
ment, or less than 5 cents per head of 
population, the scheme came to naught. 
The revival of private enterprise, bow- 
ever, soon offered capable and willing 
workers opportunities for employment, 
and the public works were Anally closed 
alter a sad and costly experience ot a 
little more than two years duration. 

7 lie 'Irnde Union from 1788 to tiSOQ, — 
The revolutionary leaders were not only 
troubled by the disorderly conduct ot 
thoBe employed in the public works, but 
they saw with the greatest chagrin that 
the Companionship operated as energeti- 
cally under the revolution as it had under 
the previoUB political system. Well 
might the revolutionary oracles, whether 
radical or moderate, whether Jacobin or 
Girondist, be perplexed by the con- 
tinued existence of the trade union, for 
in it they saw a living fact they had 
altogether overlooked in their philos- 
ophy. On the famous night of the 
Fourth of August they bad decreed the 
abolition of titles, privileges and corpo- 
rations. In accordance with this decree 
the nobles had surrendered their patentB 
of nobility, and the Masters' trade cor- 
porations had also surrendered their 
charters of incorporation ; but the Com- 
panionship, having ever existed despite 
the State, had enjoyed no privileges, and 
had no charters to surrender. This was 
the class they had overlooked. In con- 
sidering the citizens they had forgotten 
the workman. But this oversight could 
be repaired they thought, and within 
two weeks thereafter tbe Assembly com- 
pleted the foundation of the devolution 
by the declaration of the "Rights, of 
Man ;'* of " Liberty, equality and the 
sovereignty of the people exercised by 
universal suffrage." Yet, notwithstand- 
ing the "rights of man," the carpen- 
ters, printers and other trades, continued 
to exercise the " right " of endeavoring 
to obtain decent wages tor their labor, 
regardless whether that right was en- 
doned or denied by kings or lawyers. 
Had then the devolution only succeeded 
In breaking tbe power of the monarchy 
and shattering the privileges of the 
nobility to have its grand principles of 
the rights of man, liberty and equality, 
flouted and set at naught by the trade 
union? Bailly, the Mayor of Paris, 
feebly enough attempted reconciliation. 
In a long and labored proclamation he 
philosophically discussed the subject; 
to theeffect that if the principle of liberty 
resulted in low wages, the principle ot 
equality forbade workmen to attempt to 
increase their wages by combined action. 
Such municipal proclamations having 
no visible effect, the State was impelled 
to intervene. Therefore, on July 14, 

171)1, tbe Assembly instied a decree, the 
gist of which is as follows : 

"The abolition of all corporations of 
citizens of the same profession being 
one of the fundamental bases of tbe 
French Constitution it is forbidden to re 
establish them under any form or pre- 
Wave whatever. 

" Citizens ot the same profession shall 
not elect any oilicers, pass any resolu- 
tions, or make any rules tor their pre- 
tended Common interests, 

" If contrary to the principle! of 
liberty and tbe Constitution, ettiasent of 
the Bame profession, eralt or trade pass 
any resolutions agreeing not to work 
unless given a certain price for their 
labor, the said resolutions, whether ac 
compiiiiied by ano:ith or not, are dec I urn I 
unconstitutional, threatening tolilierty, 
and in opposition to the rights of man " 

This decree seems to have affected the 
Companionship but little, '»n the eon- 
trary, we see the growth of the organi- 
sation by the re-atliliatiou of the Cris- 
pins, ami the admission of the weavers, 
the farriers, and the plasterers, between 
the years 1795 U7. 

( Vo/ir nnitinunl.) 

Thlugs to be Ilemembered. 

Turks month* In arrcam nulijcctn a member tc 
Ion* of iM-uelll*. 

mtkahy attendance at Die Mattings given life 

in,. I Intercut tu tbe Union. 

Uut mtMM going f'fT to another city sfcswM <w 
provided v, li.h a clearance, card. 

Al.t. local Ireanunmnhouhl tie, timl. r hondnand 
tlie bonds tiled with thu prcddcld r*f the I,. U. 

Tktwtkwv" report* nhntihl lie prepared neml- 
annually , lm l forward**] to the tl, s. Kluuka are 
furnished free for Dial purpoce. 

A 1.1. change* In Hrerelarlennlmiitd !*• promptly 
reported u, the (». M. , ami name ami add re*» ol 
the new Hecretary nhould be forwarded. 

OanANizK the Carpenter* In Hi* minrganlaed 
town* in your vicinity, or wherever vim tuny got 
Unlit public meeting* or nodal festival- at staled 
oeaulonH ;lhey will add to (he Btrenif-h Of your 


I.KTncaa for the General Office nhonld lm 
written on oIIIch! note pa par i,i.il t.eur the weiU 
of tlie I., m-hI IJnton. Don I write letters lo the 
tl H. on monthly report htttnkH, h h miicIi couiuiu- 
ntualloun are HOC In proper (Impe. 

All Moskv- ri reived hy the <"J. H one timrith 
are publHlu-d tu the tieil mnulh'rt liturtial. 
Moneys n-cived can not !■<■ bubHabed lu Hi la 
Journal the name month they are receive*). It 
taken nome tlmu lo timke up the report and put 
It Into l}'|ie. 

Tub only Hafe way trt Rend money In by Yont 
Oftli'u Money Order or hy Hln.uk Check or l>raft 
aa required t>y ihe tVinxtttulkin, The tl. H. la 
not rr|>oii»ihlc for money nent lu any oilier way. 
Don't wml ImiHe cuih or pi mtatcv ntaiu \m In pay* 
■Mill of tu or for may bin due the U. a. 

Something for Curnculcrs lo Head! 

The United Brotherhood of Cnrjient-rr* and 
Joliieraof America wan fouudcul In t'on venllon 
atUhleaico, Aimn-i 1 J, 1*0. Atllrntlt had only 
12 Ixxnl tlnlonn ami 2o!2 mrmtwra. Now, in ten 
yearn. It haa k™iwii to number over 718 Local 
UnloTiH In over (SW elllen, ami Hl,,'f77 enrolled 
member*. It In oraaiilxcil to protect Ihe terpen- 
lorTrude from tlx* vviln uf h>w price* and ln»h ti 
work; llaahn ta to eiicouraKu * higher ntandard 
of aklll and better wbkck; to re-enlalillnli nu 
Apprentice, Hynlein, 8111! to aid and a»-i«l th» 

B|,|r, riiltm ojr*»» "ll, HJJ.I 1* > «*,,. mm pn"in. ..... 

member* by mutual pruli < tlmi and hcuovoleiil 
mean*. Upnya a Wife, Funeral Hem-fit of from 
12& lo ttu; Member'* Funeral Hetielll. fit* U> 

Varv au <f*w j. |ii I iiiirt * ra ■ ■ * ui i ■ ■ 1 i , 4a ■ » 

1300; and Lilaablllty Demerit tlOO to %V*i^ In 
llieno tlcucrel llonc.ni* Kit.fStM have been ex- 
(a-mled the |whI year, and JUKI IMS the. pant ten 
year*, whilu W 000 morn wan *|*ml for Hick 
Benefit* by Hie Loral Union*. Hn.hu>, orRani- 
The Brotherhood in at no a 1'rolectlvu Trade 
Union aa woll an a Benevolent Hocicly. It haa 
rained the waxes In MS cltle*, ami placed Five 
and a Half Million Dollar* niuro wages anaually 
1 11 the pocket* of lbs Carpenter* In Ihoae cltlon. 
It reduced the hour* of labor to 8 hour* a day tn 
61 cities, and 9 hour* a day In 416 eltlea, not lo 
apeak of 4S7 cltle* which have established the ■ 
or fc-bottf system on Saturday*, By thin mean* 
12,110 more men have gained employment Thl* 
lathe reaul t Of thoro ug: h o rga i> I xatl o n . And yet 
very few strikes have occurred, and very little 
money haa been npent 00 ntrtkesby thl* nuclei y. 
It Is not a secret oath hound organization. All 
competent Car lain tern are eligible to Join, and 
this 1* an Invitation to you u* an intelligent 
mechanic to send in your application for mem 
berahipln the Carpenler*' Union of your city. It 
1* a branch of the Brotherhood] the due* are but 
"mall In onmpariHon with the benefit*, and It Is 









ftom it horn tBptti <•/ thfif fatm(\ may be had at 
Hflttn </•"/( itifh. 

, r »;iJ,.'i«l. llmidMw, 
tYulllinin, fltn**. 
serial Mm. -tun, 1 14. 

Benjamin V. t ook, 
Filed Jan. N, |«0i t 
fWii model.) 

CUttm, — A 

( ivn rn rial M 

**' I'M I ■»>■ |l' M 

and A 1 1 1 1 ■ s 

handle fur 
plate* ri * '■ i 
auk* fur re 
>|huiIiik : 

hab<]*HH r * 


ll loRt'llllT Hllcl having 

■elvlng lhe taw blade 
kini it rubber bin, 

vul«tnl/:ed unto *aid plate around said opening. 

foil. 7 III. f ollltlllird Pill mil and I.ctcl 
Tlmolliy A. Itcmscii, HriHikljn, H. \ . 
ass i s t W O> lo Mary K. Hi niH>ii,unif place 
filed) flt-pl. II. isidi aerial ft*. »4»,T03 
iVu model.) 


rfn(n».-Iii acmubtned level ami plumb the 
combination with the casing provided wilh a 
longitudinal rectangular rcee** and mi ojicul ng 

pnmnmnimltnv therewith at tm upper end, a 

Weighted Hrtn pivoted nmr Its lower enil within 
the rccc**, It* upper end princeling across Um 
ripening h rectangular reccas In-low the reensa 
Mini lit right angle* thereto, having located 
therein a metalh h-vel bar, Hie doors hinged la 
I lie wining for I In- |iurpu*i *prcilled. 

:,M,H7lt. G* K c for Selling l|lit K ea. Ilrilicrt 

J. Thlclei, ai nry Mhro r, St. 

Louts, SUrstft-BMirs of uiu -third l» Gc»r K c 

KnunsLk, Wa**t«(te»i, Mo. Filed Dm. 
J, ( it rim so. MlrKK. <.\„ Model. , 

swlngln K «ealo be Ink formed of „.|, ir „i,. blades, 
lH " 1 "™ n which Ibi limb* of lhe*i,uare and the 
sibling *c»le may enter, substantially M 4» 

3. A square, a swinging scale mounted there- 
on, at the angle thereof, a slot In the blade of 
said square and a sliding scale having a flanged 
eBd and a Iuk whh h In adapted to enter -.ah I slot 
In said scjunreaud a caleh on Bald lug, autmtAft. 
lially iwde»eribed. 

I. A wpiaro, a twinging aealo moiitileil Ihere- 
ou, ■ nlot in the lilmle of «ald (ujutire. the inner 
wall of -um! slot l>eln(t bei-eted, and « Hlidlng 
»i ale having a ahoiltder which abntn agalimt the 
wtuarc, a lug on nafd Hlidlng mule, wlileh ontern 
the alot, the inner ndgo of aald lug being beveled 
and a eatch on said lug for engaging saidwjuare, 
atibfUantiallrai de8erll<ed. 

r>;i«,()?l. I.oek or f.alcll. (htirlea It. He la* 
iiinnii, Hi mtiiiK, p«., autnlgnor t ,),, 

Penn Hardware Co., aame place. Klleil 
Mar. as, Ism , aerial No. .-.(ll.r.NH. (Mo 


Brooklyn, N. T., SuccoaJifol. 

< Mod — I. to a gw^r for marking I he p.wltlon 
of hinge* un iloor* ami door-jatnlw, the nan, 
hlltfttiOti with a BuiMtda Stock, of ehla*] hlade* 
whleli »re ailnpted la he for.fd into the wood, 
adiimUhly mounted thereon , gage Ktude whleh 
are retolubly mounted in the moek, and whleh 
eonlrol aald i hi-el hla.ien. raid atuda In-lng nn 
eoimlriieled arid arranged that UOOI|H<nMtlon 
in made for the xpaee between the el. wing edge 
of the door and the prnjei ting head of the jamb, 
Mihntaiittall; an dewerllied 

2. In a gage for letting hinge*, the combina- 
tion wilh a mock, of ehimtl hlrole- adjUKtahlj 
mounted thereon, ami gage Mini* whleh are 
re Volubly mounted lii the »tiak. xaid hIikIh being 

fot d wilh right angular projection* on llielr 

end*, which may he turned to eitend beyond 
the edge* of the ctiiael bladod, or may Ihj folded 
as lo fall Witbil) the line of »ahl edge*, nub 
Hlantially an dcacrlhed. 

ri.'IU,OI>l. Ki|i»ri' anil AtlArbiiteiit There- 
for. Char I c* A. Taylor, Phi la.. Pa. Flltii 
Sept. IHOI, aerial Wo..V«,Tl»7 (Ho model.) 

<Wm.- 1. Inaloek or latch, the ttorabl nation 
oT a dpi mile for operating the holt adapted to re- 
ceive the end of the key, with a metal key guide 
provided Willi a lranvcr*e ward or ward* adapted 
o lie received In the notches of the key fthank, 
and one or mure eoutiuuoua gulden project Ing 
inward to receive the nlde face of tlie key and 
extending longitudinally pa*t the wardaaml In- 
wardly to receive and 'guide the surface of the 
key Hbank. 

1. In a lock, the combination of tubular pro- 
jection from the c**e, with a key guide filled 
therein and funned with a continuous Inwardly 
juujecling wall- forming groove or grooved or 
guide* to receive and guide the Hbank of the 
key and a ward or ward* adapted, lo be rccei red 
u the uolchcn of the key, the said key guldo 
being formed with one or more of the said wards 
and longitudinally continuous guide* extending 
pa*l the ward* In one integral piece and udaplcd 
lo receive the side face or faces of the key 

For many months back the organised 
carpenter* of the "City of CburcfaeB" 
have been making a etnrdy fight for the 
rigid enforcement of their trade rnleB 
P- J, Carlin, a leading contractor, had 
contracts to build eeveral public Bchoola, 
and had bid on them at standard wages. 
He started and cut wages on these jobe 
7."> cents per day. The Kings Connty Dig 
trict Council of carpenters, backed by the 
U.B.,made a Btand.and called oil the men 
Union and non-nnion men obeyed. After 
a battle of weeks Mr. Carlin capitnlated, 
agreeing to union wagea and rules, and 
signed a contract to that effect with the 
l>. C. Mr. Carlin was the etool- pigeon 
of a number of contractors in making 
this tight, as they were cutting wages. 
Their cases will be taken care of next. 
During the struggle Rueineee Agent Bob 
Reatty was arrested for conspiracy and 

Boycott the Baltimore Base-Ball Club, 

May 7, tlM| 

lCl. i t i lr Door-open 
r, Long Islam! City, 

serial No. 

510,47 1 



f(n(tn.— I. A mpiar* having a swinging scale 
tDQUnted at tho angle I hereof, a sliding seala on 
one of the llmha of said square, 'Siild swinging 
scale being formed of separate blades tietween 
which lhe limbs of the Mmare and the sliding 
"cale may enter and a shoulder on said stldlng 
"eale which holds the aame at right angle* with 
lhe limb of the scale, against which it ahuU 
substantial ly »s described . 

3 A«*|.iare having a swinging schIs mounted 
thereon al the angle thereof, and a sliding scale 
of the limbs of aald 

ff/'tiwt.— In an electric door O) teller, In combi- 
nation, a easing, a magnet, an aniiature-lcver, a 
rock b ver pivoted In the casing and adapted 
when moved In one direction to lie engaged and 
held against movement by tho armature lever, 
and when moved In the other direction to be out 
uf [iCHllion to be engaged by the armature-lever, 
a catch mounted to swing In the casing and 
adapted lo be engaged by a bolt on the door, a 
bul on the catch, and stoisl on the rock-lerer 
projecting therefrom and adapted to engage np- 
|»o*llc faces of the tail, one stop being adapted to 
be engaged and moved tiy (tin tail of tba eatch, 
when the aruittture-lever is disengaged from the 
rock-lever, to move the rock-lcTcr out of po*l 
lion Lo tie engaged by the aruiaturedever, and 
the other stop being adapted to bo engaged and 
moved by the lull of the eateh lo move tlie rock- 
lever Into poslilon to lie engaged by thu arma 
lure- lever, substantially its set forth. 

i.i-,li" Window -sash II org la r- Alarm, 
Jacob R. KehonebcTKer, llrooklyn, ft. ¥. 
Plied fltt. *, 1«0* i serial No. A«i,T7<J 

(Ha model } 

rjumv— An alarm i-omprlslng a toothed wheel 
mlatatdy mounted upon lhe lower sash of a 
window and engaging a rack bar upon the upper 
*a»)i,a bell *iipporled adjacent the wheel, the 
lap p«T thereof ladng actuated by projei-lions 
upon lhe win el, as specified. 

7 An alarm comprising a toothed wheel rola- 
tnbly mounted upon the lower sash or a window 
and engaging a rack bar upon the npprr saiih, a 
bell supported adjacent the wheel, the clapper 
thereof being spring held and adapted to be 
actuated by projections upon th. wheel, sub- 
stantial I y a* d escrl b« d , 

In the construction of their new atande 
in the base-ball grounds in Battimore, 
the principal owner, Mr. II. Von der 
Horst, and manager, Edward Han Ion, 
hired non-union carpenters. Both of 
these parties repeatedly assured the com- 
mittees of Union 29 and of the Federa- 
tion of Labor, that none bnt union car- 
penters wonld be employed on the job. 

Thia radical breach of faith mnst be 
rebuked sturdily. Hence the trade and 
labor unions uf Baltimore have decided 
to boycott the Baltimore Base-Ball Club 
in its home city and in all ita travels. 
Organized labor and all fair men are 
asked to help- The management of the 
club since the boycott has been placed, 
has felt ita heavy hand. They even re 
quested the boycott to be raised, on con- 
dition that they would have all work 
hereafter done by none but nnion men. 

Though the boycott has been scooted 
and ridiculed by the daily papers, atill it 
has had a salutary effect in several places 
Through the energy and efforts of our 
Rochester, N, Y., unions, the Rochester 
Base-Ball Clnb cancel led their engage- 
ment to play with the Baltimore's, and 
arranged to play with the Washington 
Club instead. All over the land let this 
boycott be pushed energetically to suc- 

A (.'lorious Victory | n tiaheitton, Tex. 

For many months Carpenters' Unions 
r>26 and (111, Ualveaton, Tex., have been 
working like beavera to get the eight- 
hour day. Finally, after repeated nego- 
tiation with the contractors, there were 
hopes of gaining the demand without a 
strike. Bat as the first of May ap- 
proached the contractors combined, and 
made a dead set for an outrageously 
large reduction in wages to offset the 
men. The city had been thoroughly 
organ ized among carpenters and all in 
the building line. Tlie card system was 

in strict loree. At last Bro. s. J, Kent, 
of the G. E. B., waa eent to Galveston. 
He worked diligently to bring a settle- 
ment, for days the bosses were immov- 
able. The men then threatened tostrike 
And at last the men secured the eight- 
honr day and 35 cents per honr. The 
increase to go into effect July 1, next. 

Yon k err, N. Y.— On May 6, Unions 
373 and made a joint demand for an ad- 
vance to $3.00 per day, a raise of SO cents 
per day, and to hold the working hoars 
at nine hours per day and eight hours on 
Batnrdays. The men were successful in 
securing a compromise on half the in- 
crease without a strike. 


Ills an old, well-established principle of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenter* for i 
to buy Union I.ahbi. Goons In 
Other articled. And why not* If w 
wages for our labor, why should we 
made at unfair wages by others. 

The Union Label in eyery Industry is a | 
ante* of fair wages, decent working 
and union labor employed. 
We here give a facsimile of the Union 
may know Union Label 
ita point to ask for I 


vwiog ana lb. 

This Is the label of the 
M Journeyman Bakers and 
,H» Confectioners, under their 
ter national Union. It la 
ted on white paper In 
{) black Ink and Is pasted on 
,ch loaf of bread. Iti 

This Label la used on all 
goods made by Union men 
connected with Unions 
affiliated with the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, 
where such unions have 
no distinctive trade Itbel 
of their own. This label 
Is printed on l 

k n vuiin 



death to long hour* and low 

wage* In bakers' slave pens underground. 

Thia Label Is 
Issued n n d • t 
authority of th* 
Interna II anal 
Typogr a phloal 
Union and of tlie German Typograpbta. The 
label Is used on all newnpajier and book work. 
It always hears the name and location of i aais 
the printing work Is dona. 


The Boot and Shoo Worker*' Union t* the 
National head of the trade, and Is a new com. 
hi nation of all the branches of boot and shoe 
workers. The abovo trade-mark when found 
on the solo or lining of a hoot or shoe, Is 
a guarantee that the same la made by union 
labor. On account of the Introduction of so called 
lasting machines and "scab" workmen, the boot 
and shoe workers deemed It necessary to take 
this effective means lo protect themselves and 
purchasers of Too I wear from unscrupulous man- 
ufacturers. The union made 
are sold as cheap as the inferior ■ 

Save $50 When you Build. 

Hicks' Builder*' Guide 

comprising an easy and practical system of esti- 
mating material and labor for Carpenters, Con- 
tractor* and Builders. A comprehensive guide to 
those engaged In the various branches of the 

Pries, IIW 

The Building Budget and 
Everybody'* Assistant 

contains the practical experience of over SO bulld- 
— right to the point on sjl^suhjeels relating lo 

Hicks* Vest Pocket Guide, 

A memorandum, time book, price current and 
bandy reference. It Ticaus. Bent free for the 
asking. Don't miss It 

I. P. HI OK 8, Box 17. Stetson A, I 


Agt'ul* f.-r 'I III. I'JU'KMN: 


84 Uouu- C. Hulchiuaon, 103 Oovernmentst 
91 »• (Col.) W. G. I* win. Til St. Loula ft. 


818 Market It. 



l/Ot Arhhlk— 8, Cray, Box 224. 
Pin A deb* Ueo. W. Kecd, Boi 306, 
BimaiDt- Cha*. Hamilton, 4th and 

lypltie rtvo. 
Si* Fbabciboo— Secretary of Dial. Council, 
li. II. Ingle, IH Turk it, 
S3. N. L. Wandell, 38 Ninth it. Hta. B 
804 IOw.) Win. Jllge, 2381 H Miieton alreel. 
483, f+ny ljtthrop, US Turk it. 
816. RAH JOHS-E. K. Crown, 596 8. 3,1 at. 

SB. Ha if Kapabl -K. Hoott, Bui 873, 
238. HAJrti BAB1ABA-E. A. Smith. 1139 Ooetello. 


■8. Halifax. N. 8— A. Northup, 169 Morris it. 

18. Hamilton - W. J. Frld. It Nelaon it. 
1M. Ix>iriM>u-E. J Aunt, 706 DimdMit. 
184, MomthkaL — (Fr.) 8. Levellle, MO Ix>gAn at . 

3d n»t. 

878. " H. T Holland. Si Kent at. 

88. Bt. Catilahihx*— Henry BaJd^Ixiula* bL 

87. tobowto— d. 
•17. VjUtooptbh. 

rle elrect. 

841. Wumna. Man. it Boll, 7« Schulu it 

MO. Ooloilado Citt— O. F. Hand). 
518. Colorado Hpt4».— 0. Colliler, 33 Franklin »L 
-D. M. Wood., 33S3 Logan *ve. 
B. Banner, 624 W. 14 th Bt. 
.0. Moron, 831 N, 

£I«B9 UMU. Hi 

. D. McNeill, a« Hamburg av*. 
B, O.-L. G. Doldge, 234 liar- 


Ha vq ht illb — I . H Whit* 
iBDlANAPOLia— (Ger.) II F. Brxudt, 100 8. 
Linden Hi. 
" H, B. Travla, 27 i Itrookalde ave. 
" J M. Prultt 22H Pruapectat 
UJ/irnt- H. G. Cole. 387 South at 

" (Uer > Jacob Eherle. 133 Dillon*!. 
Million— J. M. Simons, 609 Sherman at. 
Mvuni — J, D. Ulark, 718 Klrby av. 
Nbw Albabt— A. T. Smith. 1H0 W. 8th at 
BicuMoitn— Jeflcraou Cox, 527 N. lOlbatroct 
South Bbbd — Geo. Lasher. Box 668. 
Tiiu IlAUTB— 8. Hi) I tan. 313 8. 14th It 
8*8. VlWOEWUBU— A. O. Pennington, 81U N.ath It. 


881. BrjBUTieTOB— Wm. Ruff. Ills El li* both at. 
651. DavbhpoST— W 0, Meyers, 924 Harrison at 
88. D»Moi™-A. Y. HwAyne, 783 Oak it . 
«7H. DBBOqCB-M B. Hog*n.299 7th at. 
348, OiiALooHA-J, H. Parker, 8, let at. 


1M. I.BATWtrwoBTH-t4.MoOaullv .ith A Seneca ata, 
168. TOPBBA-C. K « aril n or, 307 II* k Bt. 

_J— A. Client ugton, 38 B. Thorn a* 
(4+er t .toe. EimpraD 31* W. 13th at. 

Daytob-Jo*. Deux, 34 HheiiBford >t„ Bo lle- 

HOFEINMVILLXt— W. t). Hall, 

Le.VlNuTuN- (1 W. Stover. 118 VV Main at, 
CouteTILLB — H. W. Dowuard, 1711 Port- 
land ave. 

" H. 8, Huffman. H18 Twenty -fourth at 
" (Gar.) J . Schneider. 1538 Bruit at. 


Nbwpobt— M. Mtfanu. Geu. Delivery. 

I-W. B. Wllllaraa. 707 8, 10th at, 
Jaa. M. Powell. 

N im Oulba**. -Secretary or Dtatrict Conn 
ell F. «. Wetter, 2220 Joaephtue bL 
78, l> 0. Koaler. 2818 Conatance it 
348. f!. Doering, 730 Julia it. 
701. t. Ihihrkop, 4S38 Aiinunelatlou at. 
789. John 8alaar, 611 V 111 ere *L 

(4*r»an. Box 881. 

712. OoTirWTOB- 




186. OuiT Falls— A. J. KroiiiurUin 
mt. nm.«i4A-Oha« «1aln.810Mh ai 

3^0 UAl.IhPKLL- P, It. NllBOtl 


127. Omaha— Thoi. McKay, 2633 Franklin at. 
851. " (»or.) It. Kuppert, 2018 Martha it. 
686. " (JJ»u ) J. Tolalrnp, W8 S. 16U. I 

US. OoBtOMB— Haua I.araeo. P.O. Box 553 
118. Miio hbhtbb H T L^inoj) . *5 I Vr-uRlani *L 
580. PobtmMODTH— K. (J, Frye, IJHdioolat. 









AOBBY FlU — Henry P. Hant, Boi «97 
BATuHWa—SUphei! Huajf, 713 Avomie K. 
BaiixiaTOK— J. H. tteevee. 145 Fayetto It. 

E. Potoraon. 337 Mofhanlo at. 

317 Fay av. 



TleaWatklna. 50 Alloa at, 
-Wm. A. Nelleon 33 Wooatent. 
40. MxtBfDKV — Geo. J. Stanley, 358 Butt Main it 
IT. Narw BaMTAlK— John Hlltpold, P O. Box Wi 
7W. Maw HATaW— G. E. Chlpinau, lot Waahlug, 
ton at. 

187. Norwich— A D. I^ewia, 91 Aaylum it 
746 NOBWAUE-Wm. A. Kelk««, Box 891. 
810. HouKVtLLtt—Gtto Diederiuir, Box 824. 
•W. WATanauHT — Joaeph Sandlford. Box 680. 

moi- W. P. Crawford, 1001 W. 3d 

40. Wilmu 


JB-L. F. Burner. 1223 8 au. N. W. 


154. Four IIhookk-A. I. VVhittaktr. 

Kux i.-.". Tampa 
EH. JA<.rBi-jf.-ii.L- [> ■•>!.) M. K Dunlap, cor. 

Jell'oraon and futon *ta. 
•05, Jacblhiihtils.— Win. Whileford, our. HtaW 

and Laura iti. 
74, PmbiaoOlA— «eo Marble. B»z 71. 
. Tampa— H. r Htopheuion. Hob 171, 
■ Pali Beach- W, V, 

489. Atlabta-F W Hitohtotk, 92 Jell at 

T. P. L*wla,13U9PMJIpit, 
. I4U Third at., 

_ -Loula Gone, 822 Hrlatow at. 
..Jr'I-P Puuliut, 2108 Joaeph at. 
, Cab-tow- Homer W Lai en, 34S W.Uana Place. 
-^ioaso— HeereUrT of Dtatrlot Council, 
W. H. Bowel, 49 La Halle it. 
tamm.iaoW. Uke at. 

. (French) P. Hud on. 54 Vernon Park PL 
. fBnham.) John Bund, 5»K. W. 20th it. 
, (Soand.lB. K> if burg. Wllelueat. 
, (tier ) Thoo. Deat h, S327 Union Ave. 
, Wru. Bennelte 1714 N. Clark it 
, Jaa Bell, 1310 Van Horn it 
. (Ger ) John Muckrau. 32*3 Oakley ave.. near 
83d itreet. 

, (Hnll.)E F.Vanataeii»erg. 117-1 lath at. ate T 
, (BUIra) OuiL Hauaeu. 388 Aualln Bve. 
. (PoliiL) I. MaoUk, 128 W Blackhawtt at, 
[Bohem >-J. Kvoboda. 1816 Cook at 
W. II Plillllpa. SUV Flournay at 
, i Cor ) (Mill Bench Handa) F, H. 

Ilia Houia" ave. 
, H. Frledrlch, » Heine plaoa. 
HAJrtBT Lona-K Weudlla K .B>l IllluotiaT 
Blmhubbt — (Cer.) H. rtUllnB I*. O. Box 36. 
Ebulwwood— 1). F N meant, 818 83d a*. 
BTilrroB -J F. McFarrmn. 1135 Kiuermm at. 
FaUBWOOD— O fhibman, Jefferaon, our. lOld 
Oaumum- P. F. Hwaneou, 78 > K North at. 
■li QMbbbBM -« F AJuten. 7TJ0 Dobwou ave 
HiUVlT- tl tl Morae 

IiaaiLABD Pabb— 

. P Carter, 743 K. Chamber* 
-M. Kougi-rou, 118 115th 
at. Hta T, Chloan 
Labth Foaaai B. W, Dean, Box *» 
I j. Hall*-F, H KllioU. 1118 f>rava Dour at. 
LwCXttJ-tLF Po« 637 H1>i.hat 

Wn*«»rrrs-Oeo NaaJy, 617 Ho. Main iL 
Mo— tro-,1 T, Hum*, MM Ktuat* at. 
OAS PaBB— H. BoetU-her, 13* Marengo >t 

IMvoua -K W Hhneh.XH^ Banenak-t 
Pnn- DmM G*orsa. 
Odipot— Wm Banner. WO N. Frontal, 
, BuoKrokti — L, M. Hlckox. 

ILABD — Jo* Neu/eld, 437 7th at. 
CmOAOO— J. O. Crantham, 
_dwardaa*a 81a H , Chloa<r- 
•,B»9LBWuoi)-l Toomu-oo 8454 Vlnoenoe 
avenue, Ohlewn 
J.Ii.Freu nd, 16188 Craud av. 

A tniniiu —8. 

ABDBBaoB-A. If. Cooper, 69 E. Butler It. 

o*. F. Wurth, 903 K Columbia ■L 
[Oar 1 P. 1*. Nau, 1601 Fullnn ave. 
Mill atach. and B. H.) G. T. 
1601 B Mlaaourial. 
Watb»-a b. 1 

7*j (k 



107. law IVTOB — A . M Kl*»r k. 94 Spring it. Auhuri. 
344. PoBTLABD— N, C, Mi Doiiald. 161 York It. 

. W Hint ih, 6 Willow at, 
B. Hutctilna. 13 FermvaJ at 


:oB*-W.H.EeenaD,1137 B. Fayette at 
(Gar.) H. B. fckihroeder. 80S N. Wolf at- 


State Dtitrlet Council— Btcrc lary W C, 

Deagle 617 Hyde Park av.. H ■ de Park. 
Boitob— W. J. Hhlelda. 10 Cheablreat., 
Jamalc* Plain, 
" (Jawlah.) L. Klchter, 6 Sheaff at 
" (Hhop Hands) W 8. Jardlue.t Burn- 
llde ave., Somervllla. 
OAJtlBIDOB— D. Maloney, 24 Huron ave. 
Eabt BravroB — J E Pott* 417 Western ave., 

Fall KlTBB— Jaa Walton, I Branch at. 
FlTunirrmo— V. Weatherbee, 9»j Croon it. 
Gu>Dc-Bsr>B— H.W.IJavli Box 443. 
HavkbhtlL— P. 1> Oaaa. 100 Locke at. 
Hlbsham— Colin Campbell. Box 113. 
Eciaoa — Geo. B. Bryant. Box 126, 
Htdb Pa as — B. Daly. 41 Garfield «L 
liiWIBHit-JuiiM MflJireu, 160 Water at. 
Lbnoz- Jna P. Klrby Bdx 118. 
Lowbll— Frank Kapplor, 2* I Lincoln it. 
Lttb-M. L. Delano. 103 Lewla at. 
Mabxlmhbap — y . Hammond. Box 108, 
Mablbouo— .1. O. Douohue, 11 Hchool at. 
Naticb— 8. P. Annia. 18 Oakland it. 
Nrw Bbbfobb— O. G Francis. 14 Bpruce at. 
Nbwtoh— C. Conueia, Box 71. 
Nmwton Cbntbb— Fred Bolaner, Bob 789. 
NOBTB Aqam*— Job Gary. MH Proa peel at. 
NoBTH EaMOS— C. W. Mason. Box 448 
Boxbubt— a. M. Taylor, Feu loo at., Dor- 

i-F. A. Bvltta, 1 Smith av* 
BBTii.LB—Ir* Doughty. 6 Carlton at. 
Vu.au I sou am - Irvine Mink. 
BrklM«t>tmj»— (French) I BaaaeHe, Box 786. 

Geo. Elmer. 41* Central at. 
1'aubtob- D, O. King. 10 Gen Cobb. 
WrrMOCTH— K. J. Pratt, Weymouth Helghta 
D. Flake. 710 Main a*. 

T. 8. Jordan. 137 Beau fait *ve. 
O H. Glbbinga, 177 Beaublen at. 
760. Gkabd RAPID* — Aug. N*l«on, 18 Marlon at 

Mt Jackbob — H. Beban, 308 Deyo at 
331. KaLaMAXOo-H. Greitidyk. 1003 N. Park at 
50S. LtTDt iiiTOl- A . B. Dlbbl'j, P O Bo. 6-J6. 
490 MaBUTU— Wm Blodget, 808 Hanle it 
100. Mrrauaoa- F. B. Hid out care Brake not n. 













en and^4l 


Oermikiiia nve. 
I4K. O n. Hoyninn 111 8. 10tb at. E. f 
MIL (Will) L. Malar. LSI Haruard at.. W. H 
M. JTB. Charl.bola, 923 N. Fayette it., W. H. 
aBL (tier.) P. Fnich, 160 J H. Warren ave., B. B. 

ML DtrLCTS-J L. Haaalay, 415 4th ave. W. 
•7. Bt. PAtnL— Au*f. J. Metager, 131 V 







1 1 

Btatiob-O. Roll. 1711 Arthur ave 
Ht. Loula. 

Kabia* tJirr — W. A.Irf)ehman.709 Mondyav 
BPSiaunaLO-J. W. Patrick, 10*7 N. Bonne- 
ville at. 

ST. Tvotri*— fteoreUrv of Durtrict Council 

V. B. Iamb, 6848 Odell ave. 
Geo. J. Swank. 2131 Alice at*. 
(Ger.t Budulpn Gloor, *Qt Kidney at 
(G*r.) Bdw. kleaallng. 11)6 N 
Jamaa Shin*. 4*54 Hlal«e ave, 
(Gar.) D. Flueprel, 4011 N 33d at 
S. G. Fergoaori 817 W. Jefferaon 
A. N. WoTff, 6825 Theodoal* av 
(Gar.)G. Jablonaky. 3 
'Ger. I Henry Thi.le. 

Grarola ave 
(Stair Bldra.) E, Foelah,411l 
(Mlll*rrta;ble)-J 8 Miller, 
C. H. Guibc, 1629 Olive at. 
(Gar, Hill) P. A. Lanx, 2307 

Abaoobda— O W Starr, Bo 
Baiib— John Notion. 

Camdmb— T. 


Bo. Bllxalieth. 
Ei.iiAHKTU — (Cor.) J' hn K uh li, 837 Martin it 
Kit u lb wood — S. 1.. WoKtervelt, H»i 336. 
HOBOBBIt-F. HUtlgloltor. 109 Carden at 
Hai'BBSback— T. Htiath, 150 Htaie h|. 

JBHJ.BV CITT-G. Wll lUil.Mi.U. l.'O 1 Bt. 

(J. ft HbiuiiisI John I , Hiulurf, North rt 


Lonu BSANUH-Chaa B Brown, Box 

Lung liiamii Ctly. 
MiLBimn-J. H. While, Hhort Hllla. 
Mn.LViLJ.a-- Jaa McNral. 
Mu<nrt.Aiu. Tlioa Kt-hoo, 9 Fuitou «t , I'.O 
Bux 21. 

688. MoBBUvrowit -C. V. DoaU l«tk Boi 188. 

N kWAb k -si-cre urv uf IHalricll't 'U, 

J. Htt rli, g, II Now at. 
119. H. G, LonK. 119 Mtidiauii at 
306 A. L. Bevglu, Orange al 
738. lUer.l G. Areudt. 598 H. 14th it 

603. OcSANtiv- Zacn. T. Ala*. Box 70. 
1,8 Patbhhob- (Hull ) Al. Meoueii. 36 N Mail) 
836. " P. E V mi lluuten. 713 A. 37 Ui 

190. Pabbaio— Daniel Kane. 171 Mam ave. 

399. Phim.ipkbi'h" 'V m. Hodgn, our. Mulberry 

and Hp ring ardeu at*., EaaUm, Pa. 
166 Plaikfibld— Win H. Lunger. 94 Weatervelt 
438. 8 OiiMii Ed Walab. Box 4N. Maplewood 
466. MrMMiT— Bdward Mait n, hox tila. 
643 Town OF Union — Job. Wohlfarlli, Weoliaw, 
ken P 

81. TBjtKTOH I. T Iteed, 151 ' >ld Ho«' at 

ALBA try. - Heerelary of Dielrict Council 
D P. Kirwln, 13 Myrtle av. 
374. Jamee Finn, 337 Orange at 
659 (Gar.l Alev Blukert. 416 Elk Bt 

6. AMiraBDAM— Herbert Ciark, Pork I in at 
453. AC1UBM-W. W. Gllleaple, 119 B. Geu< 
LSI, Bi»oHAMT«B— C. H. Torre y, Box 993. 
Brt"OBLT»— Secretary of District 
T, B. Liueburgh, 890 Galea ave. 
109. M. A Mahor II Irving PI. 
117. W. F. flregorv. 831 Madlaon at. 
176. B. V. Klllaon, Hill Pnlnam ay 
347. Cha*. Monroe M HI Mark'a ave. 
261, M. H|«nc". 36 Van Btirou it. 

191. (Ger.) C Thleiiiain, M^f. Broadway. 
381. 8 K. Blllult 89 Kockaway ave. 
481. Wm Carroll. 793 Bergen it 
471. Fred. Brandt, 456 6th ave. 
I£7. (MlilwHghta) W. B Keik, 13 Butler at. 

639. Jaa. Black. 289 Md at 
BurvALO— HBcreU*ry of IMilHrt < toundl . 

W. H Wrt Rgllt. 64 Trinity at. 
>. W. H WregglU. 68 Trinity it 
866. (Ger.)B. Luenao, 118 Hoao at 
874. E. O Yokora, 19 Fortrumn ave. 
4*0. 3 C Welgel, 292 High Bt 
99. OOBOBH— A. Van Amaru 13 <4enr«* It 

640. Oollb»b Pour».-G. A. Pick el, 61b av*. i 

llth it 

806. OobtlabD— K W. Gtandell, 8 Maple ave 
818. Blmiba-E M. Hnyder, 761 B Market 
338. FlBUBILD-OB-Huneoai- Jaa. Hayea, 

taawan. N. T. 
714. FLDiHIBe— P H Field, 164 New Locuit it 
500. Glbb OOVB- LI, John Martin. 
139. Glhx*) Fall*— lr* Van Duaen. Bn Bam jrd Bt 
I4S, IbtxbwTOI- AJei H. Smith. Bob 1*7. 
608, ITHACA— K A. Whiting, 8 Auburn Ht. 
Ml. El¥8*TOB— J. DeyoChtpp, 150 Clinton ave. 
691. LrrrLB Fau*- T B. Mangan. 529(iarden at 
498. Ht. VkmBOB-J. Beardaley. 131 N. 7th ave. 
801. NBWBtTBiOB— M. J. Caaey.67 Liherty it 
41 Nbw HooilbllB T Qiilnlaii. 46 Drake av 
107, Wbwtiiww, l> I — T H Way rnmn> Pd .l.i 
Haw YOB* — Secretary or IKatrict Oounc'l 
J. G. Doyle, 2*> B itilh at. 
61. B. A. Uodd. 1846 Oiiabulm Bt 
68. Jaa J. Kane, 837 K Set h it 
64. 3. D. Lounabury. Hudaon Bldg . 301 W. 87th 
»0. (Jawlah) John Goldfarb, 213 HaIIhh it 
309. (Ger. Cab. Makeri) I^oula Becker, 136 K 
761 b at. 
A. Watt, Jr., 103 W, 10*11, t l 
(Ger) O. Kaechole, 2087 Id ave. 
H. Meymoiii fWOldave, 
C. Malherba, 433 W IMlh at. 
(Baku.) J. IjO wander, 28 K I14tb at 
IGer.l H Malberger. 633 K. 156th at. 
J G. Doyle, 333 £ I 
Wm. Trotter. 



















BunvkUB— J. A Fink 
OaHTuk- Keller Huff. 91 Charlua at, 
CiMM.inmia K. F. Thomson, 167 W.Maln 
CiNclBKATi— Hocretary of Dlatrlut IViuncli 

D P. Bow laud, 102 Hy tunica it , Walnut 


W. A. Kotiyon, IlSSyiiunea at. W. II. 
(Ger.) A tig mil Welaa, 389 Frexmau ave, 
(HhlpCarp ).L A. Hamilton. HO B. Front 
(Mill 1 II. Ktinkworlh, 86 Woodward at 
(HUlra) H. IL'gtt 427 MliUm at. 
A. Beraar, 237 Fergua at., MUtlon A. 
A. ,L Maine!, m Delta av*. station C. 
D. J. JmivH, <4 Kenton at , Hta D. 
I,. A. Grull, 213 Jotteraon ave . Hta, B. 
jr. A. Wngiier. 729 Frt>ewan ave. 
Will, Kthel, 1341 W. 'ith at. 
J, P. I.uckoy, 7 Hlooiu at 
OLBVBLjUiF-Socruuiry ot District Oounetl 

VlnetinlHlaviu. 168 Suparior it, 1 
A M. HI air, 26 Havle* at 
(Itohoni.l V. tllavla, 124 Carrau Ht. 
(Ger.) Thro Wothrith 16 Parker av*. 
(Uer.) W. II HihultA,35 Conrad at. 
H. J. Blgga, al Havlea at. 
• ..; , i..r Hill- M Wmoiii. 
Ooi.DMBiiH — SeiTeUtry of Dtatrlct Oouucil, 

J. W. Midi, 21H E Spring at. 
A O. Welch, 782 W Broad at 
John Gahau, 958 laniard ave. 
DaVToB-W. C. Smith. *28 K. HulTiiiaoavr 

(Ger.) Job Wlrth. 31 1 t lover at 
IhxtBl- Jainea 8latt«ry, Home City. 
B. LiTBBPuOL- It B MievniHon. Pleaaaut ri 
FlJtDLAY— W. Alapach 838 Adama et 
HamiltuH— W Muaeh. 1141 HeaUm at. 
lBONToB.-A.il Neuiueyrr. 13S B. It ilrei-l. 
Ijma J Vaiiaweriugeu. 713H Main at. 
i.!H ki.ami < n*a B. Hertol, Hut 182 
Mauibortilu-K L. Belden. Box 201. 
MauibTTA-J. W. Furoetor. *» 4th at 
Mabion— J It Smith. Old N. Slate at 
MauTIN b Fmaav -Tlioa V.Salialiury, Box Ua 
HmiiiXToWrt - Win. Hill, 46 VandevareBL 
My WabhibtoN-W H NIclioLaon, 
NmyOlviLLB- A 11. Mllli r. 
Norwood — A.K Ke*t, Ivanboeay., 

Norwood, Clnciuiiall. Ohio. 
Pom ic Boy — J, M. Fowler, MaaonClty, W. Va, 
PobtmmodtB— J. F. Wanleea. Box 338, 
Hpbuofi»ld— W. B. Knlaley, 315 Linden ave. 
HTEViBBy illb — D. B. Vtrden, 310 B. 6th It. 
TirrtB — A. Wolgle, 151 Sycamnreat. 
Toi HDO— J. W. Mitchell. 49 Vance at. 

(Uer.) A. Nopper, 834 Mouro it 
YoDBiMrrowg-C. N. Croxlor, 12* Baldwin at. 

10th Ward. 




Cumrolnga. 1 rheatnut at. 
Then. B 4 1 raln, 56 Teriaoe at 








478, W Chamberlain, 837 B 138th it 
487. (Ger.) H Baumann, 38 lata*. 
•D9 Patrick Savanagb 84* W i*tl. at 

818. (Gar.l Bichard Kuehnal, la B Jth it ,lop floor 
707. (Fr. Canadian) L Bellmare, 238 B. 76ui Bt 
716. J. P. Btatlne, 3483 8th av* 
788. (Ger Mlllwrt(hta and Mlll«ra) Henry M**k 

tM 17tb «t Ho H"H>klyn 
678, NiaUABa Pall* - B B Cornell. 4*6 Kim wood 
174 NTAca-Bobt. F. Wool, Box 494 
101. Oibobta-A J. Byan. B B. 
404. Pobtc BaaTBB.-W. H K. Jonaa. Bye, N. Y. 
308. HouuHBBBMLB-O. B Hakor, Box O. 
71. li*-* HBaTBB H M Fletcher, 31 HarUctt at 
179. (Gar.) Frank Sehwind. 4 Mar PI*** 

479. AflBBOA Fall* -C. £. Doty, 79 t hapel at 
1*8. McBBSTawf ADT— Henry Bain, 336 Craig at. 

Btatb* Iilabd- Secretary of Diet Council, 
T Bhay. 19 6th av. New Brlrhtne. 
506. Pout Hk hkoiD — J. Kaenan, 338 Jeraev at 

New Brifhton. 
687. Stapi.btob -P. J. Klee, Box 197. 

16. Bvbacttb*— (Ger. I B. Kretach, 711 Butternutt 
811. T/BBTTowb— D. Page, North Tarry town. 

79, TmOT— Bobt. laude Box 68. 
199. Utioa-G. W. Griffith*. 1*0 Dudley *t* 
690, W/tbbtowb-P. J. Doooey, 3 Union Block. 

Araanel at 
388. Watbblt— A. L. Smith, Box 176. 

Wbht Chmtk Coc nt v- Secretary of Dia- 

triet Council, Jam** riaa-an, 13 I aw to l 

at, Naw Rocbelle, N. Y 
9tl Wbbt Tbot— Gharlei A ngus, 131 3d it 
699. William* Rbidob— John Rdgley. Box S 
Wl TtWKMBB— fTlia* Cord on. 112 Aabburton ave. 
791 U. W. Malllnaou, 916 E'lu itreet 


91 AkBOB— J. GuHBtl U B. Thornton **. 

17. Bbllaibb— (J»o W. *'urtia. Box 30 
170. Bbjdubpobt— John D, Gleun. 





0. L. Mob nay, 70 Wllaou av*. 
(Ger.) Bobert (tramherg. 21 I ten at 
ALTOOBA— H. L. Mio Ith. 3006 4th arc una. 
Baboo a John Albert. Box 160. 
Bbavx* Fall* — A. Hurry. Box 611, 

Chbbtbb- Ktwr 8. Blgby, 340 B Firth it 
Babtob— Frank P. Hum. 914 Butler Bt 
FBABBroBD— J Li. Naoo. 5410 Keyilone at. 

Fuinxi.it- M. D. Cliue. 
G ixba Trawl —J . K. Martin 58 W. Duval 
GBHMB8SUBB— J. H. Howe, 236 ('uncord it. 
HABBIBBUBO <i W ISehl. IZ28 B*rr at 
Hombbtbad— T. II. Wllaun, Box 837. 
Jbabbbttm— J (I. Baker. Penu Station. 

1. A»< ABTBB— O. Hcnecll.304 New Holland a* 
M( Kbbnpobt-8 (4 Cllliert, 111)0 Brick alley. 
Maibpiblo U 11 Mc<^inkey, Carnegie, Pa. 

Box 109. 

Nbw AbbhipotoB- -(' W. Hhafer, Box 168. 
Naw Cibtu -W W. McCleary, 999 Harbor 
Philadelphia — 
Matthla* Moore, 412 N. 6th at. 
(Kenttngton I Cha* L.Sp*iig]er,3164 
,Ger.) Joa. Oyen, 1039 N. 1th at, 
rutin .1 IWHnea. ft mi Servaant at 
Pn-riBrBMB- Secretary of Walrtot 4 

W F. Wlllock, Box 316 Mt Oliver 
H. G. Scbomaker. 114 Webatar il. All**. 
(Ger.) Adolph Bala. 131 12th it, 8. B. 
(B. End) V A. Klnoey, Kiel Bbakeepeara at. 
F. B. Boblnaon, Juliet Bt, 14th Ward. 
(Gor.) Ludwtg Pauker. 1810 Hreedt at. 8, & 
Bbadibu — T. EUalnger 1118 Greenwich at 
R/w •« wtxv- A N Duiormnth Bn* IM. 
SokabtoB— Secretary Dtatrlct Council, 

Bobert Con 1,1 613 Marion at 
Oer>. Staenhack. 908 Oxford at. 
S. BcrkAB-rorMGer.) G. Boe*cb, 725 Palm it 
HhamoxiB- H. A I. Bmluk.610 K. Oameroa 
8BABOB— J. P Smith, 36 A it 
TATLOB- liaorge Wlcka. Box 46. 
I7BIOITTOWB— W. S. Boon I*. IB Mnrgantmr". 

-M Malioy.au N. W**h at. 

in, 514 

P B l»awl«y. fmT)>, 

178, Nbwpobt— P. B Da-lev 693 Tl, amr* at 

604. OLBBTVIU.B-D. J .Hurlej MUHeii.lrlck al , 


Ml. PAwyri ax-r— J. j. I^xdham, Box 31, Valley 

91 Pbotidbbcb— }' Dolan, li Grand View it 


M, OHAULflrroB— (Ool.) M. 
Mount at 



». KloIVILtB- N. Ciidorwood, 14 Anderaoi, at, 

136. Mabtib — B H. Jeffreaa 

194. Hbmphuv Chaa Wei uer, 8M Front at 

™* W ^eV. I1 at*~ J Dun,1 « b » ck ». M* I- Ool- 


MO. AovriB — H. ltoeaaler. 1919 Bre. . 
781. OoaaiOABA — W J Foatar. Hoi in 
198. DALLA*— O L Wiley. Bex 399 
171. DVBIBOB— <i. H Millar, Pox 80* 
333 FT. WOBTS-W H Boldoek, Avenue Hotel 
Willi, at* A °° r W " w Vork and 

(lALVKBTON- f- . ; rrtarv of Diatrict 
A. I*. Bchultaa, 1713 Ave. P. 
598, C B. Ballard Box 896 
911. (Gar.) Blchard H*ldel. N. W.Oor. 

MHaud 17th its 
111. HouaroB- A. Dennlaon. 7i»8 Walker »y. 
987. Sa* AFTOBIo— H L. Mitchell, Box ~ 
MO. " (Gar.) T. Jauernlg. 1111. E, G 
717. " A. G. Wletael, 188 Centre at. 
81*. Tibbbll — D. F Coburu. 

■B. O. LonajruUi, U Walnut at 



m. Halt Lakb Orrr-A. Traoey. Uhurly »vu, 


Sjfl RvbwSOTOII— Ja*. Ohtlda. S3 Worth (L 
M KUTIAWD-J. A. Thlbauil, li Twill at. 




111. OHABLawioM— J. L. Junta Hoz SW. 
IBS CLABXaatJBCi — J. H Kldoiiour. 
(IS RliiM t). B Martin. Mox 20V 
i3> PaibhOKT O K. While. Palatine. 
8. WlllUM- A . [* Bauer, tflltt Iwoh at. 

Hen. IHatrlcl Council Wheeling and. 



IMt. OiUN Bat -W Warner, 628 N Madlnon -.1, 
Od. I.a OkOM*— Julin l.iUU. 1300 Atlanmat. 
130 HiDUOI-Wm Moll. KM Murray hI. 

Uiiwicim HwwiArv of Dlatrlct Oouuntl 
John Beltendfirf, 766 7th av. 
». tOm, ) Wm Hubllta. 740 IMh at, 
MB. (Oar.l Jonn Fktlt.nd.trf, 7«S 7lh **•. 
W. (Gar.) J. Warner. 1JS6 11 Ih Ht. 
in, J till m fUdtka. 341 IMh at. 

Tin- Threatened Sir Ike In London. 

oO.UOO men were involved by the proa- 
pect of trouble in Uie building trades of 
Loudon, Kngland, last month, on May 
I-'. Nearly six months ago I he Central 
Association of Master Builders gave 
notice to terminate the agreement 
arrived at in 1892, and this notice ex- 
pired on May -day. In the meantime 
negotiations have been proceeding— to 
all appearances quite favorably- -but 
they have suddenly been brought to an 
abrupt termination, with no prospect of 
being resumed. Luiployera insisted on 
the men agreeing that no workmen 
should be placed under any disability by 
reason of being or not being a member 
of a trade society. They also asked 
that no objection should be raised to 
aub letting work. The men declare 
tint they have no special objection, 
in principle, to the first demand, but 
allege that it is merely an attempt to 
conceal the employers' demand fur the 
reintroduction ot the piecework aystem, 
to which they are entirely opposed. 
Their objection to the aecond require- 
ment, however, ia fundamental. In a 
manifesto which the Building Trades' 
Federation have issued they Bay that 
they cannot for a moment recognize a 
aystem which the workmen have spent 
time and money in stamping out, and 
which has been discredited by public 
bodies in London and throughout the 
country. The manifesto also states 
" We look to the organized workers to 
maintain intact the condition established 
by the 1802 agreement." 

As to Sovereign Itemed iea. 

has been eaid in 
our correspond- 
ence columns, 
saya The labor 
tribune, aa to the 
hearing of poli 
tics upon the 
labor question. 
Workmen should 
not permit them- 
selves to place 
a falrtu value upon the efficiency of the 
ballot. It is not by any means a sover- 
eign cure fur all their eocial ills ! Unless 
intelligently and properly used, it is a 
powerful weapon tor harm rather than 
good, Recent events, political, will em- 
pbame this statement. Garfield has 
told ub that "unsettled questions have 
no pity for the repoee of nations." The 
nation is to-day in the proceas of re-ad- 
justing ita economic conditions ; this 
process will be continuous, and no single 
remedy will right all wrongs. There- 
fore all remedies advanced ahould be 
carefully and intelligently considered, 
and any that will contribute to thin 
proceas of re-adjustment should be 
accepted. By these methods we are 
reasonably hopeful of partly, if not 
wholly, bettering the condition of the 

Intelligence is the first weapon they 
should arm themselves with. The ballot 
can remedy some of the ills that beset 
them, but not all. Compensation tor 
labor depends upon a variety of circum- 
stances, most of which the law cannot 
modify or reach. One ot the best lawa 
that could be paeeed would he one elim- 
inating about two-thirds of the present 
lawa that cumber the statute books 
One Bet of law /en form the laws and 
another have them declared constitu- 
tional or unconstitutional, just as capital 
or labor is the beneticiary thereof. As 
affairs are conducted at present, the 
musses get bat scant benefit froth the 
laws their money has paid for. Entirety 
too much time and money ia expended 
in framing and passing laws that are 
picked to pieces at will by the judges of 
the courts of law. What plea can law- 
yers submit that they be sent to the 
legislatures as representatives, when 
every Tom, Dick and Harry of a judge 
interprets their laws as capital dictates? 
Will the people never see the folly 
of filling representative bodies with 
lawyer B? 

An Excellent Form of Indenture for Carpenter Apprentices. 

YW* luftantur*, WitnesBeth that ....by and with the 

consent of hath pat himself, and by these presents doth 

voluntarily and of his own free will and accord, pat himself apprentice to 

to learn the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 

Joiner ; and after the manner of an apprentice, to serve the mid 

for and daring, and to the lull end and term of years next ensuing. 

During all of Mid term the apprentice doth covenant and promise that he will 

serve faithfully, that he will not play at cards or dice or 

any other an lawful games whereby the said,. . . may be injured. 

That he will not absent himself from work during the recognised hours of labor, 
without leave, nor frequent saloons, hotels or play houses, but in ail things will 
behave himself as a faithful apprentice ought to during said term. 

And that the said on hie part, doth covenant and promise 

that he will use the utuioat of lib endeavors to teach or cause to be taught or 
instructed the said apprentice in the art, trade and inyBtery of Carpenter and 
Joiner. Bald apprentice shall not be required to work more than the recognised 
hours ol labor. The said further agrees to pay said apprentice 

And for the true performance ot all and aingular the covenant* and agreements 
aforesaid, the eaid parties bind themselves each unto the other firmly by these 

In Witness Wuaaaor, the said parties have interchangeably set their hands 

seals hereunto, Dated this day of in the year of oar Lord 

thousand eight handled and 

(For Oar German Members.) 

foul ftroitrau'l ftrbt an bit ffurprnitr 


Executed and deli. or ed before 

••• ••<••* 

t ai .....■•»•« • 

$em „SJiitroauie* SorroSrW" entneljmen 
roir nadjfte&tnben Kulgug aus einet Hebe 
©rottfau'l an bie bortigen Carpenter: 

Die Sarpenter tjaben feinen (Snfd)ulbi= 
gungsawnb, roenn el ib>en in ftolge mangel- 
Rafter Dtganifation redjt fdjCedjt eraefjt. 
SBenrt i&re £i>ljn* roirflidj uuanftttnbig nieb< 
rig finb, obet roenn itjre errungene adjtflun« 
bige Htbeitljeit ntdjt redjt beo&adjtet, fon< 
bern an oieten SSIafcen aiiebet ttberfdjtitten 
roirb. 3>ie Urbeiter finb fellft an biefen 
Seiben fdjutb. 

So gertau man audj bie Sadjlage untet> 
fudjenmag, fo oiel man bie Ruefflanbigleit 
titter gtofjen 3o|l bei §anbroetfet berilcf fid)* 
tigen, fo Diet man ben fdjledjlen ©inbturt, 
ben bie fogetiannten fajledjten 3eiten auf 
ben Sobnatbeiter, befonbera aber auf ben 
Strbeitllofen detootrufen, and) entfdjulbigenb 
etroiigen mag, bie Seute finb bennod) fetbft 
cetantroottlia) fdjulbig an ifjrer Stifere. 
Ste rotffen ee aus Grfabjung, bafj fie oer« 
einjelt i.re aulbebungenen Sblnte ntdjt auf* 
red)t erb,alten fottnen. 6ie rotffen el aul 
perfSnlidjer, oft fajmerjlidjer Grfabrung, 
bag fte ofjne Dtganifation bei bet Brbett rob, 
oft bis >ut HuDpigfeit aia)tad)tenb be|anbelt 
roetben, veil bet Untemeljmer ober roer ee 
tmmer fei, fte praftol aniempeln barf, Don 
i v nen ein unbegrenstee, oft tin uitm<iglid}ei 
Srbeitsquantum oetlangt. 6ie rotffen, baft 
fid) iebei llnternelimer roiHIurltdje 2ob,rite« 
bufttontn btm Dcteingelten Sibeitet gegen> 
ber ^eraudneb^men barf. Sfflemt ftd) nun 
unlet ben 42& Sauuntetne^mern ). 9. 400 
ted)tfd]affene unb liberate, 20 etnas' geroifi 
fenlofe unb nut 5 uttebtlid>e, tafftnirte 3n» 
bioibuen befinben, fo roetben btefe fiinf 
fdjledjten 3Renfa)en in $otae bet Otgantfa> 
tionaloftflfeit KuibeutungSmatetials, 
ndmlid) bet Satpentet, fet)t &alb bieStbcitli 
jeit flit alle anbercn oetldngetn unb bie 
26bne fat BSe rebujirea. 

Xao b,aben bie SU be iter nun fdjon me v t> 
male etlebt; bie Sarpentet ¥ aben e* fdjon 
breimal buid)mad)en milffen in ben Ie(ten 
|eb,n ^a^ten. 2)ie Satpentet (onnen iene 
bttteien Seltionen bod) nid)t oergeffen gaben ! 
»ber oiele ^aben aua tfaut^ett bie Union* 
Serfammlungen ntd)t Befudjt, fie da 6 en aul 
fitjiget Rteinlidjfeit felbft i,te geringen 
Unionbeiltage nid)t bejab,It. 6ie baben 
bann btefe tbre eter.be 3Iad)Id|figfett, ttjre 
moraUfdje Seigljeit, ibren blbbfinnigcn Seij 
(roeldjet oon bet Union cents roeife fpaten 
mill, unb fiit jeben fo gefpattenSent Bu Sta. 
bis 120 Sent! an (Sinnafjmen oetltett) ju 
oetibtibigen gefudjt. ibnen Dernflnfttge 
©tuitbe jurStedjtfeitigunfl i^tel Zb^unl fe&> 
ten, fagten fte bann : Ste Union nfl^t ja bod) 
mdjtl. SBir lonnen bott ja bod) nidjt! tet> 
nen. SSenn id) uud) nidjt jut Union ge,:, 
belbalb gebt'6 bod) roetter. 3d) Oebet ge. 
hiit ja |u ben &d)taueften, bumm finb bio! 
bie ttnbetn), idj roetbe mtinitt £o^n fdjon 
aufttdjt erbjatten. SUenn id) feine Stbett 
babe, bie Union giebt mit aua) leine ; roenn 
id) fur bie Unionbebingungtn eintrete, 
oetlrete id) oieCeidjt meine Irbett unb ein 
Knberer fptingt in meine eteOe unb id) bin 
bet (SeprtUte, ba faSe id) ntdjt barauf v im 
ein, lie bet atbeite id) felbft etroal btUiger, bie 
K» be in etfa v tcH'l ia nidjt. 6o &b>U4 ift 
bal '4eflunff t, bie eelbfttttufdjung, bie St* 
fd)roid)tigung bel eigenen mab^nenben @e> 
roiff ent befdjaffen. 6o oetfudjt bet moralifd) 
geifl* fid) bei fid) fetbft erft ju entfd)utbtgen. 
fQenn et ftdj fein Sttgenfafttm erft orbenttid) 
eingepautt tjat, fo baft el beinabe fet net eige- 
nen beffeten Ueberjeugung gegeniiber be- 
fte &.en fann, roenn e* in i,m etft bie Cdjam 
pot fein em eigenen Xl)un unterbtuctt dot, 
bann brginnt et erft jur Stbroeb^r gegen be 
redittgte 1l)a,nungen etroal fdjudjtern feine 
[admen Sntfd)ulbigungen aulgufptedjen- 
Dtefe Hebenlarten ft often natfltttd) auf ffli< 
betftanb unb u'tjt roitb bet motatifd) 3eige 
(autet, et roitbetbolt fetnen Sere nun aua) 
ba, too et nidjt gemadnt roitb- <£r fUt)h, 
ba| et im Untedjt, abet et ,at Ja nun feitw 

„guten ©ttinbe" ; auf btefe geflufct, oertangt 
et nunme v t, nidjt all Sd)rodd)tina bettadjtet 
unb bebanbett ju roetben, fonbetn auf @runb 
feiner „@tiinbe" rotH et geadjtet roetben, et 
fdngt an bie Union ju bef&mpfen, gu vet' 
l after n unb bemu,t fid), anbete SoQegen ait' 
juftetfen, benn mit jebem Snbetn, bet oon 
bet Sadje abfdQt, oetltett et einen 3)laf)ner. 

3nbeffen roitb bet ben ftlnf getoiffenlofen 
unb taffinitten Untetnedmetn, roeldje fid) an 
tbre fruder gettoffeiten Seteinbatungen nidjt 
dalten, etroal (dnget rote adjt Stuttben tdg* 
lid) geatbeitet. Sie tnad)en ben edrltdjes 
unb libetaten Untetneljmern eine Con cut* 
reng. tltl funf unedtlidjen Untetneljmet 
fudjen ftd) moralifd) feige Stbettet unb 
brucfen biefen ben Sobn i)etab. $a! 
fann ben anbetn Untetneb^mern nidjt 
oetbotgen bleiben. ^ene in unfemt Seifpiel 
angefflbrten 20 nidjt foliben Untemeljmer 
roetben nunmeb^t, geflutft auf bal Hcifpiet 
ienei funf bblattigen Jlreatuten unb fid) auf 
bie unebttidje ©onfurrena iener betufenb, 
gtetdjfall! bie SSdne brdefen unb gteidjfaHI 
oetfud)en, bie Xtbeitl)eit |U oerlangern. 
91un daben fd)on 26 Untetnedmet fdjledjtere 
Stbeitlbebingungen, all fte burdj bie Drga< 
nifation bet Xtbeitet oeteinbatt rootben 
roaten. S3on ben ubtigen 400 foliben Unter* 
nebmetn, roeldje bbfe Stbftdjten nidjt batten, 
finb abet piele nidjt fe$t fopitalfraftig. 

Diefe tleineten Untetnedmet Ibnnen auf 
bie Sauet bie Scdmu&concurten) jener 26 
Untetnedmet nidjt ettragen, fonbetn aua) fie 
fangtn nun gtgen ibren beffeten SBunfd) an, 
bie £bb>e ju btitden unb bie Ktbeitebebm> 
gun gen }u oetf d) ledjtern , Unb f a) liefjlid), j e 
gtbfiet bie 3a(( bet fn)ted)t6ejadlten«rbeitet 
roirb, jetnedr roetben felbft biejentgen Untet< 
nefjmer, roeldje butdjau! ehrenljaft ftnb, gt> 
jroungen, bein ffleifpiel ber etften fttnf pro. 
feffioncUen %tbeitetfd)inbet ju folgen. Tie. 
fet ^tojefj bet ftufenroeifen Setelenbigung 
ber Vtbetter in Solge ibter mangeldaften 
Dtganifation, roeldje roiebetum bie ftolge 
bet moralifdjen fjeigdeit, bet $au(b>it unb 
ber giljigfeit einel Zdeilel bet Sttbeitet ift, 
ift Allien belannt, benn et Ijat ftd) auf Soften 
bet garpenter not iljnen, mit tdnen, b>t 
medtfad) abgefpielt! 

@ie rotffen btel StUel, fte |aben e! felbft 
etlebt ! Kud) biejenigen, roeldje bauernb jut 
Union ftanben, finb nidjt gang fteigufpredjen, 
benn fte ftnb bet einteifjenben £aur)eit in 
il)ren ?Hetden nidjt redjt jeitig mit bent genii* 
gtnben ftadjbtua* entgegen getreten. 6ie 
tjaben immet bie 3nteteffen anbeter Alaffen 
oettteten, nut ibre eigerten ntd)t. ©ie baben 
ii>tt Boffe beteidjett, fie da ben ber fttrdje ge« 
opfert, fte Qaben bie fapttahftifdje $teffe be* 
ladlt unb untetftiist, fie daben fat bie $oli* 
fet bet 91 ue be u tun asp arte ten geftimmt, nur 
fiit ifjte ftlaffe, fiit bie 3ufunft i$tet gamilie, 
fat ibte eigenen ^ntereffen ftnb fie nidjt 
tedjtieitig, ntdjt enetgifd) genug einfletteten. 
3Btc ibnnen bie Seute, roeldje fid) betatt tdtet 
Setnunft bebtenen, urn tnbglidjft unnemunf * 
tig ju banbetn fidj batUber beltagen, roenn 
bie rjrttdjte ibtes Zljual unb ioffeni teifen 
unb ttjnen nidjt gefaUen? Xie 9(rbeitet 
maffen Jemen SJefdjlttffe mit roeifet S3oiftd)t 
ju faffen unb bal Sefdjloffene mit fittlidjer 
Siarbe, mit Wutfj unb Dffenbeit, mit uner* 
fd)&ttetlid)er 8ebartUd)!eit aulaufilbten. 
Ste mttffen fid) felbft getteu fein, fie bttrfen 
nidjt unebtlidj, nidjt falfd) gcgen fid) felbft 
unb belbalb aud) nidjt gegen Stnbere fein, 
bann roetben fie aberalt tefpeftirt roetben, 
bann erft, bann finb fie u>u Mid) con trait, 
fddifl- 3d) fann iieute, roeldje beret II bie 
fittlidje Jttaft unb bie rounberootle ffiitfuna 
eiuer guten Drganilation tennen geletnt 
baben nidjt oon ©djulb f reifptedjen, roenn fie 
ibre Dtganifation butdj ^dfitgfeit unb but a) 
unrolltbige Gdjroadjdeiten rtldrodrt* gedtn 
(affen. SI ift nbt^ig, ftunfiajft im eigenen 
£ager tUcf fidjielol bie XBaljt^eit ju belennen, 
bie Utfadjen unfetet 9totb odne Settufdjung 
auf»ubeden unb gemdfj btefet ffitrenntnifc er* 
neut an bie Itbeit bet Weorganifation ju 

Seljen. t&adjfamfeit ift ber $teil bet Sm- 
elt, toenn bie Ktbeiter biefem fflrunbfas 
gemd& danbeln, roetben fte roeniger ®vunb 
nur Rlage tjaben unb bann roitb fie leine 
e djulb rteffen, fein Stebner tbnen foldjeSot* 
rourfe madjen, vie fie beute let bet getedjl > 


Gid VJsw of It.. 2 Vvittw Wood Worker 
Bend for Bpedel Wood Worker Catalogue, 
whiofa will show all the varloiut kinds of work 11 
will make. It In the moat useful machine for a 
Carpenter or Bulkier now In 

J. A. FAY & EGAN CO., 

188 to 208 West Front St., CINCINNATI, OHIO, U. S. A. 




The Largest Line in the World of the Latest and Best Approved Designs- 


Outfits or Single Machines Supplied . Send for Catalogs. 


MIA Mi IN n 




a' 7 - 

At SgftMCA FA I. IS, XF.lf YOKK,\ 
nr are turning out a Itneof Machi*et v 
the constant impio; ement of U'Mtk | 
ut focus our entite rnrt^irs. In T< 
nrction :rith net t met hanical rnoune \ 
aff.'tded hv <r plant that it it out aim to 
t,,f> ,onstantlv "tit the front," arl 
hair an e* tensive expctienie, and a \ 
detetmination that ,-ur enviable teputa- 
tinn shall continue tu k <">J 
shrivel under competition. 

Wood -Working Machinery 
for Foot and Hand Power u\e is our 

specialty, and rf this Wt mate a ••fry 
laigr MiMt tmtuU 

Our Catalogue " A " will d' "Vi- 
sit ate (I tarty what tnun&i ttehai r /.■> 
the above claim t, and this wf would br\ 
pleased to mail you. Shall Wt do 

oeneca Falls MTjr Co., 
Seneca Falls, N. V., 

*» Water Street. I'. S. A. 

You should see ENTI ^ Tm 



No. 93. 

Vou cm im It at the 


for wo will Mild 11 to 
any dealer you rwiw. Mt 
or we will eerid II to 
any hiIi I rem or, recvlpi 
of II. Circulars frc 

86 Chamber* Si., N.Y. 



Mt lunger end do more w ork wlte 
out tiling than other sews, there*? 
saving In labor and coal Of IM 
Tiny are mad* of the beat aaaUW 
of crucible <a*t steal and an 


For aala by all isahwa. 

in FOB HO. Oea»l 

■ THK SAW. 1 


All latest designs and 
approved new models of 
the best manufacturers; 

Chos. E. Schou, 

270 Main Street, 

Br, O. & J. of America Society Good*. 





NEW YORK, 161 

Co., Pa. 
rtoo Hire 
1 W*«t Pearl Street 

Regalia and Badges. 

Over 1000 Society Flags and Barmen Manufac- 
tured. Over «00u Societies furnished 
with Badges or Regalia. 


of beat steel with ireat care, and each file carefully Inspected before Mams* ensj — '• 
over MO full ateelenjrr^wjfTlea^^ ^ fOaW, ■■», 


It is in the form of a Chart, 18x28 inches 
iu size, substantially mounted, on which the 
pitches are illustrated in connection with a 
diagram of the full-sized carpenters' square. 

The lengths of braces, common and jack- 
rafters, hips and valleys, are given in plain 
figures to the 1-32 part of an inch with all their 
bevels. Also that of their runs, rises, degree ol 
pitch and contents in board measure. 

Much other information, such as hopper 
cuts, framing uneven pi tc lies, polygon roofs, 
curved roofs, etc. 

PRICE - S3.00 


Sent postpaid upon receipt of 


Bin HH4. 
1*11 1 (.A II Kl . I'll I A , FA. 

No. 84 Court St., Cincinnati. 


Bait s C»Bre»TBT Kadi Hast . 

T«b BrjiLDkK'N Ouioa atto Bam 

. . . fs 00 

Psicm book, Hodgson * no 

Faactical CasfBHTBY. Hodgson .... I Be 
Rtaib-Builoiho MatiK KAIV. Hodgson . I go 
Hand Kaimnu Uadb Karv I eo 


ckamical nBAwrr.o -Book . A BetMn- 

atructor, with loo 111 ml rations t 00 



Bob m. PhlladelphU, P*. 

HaDdy Wood Cutting Tool 


For calnlDf or routing out stair stringers, flttlng 
U> window pu liars, cutuoi out pocket places, flttlni 
Id flush bolts on doors, etc., A Ulna In striking and 
M lock-platea, dadoing from % In . to any width, 
straight or on a curve. Agents wanted. Oar. 
e preferred fieio pie sent, postpaid toanj ad- 
" " reoelpt of prfee. Bend tor etroDlars, 

Prfctrttoal Book 
by a 


Or BalloOD and Roof Framing, by Owen B. 
Magi mils, author of "Practical Centering," 
"How to Join Mouldings," etc., etc. 

It Is a pracUcaJ treatise on lha latest and beet 
methods of laying out, framing and raising Um- 
ber h ou sea on th e b*l loon principle, togethe r with 
inlete and easily understood system of Roof 
frig, t 

itood sysl 

ng, the whole making a handy 
applied book for carpenters, builders, foremen 

nd easily 

and Journeymen 

Past I.— Balloon Framing. 
Chapter I. General description of Balloon 
Frame*, Framed Mils and their const ruction. 

Chapter II. First Floor Beams or Joints. Htory 
Hecttons, Heoond Floor Beams, Hluddlng, Fram- 
ing of Door and Window Openings, Wall Plata 
and Roof Timbers, 
Chapter III. Levying out and working Balloon 

a, Olrdere, 8111a, Posts and Studding. 
Chapter IV. Laying out First and Be ootid 
Floor Joists or Beams, Celling Joists and Wall 
Chapter V. Laying out < 
Chapter VI. Raising, 

Past II.— Difficult 
Chapter I, Simple Roofs 
Chapter II, alp and Valley Roots. 
Chapter III, Roofs of Irregular 
Chapter I V. Pyramidal Roofs. 

Chapter V. Hexagonal Roo 
Chapter VI. Oonloal or Circular Roots, etc., etc 
The work la Illustrated and explained by over 
ea, roofs, etc., and 

large engravings of 
i axil inches. 

PRICK, - - 91.00 

i, ad drees and oaab for book to 

If yon want tee very best tools 



without a hard, smooth, keen, cutting edge. This Is the one essential feature of a good edge tool and ths 
one Jn whtahthe TsteraM Toeilaare ewenmenBleeV They are alwif.f the t*wt nhapt»i and well nnlshed, hut 
■ Is^nalnlydiiethe reputation which thsy have held for eo many years and 
e United Htatea. Do you want such tools T If you do you can nave them. 

" -our dealer does not 

to their superior cutting quality 
' istlnth 

ilf h (i 

er thf 

given, not forgetting losjieclfy 

Thenar*' stle^y'deahlrii'ln hlgVirrfe tools throughout the United Htatea. If vour d« 
keep them and ^refuses to orrleJ them send for our Illustrated catalogue, In which toll 
rdrrlnif (irp alven. not forHCttliig to Ki*clfy caldlogue of earpcnUTii' Uxils. 


•f Piatt Street, KOCHB8TKR, H. V. 

the United 

Wm. McNiece $ Son, 



Tor k Otty. 



516 CHERRY 8T.. 


«ASJUTA<.TD»*-»a m*> 

and, Panel-*, 
^and Rip 3aws, 


WtmnUd th. Bo«t In th« W»rl4. 


A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing 

VOL. XV.-No. 7.~C 
Established 1881. J 

Men, and Kindred Interests* 


f Fifty Cents per Year. 
\ Singrle Copies, 5 Cts. 


A New Declaration of Union Fuith. 

Kbnji in your list of ollieers a* installed 
this month. 

CONSOLIDATION of \<Ol'&\ 1 1 ni OIIH w I ifirc 

there are a number of them in one city 
is a wine move. 

Hah your Recording Secretary sent in 
the lint of newly installed ollieers 7 Lei 
the Local President make that inquiry. 

Tux term " non-beneficial member" 
is no longer in use in the U. B. Such a 
member is now known as "semi-bene- 

Passwoho for tliia quarter and the 
necessary blanks for otlicers were sent 
the Locals June It, last. Locals not 
receiving them should notify the G.S-T. 

Oca Local Unions should join Trades 
Assemblies, Central Labor Unions, or 
any central body of organized labor in 
their locality. The cauie of united 
labor can be strengthened and advanced 
by such bodies. 

Be careful how your union votes away 
money for newspaper projects or for 
donations of any kind or for purposes 
outside of your union's direct work. 
The generosity of many of our LocalB 
has brought them nigh to the verge of 

By- Laws of Local Unions shoald be 
amended at once to conform in every 
particular to the recent changes in our 
Constitution. We find that a number of 
unions have by-laws which in many 
respects conflict with our General (Jon 
stitution. See to it and make the neces- 
sary changes. 

Tux. work of consolidating unions 
where there are a large number in one 
city should be pushed. It would be 
beneficial to New York, Brooklyn, 
Louisville, Omaha, New Orleans, Mil- 
waukee, Cleveland, Cincinnati and St. 
Louia it they would try it. Chicago too 
might consolidate a few more unions to 
good advantage. 

Thicks is not half enough attention 
paid to the proper audit of the books 
and accounts of many Locale, Sec, 150 
aa to the duties of auditors, should be 
heeded. And further, the cash hook 
and ledger should be compared monthly 
to see if they egree, and be sure every 
member gets due credit and proper date 
for the money he pays. What is the 
use of an audit if it is not a thorough 
s? It should be attended to once a 
i rigidly. 

Here are some reasons why men should 
join the union of their trade ; 

I — Because it tends to raise wages ; this 
is [trove n by all Boris of evidence. 

Because it helps to prevent redac- 
tions in wagee. Cut-down rarely come 
to well-organized labor. 

3 — Because it aids in getting shorter 
hours. Unorganized trades work the 
longest hours. 

4 — Because in union there is strength. 
This is as true of wage earners aa of 

5— Because it educates as to public 
(joestione. The trades union takes the 
pla ea of the debating society and pro- 
fessor's lecture. 

0— Because it gives men self-reliance. 
A servile boas trackler is not a free man, 

7— Because it develops fraternity. 
Craftsmen a>-e all too jealous of and sus- 
picious of one another, even at the beet. 

8— Because it is a good investment. No 
other institution gives back bo large a 
return for expenditure of time and 

'■' — Because it makes thinkers. Men 
need to rub intellects together in matters 
of common concern. 

10— Because it enlarges acquaintances. 
This world is too much restricted for 
moat wage-earners. 

U— Because it teaches co-operation. 
When laborers co-operate they will own 
the earth, 

12— Because it makes the shop a better 
place to work in. The foreman bully 
can't bully the union card. 

13— Because it. is your duty. The non- 
union man is the sutler of the union 

14— Because it helps the family. More 
money, more comforts, more luxuries. 

15— Becauae it helps the state. Unorg- 
anized and discontented labor is the 
parent of the mob and revolution. 

16 - Because it is scientific. The trade 
union principle stands the test of analysis 
and application. 

Yohk, Pa.— We are very much en- 
couraged by the way the non-union car- 
penters are coming into the union. 
Since oar last public meeting, June 6, 
when General Secretary 1*. .1. McGuire 
was here and awakened the carpenters, 
they are very anxious to join the anion, 
They now com* and ask for applications 
to join the onion. 

Bko A, Wait, Jr., financial secretary 
or Union 340, New York, ia a very prompt 
efficient secretary, In the course of seven 
years' service in that position he has 
been absent only one nu-Hing. 

L. E. Tossav, of Detroit, Mich., our 
second Vice-president, is superintendent 
of building construction for the Detroit 
Railway Company. He baa a large 
force of men employed, and you can rest 
assured they are all union men. 

J a m iLs Duncan of Baltimore is the 
newly elected General Secretary of the 
Granite Cutters' National Union, vice 
Joslah B. Uyer. Jim brings to the posi 
tion years of hard working practical ex- 
perience in the movement. H1b manage- 
ment of the Uraniit Cvdtert' Journal al- 
ready betrays a strong editorial hand 
and trenchant up to date pen. He haa 
alwaye been a sturdy friend to the car- 

Jos, C. Gfernet. 

The member of the General Executive 
Board representing the Southern States 
is Jos. C. Gernet, resident at Bellevue, 
Ky., and a member of Union 611, Day- 
ton, Ky. 

He was born ot English parents at 
Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, Africa, 
Nov. 18, 1864, and is now over 30 yearB 
ot age. In 1860 hie parents removed 
with blm from the Cape, and, by way of 
London, went to St. Petersburg, Russia, 
where they remained five years. Next 
residence was taken up in Lisbon, Portu- 
gal, in 1873, and two years later be went 
to London, England, with his father, 
where the latter died a few years later, 
His father wsb Interested in the ateam- 
ship business. 

At the age of 15, Jos. C- Gernet came 
to America and landed at Quebec, friend- 
less and alone, and finally found work 
clerking in a grocery Btore in the Pro- 
vince of Ontario ; in 1882 he went to 
the carpenter trade and has been en- 
gaged at it ever since. Being of a studi- 
ous nature he used every spare hour for 
hie intellectual advancement, went to 
night school and studied drawing and 
became an intense reader and scholar. 

In 1380 he located in Cincinnati and 
in 1887 determined to enter the Metho- 
dist ministry. For that purpose, to 
tinish his studies, he entered the Univer- 
sity in Delaware, O., but want of the 
necessary funds compelled him to re- 
turn to Cincinnati and resume carpenter 
work. Soon after that he got married, 
and located in " Old Kaintuck-" 

For several years he was a member of 
a mixed Assembly of the K. ot L, in 
Canada, He joined Mill Hands Union 
327, of Cincinnati, shortly after it started, 
and was afterwards transferred to Union 
641, Dayton, Ky. The latter union he 
represented in the St. Louie and In- 
dianapolis Conventions, and was elected 
to the G. E. B. *t Indianapolis. He ia also 
a member of the Knights of Pythias. 

Gbsut Fail*., Mont.— The Uniowihere 
have contributed over $700 to the A, K, 
U. DebB defence fund. We have 26 
trade and labor organisations in the 
Trades and Labor Council and have 
formed a stock company to build a 
central hall for 

Galveston, Texas — On July 1st, as per 
agreement between the contractors and 
carpenters, Unions 636 and 611, the new 
trade rules ot eight hours per day and 
35 cents per hour went into effect. 

MofiTci.Aiit, N.J —We organized Car- 
penters' Union 429 late last February. 
Since then we got 25 cents per day 
advance and have nine hourB per day as 
the rule. 

Atlantic City, N.J. —We had a Car- 
penters' union here for several years 
until over two years ago and then it was 
disbanded. Through it we got the nine 
hour day and $2 50 per day SB a mini- 
mum. Now the boaaea are bringing us 
back to ten hours and $2 per day. We 
must reorganise. 

Rk'umeld Spbinub, N. Y.— Carpen- 
ters here have been on strike for better 
conditions and with help of Union 125 
Utica, N. Y., were iiulte successful. 

Nxw York,— On the new Casino job 
at Fort George with 80 carpenters em- 
ployed, less than the union rate of wages 
was paid. After a few days strike the 
men were successful, 

St. Louis, Mo.— Millwrights' Union 
604 has placed a boycott on the Saxony 
Flour Mills of this city. Three months 
ago this company started to remodel 
their mills and reduced wagee of mill- 
wrights from $3 and 13.60 to |2 and 
$2.50 per day. 

Monxti City, N. Y. — We are working 
to organize a Carpenters' Union and 
since we have talked of it wages have 
been raised 25 cents per day and nine 
boors per day has been granted. 

Negligent Financial Secretaries, 

Below ia a list of the 
Financial Secretaries have 
May F. S. Reports to this 
July 8, 1885. 

unions whose 
not sent their 
cilice up to 

















































The F, S. of the above named unions 
should each be lined $2 by their anion 
under Sec. 153, paragraph C of the Con- 

St a ten Island, N. Y. — The member- 
ship of Union 667 is growing splendidly. 
Some public school work in this county 
is being done in violation of the State 
law regarding eight hoars per day ; but 
we are following it up. 


A Talc of tlx- Xiglil. 

" Bscom dm, Wf| I'm a wwklnB 

I aeek mil itl in-*. I" it work 
1 auk for the right lo i-n.rn hread, 

And Ivan mil tiiirj|;cr'H mirk. 
To-day, and, aye. for month*. 1 ve *oii(;l'l 

Phiiu- honfl toll to do, 

But; ' cause my clothe* art; worn olil, 
Hi'n oiler alniH, tike yon. 

" Home . ofTcr me llitlr charity. 
Anil tell mi-, *hny Mime fooil, 1 
A nd a kindly look , is In their e> es 

Ami i know they inmn m* Rood. 

Hut other* SUfW thrin- leer at tin- 

A nil at bystanders wink, 
An iliey *ay 1 old dop the night la eold, 

II ii n oil, and Imy a drink.' 

" "Tin hard 'tia hard, with BUttgm'a I'iiiik* 

A irnawlnff at the Nroaali. 
And the tttfthj tM iilereliij; I hrmmli my r*na 

Anil nut a |ilart- to reid. 
"Hi hard, 1 Hay, to retime (lie tin-. 

A-rIIi ter I iik In llieir palma , 
Hnl o: *tl* lnnicntlo.ll I want. 

And not a drunkard 1 * aim*. 

11 No, no, Hir, ilo not wrong mr, 

'Tin not my Fault I'm iioor ; 
Homeliow- t cannot jimt tell Imw lust., — 

The wolf oainc to my door. 
Like a faint mint before the Hlorin, 

I i i;l.i trouhteH sent* to me ; 
Ami then, in miKhty tout- they poured. 

And made me what yon see. 

" HtniKRle ! O heaven*, how I fought, 

Hut each miccecdtng day, 
AihtcttoiiN Hmota nie, bard, and faal, 

I fell their vanquished prey. 
It waa not due to drink at all, 

Indeed I never drink ; 
Hut Home how when you're poor it* ho 

That most men ever Hi I nk, 

" And now, 1 hid yon, Sir, Rood night. 

An officer ottme* nl K li , 
And lie will nay I beamed of you, 

And not for work 1 try, 
'Tin hard, 'tis darit, with hunROr'a iiaiiRH, 

A-KUitwlnR at the breaal, 
And Hie tiljrhl wind i>ic.rcinK Hi rough my rag* 

And nut a jilaee to reel." 

1 Down by Hie rhur, elainruy and damp. 
I.h-th the f-orjiwe of a iioor old 1rami»." 
Thin w»* Hi i- tale the morning told, 

i an- the tab s, that the nlghl* Infold. 

developing the hip) and square down to 
the angle U shown in the above tllluatra- 
tion. Take a straight edge and lay by 
the angle and mark opposite each ver- 
ticle line, letter all these points as shown. 
1' to A will be the length ot seat of hip, 
O to A will he the length ol the second 
line, etc. After all the parallel lines 
have been extended tlraw an off- hand 
curve touching these measurements and 
the hip is determined. 

The jack being but a part of the com- 
mon rafter, its length iB found by laying 
off its seat as shown, its rise being at 
point where the seat intersects the angle. 

" The Square Root Delineator " in the 
art of framing fully covers all questions in 
framing and should be in possession of 
every union. Nothing like it lias ever 
been published before and certainly there 
is nothing in existence in the form ot 
books or otherwise that so clearly illus- 
trates the use ot the steel square. 

Tick Cabi bntkk has the agency for 
the unions and all orders should be sent 

A Model City* 

UK rorlnvJ 1 ''^ Kttkw of 
a few mouths ago has 
a very suggestive ac- 
count of the local Gov- 
ernment of Glasgow, 
well worth the atten- 
tion of municipal re- 
formers. It is simply 
an example of public 
spirit, in the line of 
municipal improve- 
mentand must not be regarded entirely 
as a surrender to Statehood or State 
power. It is all the work of the last -'0 
years, and during that time London and 
Kirmingham, Merlin and I^eipsie have 
made similar progress. What have our 

Oil' -lA 

L. V.6t,fftui YmkVilu- 

Thoh. O, Wai-Mi. 

l»eieIopmeiil of Hips, 

hy a, w, woons. 

the Jane issue of Tun 
Uabi'xrtir appeared an 
article on polygons and 
their mitres and in that 
article I promised to sub- 
mit my method of devel< ip 
ing hips of polygonal roofs 
for this number. 
Now I will reler my readers back to 
the illustration given in the Jane num- 
ber because the angle of the seat of the 
hips rest at same degree as that of the 

The builder can suit hie fancy aa to 
the curve of the common rafter, can 
strike them from centers if he likes, but 
this can not he done for the correspond- 
ing hip, for while their rises remain the 
tame the seat ot the hip is necessary 
longer than tiiat of the former, thereby 
losing the true curve given the common 
rafter. Ho the corresponding curve 
moat be arrived at by some other 

For illustration we will take 
hexagon or six-sided figure. Place the 
square with the tongue parallel with the 
■eat as shown. Draw a line from 12 
inches on tongue passing at <>;;; inch 
on the blade and extend to a plumb 
line with the foot of rafter. This givea 
the angle of the seat of hip with the 
common rafter which la 30 degrees. 
Now draw any number of parallel lines 
with the aaat (the more lines drawn the 
will the result be in 

Lefflngwell'a "Parliamentary ICuleeof 
Order " coat only $5 per hundred, or ten 
cents per copy. They are plain, concise, 
ami practical. Nothing clearer or better 
fitted for trade unions has ever been 
printed. It is the beet parliamentary 
manual in use to-day. The compiler, 
Sam. L. Lefliogwell, ia a trade union man 
of forty or more years' standing— a 
member of the International Typo- 
graphical Union. Not long since Car- 
penters' Union No, II, Oleveland, O., got 
'iOO copies of the manual and the mem- 
ber! are highly pleased. Send orders to 
Bam. L. Leffingwell, IndUnapolia, Ind. 

San Fm>ciko, Cal. - With help of 
three public meetings we got 120 new 
members in the three unions. We now 
have Bro. E- K. Johnson of Union 483 in 
the field as Walking Delegate. 

cities in America to show that can at all 
compare with these foreign citiee in the 
way of improvement and progress? 
Glasgow has its best business men in its 
Councils, and the city Government is ao 
well administered that, with steadily 
diminishing rates of taxation, there has 
been a growing increase in all the needs 
of life in a Urge city, better finances, 
better light, better water, better homes 
and streets, and b-« acilities for 
enjoyment, r* ^ a for traction cars, 
owned b: city, plenty of parks, 
picture galleries, recreation grounds and 
music, gaa and electric lights, a free 
library of over 100,000 volumes, public 
baths and wash houses, markets, water 
works, the water brought from a 
mountain lake .'Mi miles, and water rents 
reduced more than one-halt since thia 
unlimited supply of the beet water was 
secured. All this has been done in and 
for Glasgow. Gas and electric light 
and power are all supplied cheaply by the 

works owned by the city. After a long 
lease of its streets for tramways, the city 
took them, improved the service, reduced 
the price, and still allowed a balance on 
the riirht side, SO that it is now proposed 
to make the uniform fare a penny (two 
cents). The wretched slums of Glasgow 
have been swept away by the wise ex pen 
diture of $10,000,000 in the last 28 years, 
and the city now retitB one and two- 
roomed workinen'M houF-eB nt from to 
$511 a year ; have built six lodging honet h 
for men, ami one for women, each with a 
good room, where there are dining ami 
sitting room, and a kitchen and shop, 
and a night's lodging rosin from ll) to Hii 
cents, and this pays nearly 5 per cent, 
per annum, while the money with which 
this improvement waB made costs only 
:ii per cent., or less. Glasgow is about 
to build a Family Home for Widows and 
Widower* with Children ; rooms for a 
man or woman with not more than three 
children, to cost 10 cents a night, the 
children to he fed and cared for during 
the day for ;;5 cents a week, and free 
enterUiumenta to he provided every 
Saturday night. The city also proposes 
to builil i me- roomed houses, to be rented 
for $125 a year, and two- roomed houses 
to rent for f40 a year. Private enter- 
prise has kept pace with the city, and 
healthy and cheap houses are now 
abundant in Glasgow, for workmen 
earning f-> a week. The city has pro- 
vided museums, half a dozen parks, and 
a good art gallery. Lectures and con- 
certs are given during the year, at from 
2 cents to 6 rants; there ia a People's 
Palace, and there are playgrounds for 
children, with gymnastic apparatus and 
games. The sanitary officers have a 
small army engaged to Hgbt disease , in 
taking the aick to hospitals, made 
attractive in every way j in detecting 
nuisances; in preventing and punishing 
overcrowding ; in supervising shops, 
dairies, etc., and in cleaning 206 mites 
of streets ; providing for the sewage, so 
(hat the river, that was a growing 
danger, is now clean and sweet. Glas- 
gow lias five public wash houses, at a 
charge of 10 centB, ami baths free to 
public school children, who are taught 
swimming. To do all this, Glasgow 
levies a tax of about oO cents on the 
pound (f -'ij of rentals of $50 and upwards, 
ami of 50 cents on rentals under that 
amount, a reduction of one- fourth during 
the last 20 years, in which all of these 
improvements have been made; it has 
lowered the price of gas from |1.35 to 60 
cents; it has built a fine City Hall for 
{3.600,000, payable in :.0 yearB, partly 
by a special tax of about a cent on the 
pound, and partly by charging rent to 
the departments that occupy the City 
Hall. With liabilitiea of $40,000 oOn, 
Glasgow has assets of over $50,000 OOn, 
and by a well adjusted system of sinking 
funds, gradually reduces its debts for 
water and gas and parks and galleries, 
in periods varying from l'O to 70 years. 
Glasgow has over 700,000 people, and 
covers nearly l-'JMKJ acres, and ia now 
trying to increase the participation of 
its citizens in its local administration, so 
as to heighten its ellicieuey anil secure 
its economy. Politics are practically 
unknown in the city government of 
Glasgow, where the Councils and the 
Mayor and the city officers are all striv- 
ing atrenuously to promote the good, 
the happiness and the welfare of the 
whole population, their health, their 
comfort, their recreation, their happi- 
ness, and to advance the prosperity ol 
the city its people love so well and are 
so proud of. 

U MT,i£j 0it i. JJouMi*«. Th« Arts of 
Milling and Co' ^Oweii H. Ma»lntil«. 

35© W. 12<- 

Vork City. 


(Open Yovnnu 

i rhii Ih jKiiiinriil in itfifii lor our ffMUsWl 
., A in, mlu r.i to rftMUM nil uho$CM of tfie 

/,,,'..,;• probk in. 
■ hrnaiwmttenU tkOuM write >m qm s 'hU 

,./ ihi paper ««/</. 

1/ i'/it /«* i,Hi>lirntiiiH must hi- in Uiu 

offiet b*t the ~'oth 1,1 thr month preriout to 


their reasonable rights from all employers 
alike. So it is plainly the fault of non- 
union men entirely, that auch reasonable 
righto are not granted, and that we see 
Bitch paradoxes as are often Been in our 
country, of men, women, anil their fani- 

iliee, need lonely starving in the midst o 

T* l'iii«nilzr - A (hi Minn Duly. 

^tU a man to be a unionist 
ienolonly aprivilege, 
but it is also a duty, 
which in morally ob- 
ligatory on every 
Ml who works for 
a living, and even 
the more ho, on every 
working man who 
iteBM'R to he a Christian. 
This ia a theme which we deem to 
lie worthy of much consideration at 
tin' present time, insomuch that we find 
thet« in quite a considerable number of 
i nen who stay out of unions because 
or what they repute to be conscientious 
scruples, arising out of a mistaken idea, 
which they have on this subject. And 
their mistaken idea is generally bated on 
certain instances, and perhaps experi- 
ences of indiscreet actions on the part of 
unions and union men in the past. 

Now, according to the teachings of 
Scripture, and Christianity, a man has 
no right to do injury to himself, nor to 
bis family, nor to any others who may 
happen to come in contact with him. 
The laws of all civilized countries 
acknowledge this principle and act in 
accordance with it. But the teachings of 
Christianity go much further than this, 
and hold that if it be within a man's 
power to do good in any way, that it is a 
sin for him to refrain from doing it. So 
a Christian man, especially, has taken 
upon himself the obligation and it is 
the bonmleu duty of every man, what- 
ever he may be, firefly, to refrain from 
doing harm to himself and to others, 
and secondly, to do all the good he 
twssihly can to himself and to others as 

Uod baa placed us till, Christian and 
tin Christian alike, to strive together 
side by tide for a living, and we are 
expected to do so, so f*r ai it is in our 
I tower, in peace and good fellowship, 
helping ourselves, and helping one 
another, doing good to ourselves, in a 
direct way, and also in an indirect way, 
that ia, by seeking the good of others, 
which ia by far the most commendable 
of the two ways, and the most truly suc- 
cessful in the long run. 

The systems of our social life are so 
formed, that it ia impossible for any man, 
aa a general rule, to honestly and pro- 
perly seek bis own welfare in life, without 
at I he same time see k i n g th at of others as 
well, and the only proper way of doing 
this, as we can very easily prove, is 
through the medium of unionism. 

It is very improper to lay to the em* 
plover and the capitalist, the whole re- 
sponsibility for the fact that Borne work- 
people, and aome claeaea of tradesmen 
are very poorly paid fur their labor. It 
is certainly a great and grevioos fault on 
the part of any employer to be a leader 
in oppressiveness toward bis workmen. 
Apart from this, it cannot i>s expected 
that an employer should do very much 
more than act just aa lairly aa other em- 
ployers in the eame line of business, aa 
to go ranch beyond that, might very 
seriously handicap him in hia competi- 
tion with other emploi"*" Therefore 
it is plainly the duty of . ' working- 
man to unite one with ar mil one 
party with another party , *aH to- 
gether demand what they eoniiuvf to be 

Bucb an over-abundance of wealth, and 
of ail the commodities of life, ami its 
com forte. 

Another most absurd 
taiued by many is, that the interests or 
industrial unionism are averse to the 
interests of the general public and par 
ticularly of property owners and employ 
era ol labor. There can he no future 
aim, to the efforts of unionists than to 
improve and to elevate the conditions of 
the workmen concerned in such uniona; 
to enable them to acquire, and to enjoy 
their due share of the fruits of their own 
labor, and by doingeo they will inevitably 
create a demand for more commodities, 
and every demand for more commodities 
is a demand tor labor, and every fresh 
demand for labor is also a fresh impetus 
to all trades and commerce in connection 
therewith, and every fresh impetus 10 
trade and commerce, is also evidently 
hound to benefit the employer of labor, 
and the property owner. So it is a 
maxim of the greatest importance and 
of undeniable veracity, that whatever 
contributes prosperity to the working- 
classes, is bound to bring prosperity also 
to the whole community, and that what- 
ever wars against the prosperity of the 
working classes is hound to injure the 
interests of the whole community. So it 
comes that he or they who fight against 
trade unionism and the principle thereof, 
tiaht also against their own interests, and 
of the whole of society, they are, in 
effect, the enemies of themselves, of 
man, and of Uod. 

Yet in the face ol all thia, we will oc- 
casionally meet a professing Christian 
who denounces unionism and all its do- 
ings, and keeps aloof from the union, 
thereby helping to enhance and to per- 
petuate the misery and sufferings of his 
fellow-beings, if not of himself and family 
as well. 

We find in every trade and occupation 
persons who are popularly called sttftf 
men who do not want to do any of the 
toiling and lighting to preserve nor to 
recover the rights which belong to their 
calling, hut who nevertheless want tn 
enjoy of the fruit s of the toiling and 
lighting done by other people. We 
would fain he able to state that no pro 
fessing Christian could ever he found 
who ehould atoop to participate in such 
meanness. It is most absurd to think 
that any man should expect to go to 
heaven to enjoy its peace and happiness, 
after he has been living all hie life on the 
fruita of the toil and self-sacrifice of 
others whom be doee not deem to be 
worthy of bis association, nor of a share 
in those realma of happiness. It ia cer- 
tainly on account or mistaken ideas that 
ancti cares do occur. 

Now, allowing that there are many acta 
committed by union men which a Christ- 
ian man cannot endorse, eti II, that should 
not be considered an excuse for any 
Christian to keep out of the union. The 
existence of such things should rather 
have the influence . ' ' " good peo- 
p'e into the unions, so tin*. an aid 

by their advices and their votes to p.'rify, 
and to elevate the uniona and union 
principles. For, eo long as a Christian 
man is bound to live in the same world, 
and to labor aide by side with the un- 
christian, he is, therefore, bound to co- 
operate with him for protecting and 
advancing the righta and interests of 
their trade or occupation, just aa any 
civilian 1b bound to use his influence and 
hia vote to purify and to elevate the 
governing power of his country, rather 
than keep cut of politice betause he can- 

not endorse, and acquiesce with all its 

When good people keep aloof from 
politine, that gives the opportunity for 
evil to over balance that which is good. 
It is the same with unionism, let all the 
good people come into the unions, and 
help by means of their advices and their 
votes, to make what is good, and just, 
jand proper, in all things belonging to 
notion enter- their trade, to overbalance and over- 
come that which is evil. This is oor 
only sure way of salvation and escape 
from the enormous and over -burdening 
miseries of induatrial life in thece days. 
Ut every working-man be a union-work- 
ing man, or else let him not by any 
means lay claim to the name of man, 
much less aspire to be called by the title 
of Christian. 

Wm, S Y, 

M, C. Ko ii Kins. 

Shirt Up 

the Kighl-lloiir 


you know the 
eight- hour sys- 
tem, or less 
hours for a 
day's work, 
can be substan- 
tially gained by 
lirmness and 
manifested In 
procuring its 
There are cer- 
tain things pre- 
cedent to sach an arrangement in the 
employment of labor. In the first place, 
there must be prosperous activity in in- 
dustrial pursuits, and ingenuity to pro- 
ject new enterprises, money and demand 
for labor to carry new enterprises into 
execution. Indeed it ia rather one of 
the social evolutions in the progress and 
development of higher civilization, and 
one which retires time, and the aid of 
organized efforts to give speed to ita ad- 

The change from the old system of ten 
hours, or from sunrise to sunset, to that 
of eight hours, will not be attained by 
giving acquiescence to existing order till 
the public persuades itself by force of 
circumstances that such a change is nec- 
essary for the common blessing, proa- 
perily and happiness ol life, but it will 
be through calm, cool reasoning. It will 
not be done by merely demanding more 
pay and fewer hours ol labor. The hap- 
py period has uot yet come when men 
can better their pay by only demanding 
it. I Jem .ndiug and getting are two 
different things, though somewhat inter- 
dependent upon each other, 

The idea must not have credence, that 
because the eight hour regulation, when 
adopted in some localities, that conse- 
quently it must become general and uni- 
versal. It will re. fu ire the moat strenuous 
and combined efforts of organized laltor 
to permanently settle it as a systematic 
regulation. The time moat unquestion- 
ably be after laboring man, artisan and 
laborer, have materially improved tneir 
■landing, socially and politically, when 
their deportment and conduct shall de- 
mand for them, as worthy and deserving 
objects, higher and \ tetter consideration. 
It ia their capacity and qnalities as citi- 
zens which will add strength to their 
support, and win for them better terms 
and conditiona than any sympathy for 
force and skill in any branch ot work. 
It ia a measure of right and should be 
granted aa a matter of sound policy, and 
not aa one of beneficence and philan- 

Men should have higher objects in 
view than lo toil lor mcney to spend in 
indulging in 

gratifying licentiooa desire, which is not 
conducive to comfort and pleasures of an 
intelligent existence. Licentiousness is 
the god of fools. When a man works it 
should be with a view to improve his 
rank and condition in life, to fit himself 
for associating in good society and for 
bettering the world generally. It he has 
a family he should devote his energies to 
educating and giving bis children good 
moral training, ami if an unmarried man. 
to economize and save up a sufficiency to 
supply hia wants and comforts in days of 
adversity and helpless old age. The 
higher the attainment of working men 
in moral virtnes and intelligence the 
nearer they are to a fruition of an eight- 
hour system. But there will always be 
Borne who will never be speculatively nor 
practically wise, and will maintain an 
obstruct ive attitude toward any advance- 

It was a remarkable law of Bolon, that 
any person who, in the commotions of 
the Republic, remained a neutral or in- 
different spectator of the contending par- 
ties, should be condemned to perpetual 
banishment, and likewise it would be a 
wise policy if any member of a Trade 
Union Bhould be indifferent on the eight- 
hour question, he would be subjected to 
expulsion from the < »rder. 

The present would seem to be a pro- 
pitious time for a concentrated effort to 
inaugurate a movement for the eight- 
hour rule. Let it be discussed in tabor 
councils at all convenient times. In 
making efforts to effect this change let 
us be cautious, and not attempt to in- 
crease the coat of production by aug- 
menting wages. The work must be 
accomplished by some sacrifices. The 
spirit of thia age is to cheapen the cost 
of production by improved machinery 
and competition. Unless vou have the 
sympathy and support of capital, as 
some corporations and combinations 
have that handle a great deal of money, 
you can never succeed in raising the 
rates in industrial pursuits. It is the 
energy and progressive spirit of people 
that givea celerity and activity to the 
volume of money in circulation, that 
makes industry lively and briak . If you 
succeed, as do aome of our monopolies, 
in increasing prices, your work is only 
temporary, sentiments of patriotism do 
not prompt you, aud some other depart- 
ments have to suffer. 

The experience of the past teaches 
that periods of stagnation and monetary 
crashes will come at intervals, sometimes 
with more and other times with less dis- 
astrous effects. The chief concern, with 
most mechanics, ia to pro*H themselves 
and benefit their particular branch ot 
labor, but this isa selfish disposition, not 
altogether commendable, where the 
alien is benefitted equally with the 
native born laborer. We have a country 
of our own to build up and improve for 
our posterity an inheritance, and we 
want to enjoy the privileges and 
benefits of the prosperity induced by 
the activity of prosperous industry, which 
it creates in its progress. 

It is not the property and improve- 
ments that we altogether desire to be 
transmitted to onr heirs, hot we need to 
keep the money we have accumulated in 
this country to keep business con- 
tinually active, for it is money that fur- 
nishes the motive power for all the ma- 
chinery of industry and traffic. We 
don't wish to see this power, the gold 
and silver coin and bullion, taken and 
transferred to other parts ol the world. 
Hence, we dare not make our nation a 
model workshop lor employment of 
foreigners, who come here to better their 
earnings, who get our money and take 
or aend it to their homes in foreign lands. 

James K. Maun. 

tiyraaut, N. Y. 




One Mim*» Power. 

form of government 
in against 'he v, ' r . v 
idea at giving power 
lo any one man ; but 
rather diilufce it 
among aa many as 
possi l» I e. At all 
events tlici conception 
of one man's power 
is detestable to most 
people in our nation. 
Vet, wlien we read 
hiBtory with eullicient 
don't tind that one 
man'B power has been much worse, if 
any, than a large number of men's 
power- It all depends on the quantity 
and quality of power we, the people, may 
aee lit to ftive to any one man, or to any 
10,000. And about 10,000 rule thie 
nation to-day, and have for the last 
twenty years or so, under the names of 
national and State legislator*, courtBot 
justice and important executive officers. 

In some cases, one man's power may 
he better than any number, however 
relatively Urge. In the former case, the 
people can localize responsibility or the 
one to whom certain power fane